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Mormon 
Ooctrine 

Bruce  R.  McConkie 

Quorum  of  the  Twelve  Apostles  (1972-1985) 
©  1966  Deseret  Book  Company 


Mormon  Doctrine 

Bruce  R.  McConkie 

sudbr.org 
sud-br.blogspot.com 


MORMON 
DOCTRINE 

BRUCE  R.  McCONKJE 


Mormon  Doctrine 


Bruce  R.  McConkie 
1966  by  Bookcraft,  Inc. 


Mormon  Doctrine 

Bruce  R.  McCoiikie 


©  1966  Deseret  Book  Company 
All  rights  reserved. 


No  part  of  this  book  may  be  reproduced  in  any  form  or  by  any  means  without  pennission  in  writing 
from  the  publisher,  Deseret  Book  Company,  P.O.  Box  30178,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah  84130. 


This  work  is  not  an  official  publication  of 
The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 


The  views  expressed  herein  are  the  responsibility  of  the  author  and  do  not  necessarily  represent  the 
position  of  the  Church  or  of  Deseret  Book  Company. 


Deseret  Book  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Deseret  Book  Company. 


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About  This  Book 


(About  This  Book  ) 

1 .  Teaches  the  doctrines  of  the  gospel  in  a  plain  and  simple  way. 

2.  Explains  the  true  principles  of  revealed  religion. 

3.  Interprets  a  host  of  hard  and  difficult  scriptural  passages. 

4.  Digests  and  outlines  the  important  doctrines  of  the  kingdom. 

5.  Summarizes  the  fundamental  teachings  about  Christ,  salvation,  and  the  kingdom  of  God. 

6.  Analyzes  what  men  must  do  to  gain  peace  here  and  eternal  life  hereafter. 

7.  Covers  the  whole  field  of  revealed  religion. 


Mormon  Doctrine  is  the  ideal  book  for  all  who  seek  salvation  through  the  knowledge  of  Him  who 
said:  "Teach  one  another  the  doctrine  of  the  kingdom.  Teach  ye  diligently  and  my  grace  shall  attend  you." 
(D.&C.  88:77-  7.) 


4 


Preface 


(Preface  ) 

This  work  on  Mormon  Doctrine  is  designed  to  help  persons  seeking  salvation  to  gain  that  knowledge 
of  God  and  his  laws  without  which  they  cannot  hope  for  an  inheritance  in  the  celestial  city. 

Since  it  is  impossible  for  a  man  to  be  saved  in  ignorance  of  God  and  his  laws,  and  since  man  is  saved 
no  faster  than  he  gains  knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ  and  the  plan  of  salvation,  it  follows  that  men  are 
obligated  at  their  peril  to  leara  and  apply  the  tme  doctrines  of  the  gospel. 

This  gospel  compendium  will  enable  men,  more  effectively,  to  "teach  one  another  the  doctrine  of  the 
kingdom";  to  "be  instructed  more  perfectly  in  theory,  in  principle,  in  doctrine,  in  the  law  of  the  gospel,  in 
all  things  that  pertain  unto  the  kingdom  of  God,  that  are  expedient"  for  them  "to  understand."  (D.  &  C. 
88:77-78.) 

For  the  work  itself,  I  assume  sole  and  full  responsibility. 
Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 
June  1,  1958 

-  BRUCE  R.  MCCONKIE 


SECOND  EDITION 

From  the  time  the  first  copies  came  from  the  press,  this  compendium  of  Monnon  Doctrine  has  found  a 
wide  and  gratifying  acceptance  among  doctrinal  students  in  all  parts  of  the  Church.  In  publishing  this 
Second  Edition,  as  is  common  with  major  encyclopedic-type  works,  experience  has  shown  the  wisdom  of 
making  some  changes,  clarifications,  and  additions. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 
September  1,  1966 

-  BRUCE  R.  MCCONKIE 


6 


Abbreviations 


(Abbreviations  ) 

Scriptural  references  are  abbreviated  in  a  standard  and  self-identifying  way. 
Other  books  are  cited  by  author  and  title,  except  that  the  following  oft-cited 
works  are  referred  to  by  title  only: 

Little,  James  A.,  &  Richards,  Franklin  D.,  Compendium; 
Roberts,  Brigham  H.,  Outlines  of  Ecclesiastical  History; 
Smith,  Joseph,  History  of  the  Church,  vols.  1  to  6; 
Lectures  on  Faith; 

Teachings  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  (cited  as  Teachings); 
Smith,  Joseph  F.,  Gospel  Doctrine; 

Smith,  Joseph  Fielding,  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vols.  1  to  3; 

Essentials  in  Church  History; 

Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny; 

Progress  of  Man; 

Way  to  Perfection; 

Talmage,  James  E.,  Articles  of  Faith; 

Taylor,  Jolm,  Gospel  Kingdom; 

Mediation  and  Atonement; 

Woodruff  Wilford,  Discourses  of  Wilford  Woodruff 

Young,  Brigham,  Discourses  of  Brigham  young  (cited  as  Discourses). 


7 


(A  ) 

Aaron 

(Aaron  ) 

See  AARONIC  PRIESTHOOD,  AARONITES,  LEVI,  MELCHIZEDEK,  MOSES,  PRESIDING 
BISHOP,  PRIESTHOOD,  SONS  OF  MOSES  AND  AARON. 

To  Aaron  goes  the  honor  -  as  a  perpetual  memorial  through  all  generations  -  of  having  his  name  used 
to  identify  the  lesser,  Levitical,  or  Aaronic  Priesthood.  (D.  &  C.  84:18-27;  107:1,  20.)  As  a  possessor  of 
the  Melchizedek  Priesthood,  Aaron  held  a  position  of  prominence  and  leadership  among  the  elders.  (Ex. 
18:12;  John  Taylor,  Items  on  Priesthood,  p.  5.)  indeed,  with  Moses,  Nadab,  Abihu,  and  70  of  the  elders  of 
Israel,  Aaron  saw  the  God  of  Israel  before  the  existence  of  the  Aaronic  order;  and  when  "Moses  went  up 
into  the  mount  of  God,"  Aaron  and  Hur  were  left  in  a  position  of  presidency  over  the  other  elders.  (Ex. 
24.)  But  when  the  law  of  carnal  commandments  was  "added"  to  the  gospel  "because  of  transgressions," 
then  Aaron  and  his  sons  were  chosen  to  bear  that  priesthood  by  which  the  lesser  law  was  administered. 
(Gal.  3.)  Aaron's  position  then  became  comparable  to  that  of  the  Presiding  Bishop  of  the  Church.  (John 
Taylor,  Items  on  Priesthood,  pp.  5-6.) 

Also  before  the  institution  of  the  Levitical  Priesthood,  Aaron  was  chosen  by  the  Lord  to  act  as  a 
minister  with  and  a  spokesman  for  Moses,  his  younger  brother.  (Ex.  4;  5;  6;  7;  8;  9;  10;  11;  12;  16.)  After 
the  beginning  of  the  Aaronic  order,  Aaron  and  his  sons  after  him  were  anointed  priests  unto  Israel.  (Ex. 
28;  29;  30;  Num.  3;  4.) 

Aaron's  call  to  the  Levitical  ministry  stands  as  the  perfect  example  of  the  choosing  of  legal 
administrators  to  do  the  Lord's  work;  ever  since  that  day,  the  legality  of  priestly  administration  has  been 


8 


determined  by  whether  the  professing  minister  was  "called  of  God,  as  was  Aaron"  (Heb.  5:4;  D.  &  C. 
27:8;  132:59),  that  is,  by  revelation  and  ordination,  and  with  the  fiill  approval  of  the  body  of  the  Lord's 
true  worshipers. 

Aaronic  Priesthood 

(Aaronic  Priesthood  ) 

See  AARON,  AARONITES,  BISHOPS,  DEACONS,  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST,  KEYS,  LAW  OF 
MOSES,  LEVITES,  MELCHIZEDEK  PRIESTHOOD,  ORDINATIONS,  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIESTHOOD 
OF  ELIAS,  PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES,  PRIESTHOOD  QUORUMS,  PRIESTS,  QUORUM 
PRESIDENTS,  TEACHERS. 

When  the  Lord  first  gave  the  law  of  carnal  commandments,  the  preparatory  gospel,  to  school  Israel  for 
a  fiiture  time  when  again  they  could  enjoy  the  gospel  fulness,  of  necessity  a  lesser  order  of  priesthood  was 
conferred  to  administer  the  lesser  law.  (Heb.  7:12;  Inspired  Version,  Ex.  34:1-2.)  This  lesser  priesthood 
(D.  &  C.  85:11)  was  conferred  upon  Aaron  and  his  sons  after  him  (Ex.  28;  29;  30;  Lev.  1:11;  3:2;  13:2; 
Num.  18),  as  "an  everlasting  priesthood  throughout  their  generations."  (Ex.  40:15;  Num.  25: 10-13.)  It  was 
also  conferred  upon  substantially  the  whole  house  of  Levi  who  were  between  30  and  50  years  of  age. 
(Num.  3;  4.)  Hence  it  is  called  the  Aaronic  or  Levitical  Priesthood;  the  two  names  are  synonymous.  (D.  & 
C.  107:1,  6,  10.) 

Aaron  and  his  sons  after  him  held  the  keys  of  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  and  acted  in  the  full  majesty  and 
power  of  this  Levitical  order;  many  of  their  fiinctions  were  comparable  to  those  of  bishops  and  priests  in 
this  dispensation.  Though  the  rest  of  the  ordained  Levites  held  the  fulness  of  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  (Heb. 
7:5)  and  participated  in  the  offering  of  sacrifices,  they  did  not  hold  the  keys  of  the  Aaronic  ministry;  many 
of  their  fiinctions  were  comparable  to  those  of  teachers  and  deacons  in  this  dispensation.  (Num.  3;  4;  2 
Chron.  29;  Mai.  3:3;  D.  &  C.  13;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  111-114.) 

From  Aaron  to  John  the  Baptist  the  hereditary  nature  of  the  Levitical  Priesthood  "was  in  active 
operation."  (Teachings,  pp.  318-319;  D.  &  C.  84:18,  26-27,  30;  107:13.)  This  priesthood  in  that  day  was 
conferred  solely  upon  worthy  members  of  the  special  lineage  chosen  to  receive  it;  it  came  to  individuals 
by  descent,  because  of  father  and  because  of  mother,  as  contrasted  with  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  which 
was  "without  father,  without  mother,  without  descent."  (Heb.  7:3.)  John  the  Baptist  "was  a  descendant  of 
Aaron"  and  held  the  keys  of  the  Aaronic  Priesthood.  (Teachings,  pp.  272-273.)  There  was  no  Aaronic 
Priesthood  among  the  Nephites  prior  to  the  ministry  of  the  resurrected  Lord  among  them,  for  none  of  the 
tribe  of  Levi  accompanied  the  Nephite  peoples  to  their  promised  land. 

Few  members  of  the  tribe  of  Levi  gathered  with  the  fold  of  Israel  in  the  meridian  of  time;  few  have 
come  back  to  the  fold  of  their  fathers  in  this  dispensation;  and  there  were  none  among  the  Nephites  to 
whom  our  Lord  ministered.  Consequently,  beginning  in  the  day  of  the  primitive  Church  the  lesser 
priesthood  was  spread  out  among  the  body  of  the  people  and  was  no  longer  confined  exclusively  to  the 
chosen  lineage.  When  the  latter-day  kingdom  is  perfected,  and  when  the  other  tribes  of  Israel  are  gathered 
and  receive  their  blessings  under  the  hands  of  Ephraim,  the  first  to  gather  (D.  &  C.  133:26-35),  then  the 
sons  of  Levi  again  will  stand  forth  in  the  majesty  of  their  calling  and  "offer  again  an  offering  unto  the 
Lord  in  righteousness."  (D.  &  C.  13.) 

John  the  Baptist,  as  a  resurrected  personage,  came  to  Joseph  Smith  and  Oliver  Cowdery  on  the  1 5th  of 
May,  1829,  and  made  the  first  conferral  of  Levitical  Priesthood  in  this  dispensation.  (D.  Sc  C.  13;  27:8.) 
Since  then,  as  the  needs  of  the  ministry  warranted,  the  offices  of  bishop,  priest,  teacher,  and  deacon,  have 
all  been  revealed  as  part  of  this  Aaronic  ministry. 

The  Priesthood  of  Aaron  "is  called  the  lesser  priesthood  .  .  .  because  it  is  an  appendage  to  the  greater, 
or  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood,  and  has  power  in  administering  outward  ordinances."  (D.  &  C.  107:13- 
14.)  Though  it  is  a  lesser  priesthood,  it  is  yet  one  of  great  majesty  and  power.  It  holds  "the  keys  of  the 
ministering  of  angels,"  meaning  that  those  who  hold  it  and  are  faithful  have  the  key  whereby  they  can 
open  the  door  to  the  receipt  of  visitations  from  heavenly  messengers.  (D.  &  C.  13;  84:26-27;  107:20.) 
Faith,  repentance,  and  baptism  -  comprising  as  they  do  the  preparatory  gospel  -  fall  within  its  province, 
though  the  laying  on  of  hands  for  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost  is  not  a  prerogative  that  attends  it. 

Perfection  does  not  come  by  the  Levitical  order,  and  this  lesser  priesthood  is  not  received  with  an  oath. 
(Heb.  7:11,  21;  Teachings,  p.  323.)  But  it  is  a  preparatory  priesthood,  the  Priesthood  of  Ellas,  the 
schooling  ministry,  which  prepares  its  worthy  and  faithfiil  ministers  for  the  oath  and  covenant  and 


9 


perfection  that  appertain  to  the  Melchizedek  order.  That  those  who  train  themselves  to  receive  the 
Melcliizedek  Priesthood,  by  magnifying  their  callings  in  the  Aaronic  Priesthood,  must  be  true  and  faithful 
and  worthy  for  the  final  receipt  of  the  greater  priesthood  is  self-evident.  Indeed,  one  of  the  reasons  the 
Lord  destroyed  Korah  and  his  band  of  Levites  was  that  they,  being  unworthy,  sought  "the  high  priesthood 
also."  (Inspired  Version,  Num.  16.) 

Aaronites 

(Aaronites  ) 

See  AARON,  AARONIC  PRIESTHOOD,  LEVITES,  SONS  OF  MOSES  AND  AARON. 

Descendants  of  Aaron,  specially  honored  as  the  priests  of  Israel,  were  called  Aaronites.  (1  Chron. 
12:27;  27:17.)  Descent  and  genealogical  proof  thereof  were  of  vital  importance.  "The  children  of  the 
priests,"  when  the  temple  was  to  be  rebuilt  in  Jerusalem,  "sought  their  register  among  those  that  were 
reckoned  by  genealogy,  but  they  were  not  found:  therefore  were  they,  as  polluted,  put  from  the 
priesthood."  (Ezra  2:61-63;  Neh.  7:63-65.) 

Abaddon 

(Abaddon  ) 

See  APOLLYON,  DESTROYER,  DEVIL,  HELL. 

This  expression,  of  Hebrew  origin,  was  used  by  John  as  a  name  for  Satan.  (Rev.  9: 1 1 .)  It  is  the  same  as 
the  Greek  ApoUyon  and  means  literally  the  Destroyer.  It  was  used  anciently  to  mean  hell,  as  shown  in  the 
marginal  reading  of  Psalm  88:11. 

Abominable  Church 

(Abominable  Church  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL. 

Abomination  of  Desolation 

(Abomination  of  Desolation  ) 

See  ABOMINATIONS,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Daniel  spoke  prophetically  of  a  day  when  there  would  be  "the  abomination  that  maketh  desolate" 
(Dan.  11:31;  12:11),  and  the  phrase  was  recoined  in  New  Testament  times  to  say,  "the  abomination  of 
desolation,  spoken  of  by  Daniel  the  prophet."  (Matt.  24:15.)  Aside  from  the  prophetic  setting  and  relying 
solely  on  the  plain  meaning  of  words,  we  would  conclude  that  this  phrase  (abomination  of  desolation) 
would  have  reference  to  some  great  act  or  status  of  corruption  and  befoulment,  of  contamination  and 
filthiness,  which  would  bring  to  pass  destruction,  ruination,  devastation,  desolation. 

Such  is  the  case.  These  conditions  of  desolation,  bom  of  abomination  and  wickedness,  were  to  occur 
twice  in  fiilfilment  of  Daniel's  words.  The  first  was  to  be  when  the  Roman  legions  under  Titus,  in  70  A.D., 
laid  siege  to  Jerusalem,  destroying  and  scattering  the  people,  leaving  not  one  stone  upon  another  in  the 
desecrated  temple,  and  spreading  such  terror  and  devastation  as  has  seldom  if  ever  been  equalled  on  earth. 
Of  those  days  Moses  had  foretold  that  the  straitness  of  the  siege  would  cause  parents  to  eat  their  own 
children  and  great  loathing  and  evil  to  abound.  (Deut.  28.) 

And  of  the  same  events  our  Lord  was  led  to  say:  "For  then,  in  those  days,  shall  be  great  fribulation  on 
the  Jews,  and  upon  the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem,  such  as  was  not  before  sent  upon  Israel,  of  God,  since  the 
beginning  of  their  kingdom  until  this  time;  no,  nor  ever  shall  be  sent  again  upon  Israel.  And  except  those 
days  should  be  shortened,  there  should  none  of  their  flesh  be  saved."  (Jos.  Smith  1:12-20.) 

Then,  speaking  of  the  last  days,  of  the  days  following  the  restoration  of  the  gospel  and  its  declaration 
"for  a  witness  unto  all  nations,"  our  Lord  said:  "And  again  shall  the  abomination  of  desolation,  spoken  of 
by  Daniel  the  prophet,  be  fulfilled."  (Jos.  Smith  1:31-32.)  That  is:  Jerusalem  again  will  be  under  siege 
("For  I  will  gather  all  nations  against  Jerusalem  to  battle");  again  the  severity  of  the  siege  and  the 
exfremities  of  brutal  conflict,  bom  of  wickedness  and  abomination,  will  lead  to  great  devastation  and 


10 


desolation  ("and  the  city  shall  be  taken,  and  the  houses  rifled,  and  the  women  ravished;  and  half  of  the  city 
shall  go  forth  into  captivity").  (Zech.  14.)  It  will  be  during  this  siege  that  Christ  will  come,  the  wicked  will 
be  destroyed,  and  the  millennial  era  commenced. 

In  a  general  sense,  this  expressive  designation,  abomination  of  desolation,  also  describes  the  latter-day 
terrors  to  be  poured  out  upon  the  wicked  wherever  they  may  be.  And  so  that  the  honest  in  heart  may 
escape  these  things,  the  Lord  sends  his  missionaries  forth  to  raise  the  warning  voice,  to  declare  the  glad 
tidings  of  the  restoration,  lest  "desolation  and  utter  abolishment"  come  upon  them.  The  elders  are 
commanded  to  reprove  "the  world  in  righteousness  of  all  their  unrighteous  and  ungodly  deeds,  setting 
forth  clearly  and  understandingly  the  desolation  of  abomination  in  the  last  days."  (D.  &  C.  84: 1 14,  117.) 

Also:  "Go  forth  among  the  Gentiles  for  the  last  time,  as  many  as  the  mouth  of  the  Lord  shall  name,  to 
bind  up  the  law  and  seal  up  the  testimony,  and  to  prepare  the  saints  for  the  hour  of  judgment  which  is  to 
come;  That  their  souls  may  escape  the  wrath  of  God,  the  desolation  of  abomination  which  awaits  the 
wicked,  both  in  this  world  and  in  the  world  to  come."  (D.  &  C.  88:84-85.) 

Abominations 

(Abominations  ) 

See  ABOMINATION  OF  DESOLATION,  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES, 
SIN,  WICKEDNESS. 

Those  practices  which  are  so  vile,  hatefiil,  and  detestable  as  to  excite  and  deserve  loathing  are  called 
abominations.  Idolatry  and  every  form  of  sex  immorality,  for  instance,  are  so  classified.  (Lev.  18.) 

Abrahamic  Covenant 

(Abrahamic  Covenant  ) 

See  ADOPTION,  CELESTLA.L  MARRIAGE,  CHILDREN  OF  THE  COVENANT,  COVENANTS, 
EXALTATION,  GATHERING  OF  ISRAEL,  HOPE  OF  ISRAEL,  MELCHIZEDEK  PRIESTHOOD, 
NEW  AND  EVERLASTING  COVENANT,  RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL. 

Abraham  first  received  the  gospel  by  baptism  (which  is  the  covenant  of  salvation);  then  he  had 
conferred  upon  him  the  higher  priesthood,  and  he  entered  into  celestial  marriage  (which  is  the  covenant  of 
exaltation),  gaining  assurance  thereby  that  he  would  have  eternal  increase;  finally  he  received  a  promise 
that  all  of  these  blessings  would  be  offered  to  all  of  his  mortal  posterity.  (Abra.  2:6- 11;  D.  &  C.  132:29- 
50.)  Included  in  the  divine  promises  to  Abraham  was  the  assurance  that  Christ  would  come  through  his 
lineage,  and  the  assurance  that  Abraham's  posterity  would  receive  certain  choice,  promised  lands  as  an 
eternal  inheritance.  (Abra.  2;  Gen.  17;  22:15-18;  Gal.  3.) 

All  of  these  promises  lumped  together  are  called  the  Abrahamic  covenant.  This  covenant  was  renewed 
with  Isaac  (Gen.  24:60;  26:1-4,  24)  and  again  with  Jacob.  (Gen.  28;  35:9-13;  48:3-4.)  Those  portions  of  it 
which  pertain  to  personal  exaltation  and  eternal  increase  are  renewed  with  each  member  of  the  house  of 
Israel  who  enters  the  order  of  celestial  martiage;  through  that  order  the  participating  parties  become 
inheritors  of  all  the  blessings  of  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob.  (D.  &  C.  132;  Rom.  9:4;  Gal.  3;  4.) 

To  fulfil  the  covenant  God  made  with  Abraham  -  having  particular  reference  to  the  fact  that  the  literal 
seed  of  his  body  would  be  entitled  to  the  blessings  of  the  gospel,  the  priesthood,  celestial  martiage,  and 
eternal  life  (Abra.  2:10-11)  -  a  number  of  specific  and  particular  things  must  take  place  in  the  last  days. 
The  gospel  must  be  restored,  the  priesthood  be  conferted  again  upon  man,  the  keys  of  the  sealing  power 
given  again  to  mortals,  Israel  gathered,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  must  be  poured  out  upon  the  Gentiles.  All  this 
has,  of  course,  already  taken  place  or  is  in  process  of  fulfilment.  (1  Ne.  14:5-7;  15:12-20;  19:14-17;  22:3- 
25;  2  Ne.  6:6-12;  9:1-2;  10:7-15;  11:5;  29:1;  3  Ne.  15;  20;  21;  Ether  13:1-13.)  This  is  the  veiy  day  when 
the  identity  of  those  "who  are  heirs  according  to  the  covenant"  (D.  &  C.  52:2),  who  are  "lawllil  heirs, 
according  to  the  flesh"  (D.  &  C.  86:8-1 1),  is  being  made  known. 

To  the  Nephites  the  resurtected  Lord  proclaimed:  "Ye  are  of  the  house  of  Israel;  and  ye  are  of  the 
covenant  which  the  Father  made  with  your  fathers,  saying  unto  Abraham:  And  in  thy  seed  shall  all  the 
kindreds  of  the  earth  be  blessed.  The  Father  having  raised  me  up  unto  you  first,  and  sent  me  to  bless  you 
in  turning  away  every  one  of  you  from  his  iniquities;  and  this  because  ye  are  the  children  of  the  covenant  - 
And  after  that  ye  were  blessed  then  ftilfiUeth  the  Father  the  covenant  which  he  made  with  Abraham, 
saying:  In  thy  seed  shall  all  the  kindreds  of  the  earth  be  blessed  -  unto  the  pouring  out  of  the  Holy  Ghost 


11 


through  me  upon  the  Gentiles,  which  blessing  upon  the  Gentiles  shall  make  them  mighty  above  all,  unto 
the  scattering  of  my  people,  O  house  of  Israel.  And  they  shall  be  a  scourge  unto  the  people  of  this  land. 
Nevertheless,  when  they  shall  have  received  the  fulness  of  my  gospel,  then  if  they  shall  harden  their  hearts 
against  me  I  will  return  their  iniquities  upon  their  own  heads,  saith  the  Father.  And  I  will  remember  the 
covenant  which  I  have  made  with  my  people;  and  I  have  covenanted  with  them  that  I  would  gather  them 
together  in  mine  own  due  time,  that  I  would  give  unto  them  again  the  land  of  their  fathers  for  their 
inlieritance,  which  is  the  land  of  Jerusalem,  which  is  the  promised  land  unto  them  forever,  saith  the 
Father."  (3  Ne.  20:25-29.) 

As  a  sign  -  "that  ye  may  know  the  time  when  these  things  shall  be  about  to  take  place"  -  the  Lord  said 
that  a  free  nation  would  be  set  up  on  the  American  continent,  that  the  gospel  would  be  restored,  and  that 
the  Book  of  Mormon  would  come  forth.  "And  when  these  things  come  to  pass  that  thy  seed  shall  begin  to 
know  these  things  -  it  shall  be  a  sign  unto  them,  that  they  may  know  that  the  work  of  the  Father  hath 
already  commenced  unto  the  fiilfilling  of  the  covenant  which  he  hath  made  unto  the  people  who  are  of  the 
house  of  Israel."  (3  Ne.  21.) 

Abrahamic  Dispensation 

(Abrahamic  Dispensation  ) 
See  DISPENSATIONS 

Abraham's  Bosom 

(Abraham's  Bosom  ) 

See  PARADISE,  SPIRIT  WORLD. 

Our  Lord,  in  the  parable  of  Lazarus  and  the  rich  man,  uses  the  term  Abraham's  bosom  to  mean 
paradise.  Abraham,  the  friend  of  God,  not  at  that  time  having  been  resurrected,  was  continuing  his  life  in 
the  paradise  of  God,  the  same  place  to  which  the  righteous  beggar  went.  (Luke  16:19-31.)  The  expression 
connotes  the  close  fellowship  and  harmony  that  exists  among  the  righteous  in  the  paradisiacal  sphere  of 
peace  and  rest. 

Abraham's  Children 

(Abraham's  Children  ) 

See  ADOPTION,  CHILDREN  OF  THE  COVENANT,  ISRAEL,  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL. 

"We  be  Abraham's  seed,"  the  Jews  said;  and  so  they  were  in  the  literal  sense.  But  in  the  gospel  sense 
Abraham's  children  are  those  who  do  the  works  of  Abraham,  for  their  blood  is  thereby  cleansed  and 
purified  as  was  Abraham's,  and  they  are  adopted  into  his  lineage.  (Abra.  2:8-11;  D.  &  C.  84:33-41; 
132:29-33;  Teachings,  pp.  149-150.)  Hence,  our  Lord  replied  to  the  Jews,  "If  ye  were  Abraham's  children, 
ye  would  do  the  works  of  Abraham.  ...  Ye  do  the  deeds  of  your  father.  ...  Ye  are  of  your  father  the  devil, 
and  the  lusts  of  your  father  ye  will  do."  (John  8:3 1-47.) 

Absolution 

(Absolution  ) 

See  FORGIVENESS. 

Abstinence 

(Abstinence  ) 

See  WORD  OF  WISDOM. 

Abyss 

(Abyss  ) 

See  BOTTOMLESS  PIT. 


12 


Accountability 

(Accountability  ) 

See  AGENCY,  BAPTISM,  INFANT  BAPTISM,  ORIGINAL  SIN  THEORY,  SALVATION  OF 
CHILDREN,  TEMPTATION,  YEARS  OF  ACCOUNTABILITY. 

Personal  accountability  for  all  of  one's  acts  underlies  the  whole  gospel  plan  and  is  the  natural 
outgrowth  of  the  law  of  free  agency.  Without  such  personal  responsibility  free  agency  could  not  operate, 
for  neither  rewards  nor  punishments  would  follow  the  exercise  of  agency.  And  if  there  were  no  rewards  or 
punishments,  there  would  be  no  salvation  or  damnation,  and  so  the  whole  plan  of  salvation  would  vanish 
away.  (2  Ne.  2:1 1-16.)  But  contrary  to  the  false  doctrine  which  denies  personal  responsibility  for  sin,  and 
says  instead  that  men  are  predestined  to  salvation  or  damnation,  the  Lord  has  said  that  men  will  be 
punished  for  their  own  sins  (Second  Article  of  Faith;  Articles  of  Faith,  pp.  52-73),  and  that  they  will  be 
judged  according  to  the  deeds  done  in  the  flesh.  (Rev.  20:12.) 

Accordingly,  men  are  accountable  for  all  their  acts  both  temporal  and  spiritual.  (D.  &  C.  42:32; 
104:13.)  Accountability  for  civic  and  governmental  acts  is  included.  "We  believe  that  governments  were 
instituted  of  God  for  the  benefit  of  man;  and  that  he  holds  men  accountable  for  their  acts  in  relation  to 
them,  both  in  making  laws  and  administering  them,  for  the  good  and  safety  of  society."  (D.  &  C.  134:1.) 
In  fact  the  Lord  established  the  constitution  of  the  United  States,  "That  every  man  may  act  in  doctrine  and 
principle  pertaining  to  futurity,  according  to  the  moral  agency  which  I  have  given  unto  him,  that  every 
man  may  be  accountable  for  his  own  sins  in  the  day  of  judgment."  (D.  &  C.  101:77-80.) 

Acts  of  God 

(Acts  of  God  ) 

See  GOD,  JUDGMENTS  OF  GOD,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Common  custom  designates  the  calamities  of  nature  as  acts  of  God.  In  courts  of  law,  for  instance, 
floods,  earthquakes,  volcanic  eniptions,  hailstorms,  and  the  like,  since  they  apparently  are  wholly  outside 
the  realm  of  human  control,  are  called  acts  of  God.  This  view  of  things  is  particularly  offensive  to  those 
branches  of  modem  Christendom  which  specialize  in  the  false  view  that  Deity  is  light,  love,  and  goodness 
and  never  manifests  himself  except  tlirough  attributes  of  this  sort. 

In  actuality  the  hand  of  the  Lord  is  seen  in  all  things  including  the  calamities  of  nature.  He  has  given 
laws  unto  all  things,  including  the  forces  of  nature;  and  by  these  laws  those  forces  are  operated,  governed, 
and  controlled.  (D.  &  C.  88:42-45.)  One  of  these  laws  is  that  the  righteousness  or  wickedness  of  men 
directly  affects  the  operation  of  the  forces  of  nature.  Crops  grow  for  the  righteous  who  pay  tithing.  (Mai. 
3:7-12.)  The  rains  come  and  the  productivity  of  the  soil  is  enhanced  when  men  keep  the  commandments. 
(Lev.  26:3-5.)  By  listening  to  the  whisperings  of  the  Spirit,  many  righteous  persons  have  been  led  out  of 
the  paths  of  impending  calamities;  conversely,  when  the  fiilness  of  the  Lord's  wrath  has  rested  upon 
wicked  cities  and  nations,  the  inhabitants  of  those  places  have  been  placed  in  the  way  of  "acts  of  God" 
which  would  destroy  them.  These  things  are  seen  in  the  whole  record  of  God's  dealings  with  men. 

Adam 

(Adam  ) 

See  ADAM-GOD  THEORY,  ADAMIC  LANGUAGE,  ADAM-ONDI-AHMAN,  ANCIENT  OF 
DAYS,  BATTLE  OF  THE  GREAT  GOD,  EVE,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  FIRST  FLESH,  FIRST  MAN, 
FORBIDDEN  FRUIT,  MICHAEL  THE  ARCHANGEL,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  WAR  IN  HEAVEN. 

Our  knowledge  about  Adam,  and  the  exalted  station  held  by  him  in  the  eternal  providences  of  the 
Almighty,  begins  with  an  understanding  of  his  pre-existent  work  and  mission.  By  his  diligence  and 
obedience  there,  as  one  of  the  spirit  sons  of  God,  he  attained  a  stature  and  power  second  only  to  that  of 
Christ,  the  Firstborn.  None  of  all  the  billions  of  our  Father's  children  equalled  him  in  intelligence  and 
might,  save  Jesus  only.  He  sat  in  the  council  of  the  gods  in  the  planning  of  the  creation  of  this  earth,  and 
then,  under  Christ,  participated  in  the  creative  enterprise.  (Abra.  3:22-26.)  He  was  foreordained  to  come  to 
earth  as  the  father  of  the  human  race,  and  when  Lucifer  and  one-third  of  the  hosts  of  heaven  rebelled. 


13 


Adam  (with  the  exahed  title  of  Michael  the  Archangel)  led  the  hosts  of  the  righteous  in  the  war  in  heaven. 
(Rev.  12:7-9.) 

"And  the  first  man  of  all  men  have  I  called  Adam,"  the  Lord  says,  "which  is  many."  (Moses  1 :34;  3:7; 
6:45;  Abra.  1:3;  1  Ne.  5:11;  D.  &  C.  84:16.)  That  is,  Adam  was  placed  on  earth  as  the  first  of  the  human 
family  and  given  a  name  which  signifies  many  as  pertaining  to  the  greatness  of  the  posterity  which  should 
flow  from  him. 

As  to  the  manner  in  which  Adam  was  placed  on  earth,  the  First  Presidency  of  the  Church  (Joseph  F. 
Smith,  John  R.  Winder,  and  Anthon  H.  Lund)  has  given  us  this  plain  statement:  "He  took  upon  him  an 
appropriate  body,  the  body  of  a  man,  and  so  became  a  'living  soul.'  .  .  .  All  who  have  inhabited  the  earth 
since  Adam  have  taken  bodies  and  become  souls  in  like  manner.  .  .  .  Man  began  life  as  a  human  being,  in 
the  likeness  of  our  Heavenly  Father.  True  it  is  that  the  body  of  man  enters  upon  its  career  as  a  tiny  germ  or 
embryo,  which  becomes  an  infant,  quickened  at  a  certain  stage  by  the  spirit  whose  tabernacle  it  is,  and  the 
child,  after  being  bom,  develops  into  a  man.  There  is  nothing  in  this,  however,  to  indicate  that  the  original 
man,  the  first  of  our  race,  began  life  as  anything  less  than  a  man,  or  less  than  the  human  germ  or  embryo 
that  becomes  a  man."  (Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny,  p.  354.) 

Adam's  great  part  in  the  plan  of  redemption  was  to  fall  from  the  immortal  state  in  which  he  first 
existed  on  earth  and  thus  bring  mortality  and  death  into  the  world.  This  he  did,  bringing  temporal  and 
spiritual  death  into  the  world,  from  the  effects  of  which  deaths  the  atonement  of  Clirist  was  foreordained 
as  a  ransom.  After  the  fall,  Adam  and  Eve  became  the  parents  of  all  living.  (Moses  5: 1 1 ;  D.  &  C.  27: 1 1 ;  1 
Ne.  5:11;  2:23-25.)  We  are  his  descendants  and  there  are  no  persons  who  have  ever  lived  on  earth  who 
have  not  had  this  same  ancestry.  "He  is  the  father  of  the  human  family;  .  .  .  [the]  head  of  the  human 
family."  (Teachings,  p.  157.) 

Father  Adam  was  one  of  the  most  noble  and  intelligent  characters  who  ever  lived.  He  began  his  earth 
life  as  a  son  of  God,  endowed  with  the  talents  and  abilities  gained  through  diligence  and  obedience  in  pre- 
existence.  He  is  the  head  of  all  gospel  dispensations  (Teachings,  pp.  167-169),  the  presiding  high  priest 
(under  Christ)  over  all  the  earth;  presides  over  all  the  spirits  destined  to  inhabit  this  earth  (Teachings,  pp. 
157-159);  holds  the  keys  of  salvation  over  all  the  earth;  and  will  reign  as  Michael,  our  prince,  to  all 
eternity.  (D.  &  C.  78:16.)  He  was  baptized  (Moses  6:64-66),  manied  for  eternity,  for  death  had  not  yet 
entered  the  world  (Moses  3:21-25),  had  the  fiilness  of  the  gospel  (Moses  5:57-59),  and  following  930 
years  of  existence  after  the  fall  went  on  to  the  paradise  of  God  to  await  a  glorious  resurrection  with  Christ 
and  the  righteous  saints.  He  has  returned  to  earth  in  our  day,  bringing  keys  and  authorities  to  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith  (D.  &  C.  128:21);  will  soon  preside  at  the  great  Adam-ondi-Ahman  council  (D.  &  C.  116); 
and  finally  will  reign  over  his  righteous  posterity  in  the  Patriarchal  Order  to  all  eternity.  (Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  90-106.) 

Adam-God  Theory 

(Adam-God  Theory) 

See  ADAM,  ANCIENT  OF  DAYS,  BIRTHRIGHT,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  EXALTATION, 
GOD,  GODHOOD,  MICHAEL  THE  ARCHANGEL,  PATRIARCHAL  CHAIN,  PATRIARCHAL 
ORDER,  PLURALITY  OF  GODS. 

Cultists  and  other  enemies  of  the  restored  truth,  for  their  own  peculiar  purposes,  sometimes  try  to 
make  it  appear  that  Latter-day  Saints  worship  Adam  as  their  Father  in  heaven.  In  support  of  their  false 
assumptions,  they  quote  such  statements  as  that  of  President  Brigham  Young  to  the  effect  that  Adam  is 
our  father  and  our  god  and  the  only  god  with  whom  we  have  to  do.  This  statement,  and  others  of  a  similar 
nature,  is  perfectly  consistent  and  rational,  when  viewed  in  fiill  gospel  perspective  and  understood  in  the 
light  of  the  revelations  relative  to  the  patriarchal  chain  binding  exalted  beings  together.  Full  and  detailed 
explanations  of  all  important  teachings  on  these  points  are  readily  available.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol. 
l,pp.  96-106.) 

Faithfiil  members  of  the  Church  worship  the  Father,  in  the  name  of  the  Son,  by  the  power  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  and  view  Adam  in  his  proper  high  place  as  the  pre-existent  Michael,  the  first  man  and  presiding 
high  priest  (under  Christ)  over  all  the  earth  for  all  time,  and  as  the  one  who  will  again  lead  the  armies  of 
heaven  in  the  final  great  war  with  Lucifer.  There  is  a  sense,  of  course,  in  which  Adam  is  a  god.  But  so 
also,  in  the  same  sense,  are  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob;  Moses  and  all  the  ancient  prophets;  Peter,  James, 
and  John;  and  all  the  righteous  saints  of  all  ages,  including  those  of  both  high  and  low  degree. 


14 


All  exalted  beings  become  joint-heirs  with  Christ  and  inherit  the  fulness  of  the  Father's  kingdom. 
Having  entered  in  at  the  gate  of  celestial  maiTiage,  and  having  pressed  forward  in  righteousness, 
overcoming  all  things,  they  pass  by  the  angels  and  the  gods  "to  their  exaltation  and  glory  in  all  things.  .  .  . 
Then  shall  they  be  gods,  because  they  have  no  end;  therefore  shall  they  be  from  everlasting  to  everlasting, 
because  they  continue;  then  shall  they  be  above  all,  because  all  things  are  subject  unto  them.  Then  shall 
they  be  gods.  Because  they  have  all  power,  and  he  angels  are  subject  unto  them."  (D.  &  C.  132: 19-20.)  Of 
all  these  Adam  is  the  chief,  presiding  (under  Clirist  and  the  Father)  in  the  patriarchal  order  over  all  the 
rest.  There  is  no  mystery  about  this  doctrine  except  that  which  persons  ignorant  of  the  great  principles  of 
exaltation  and  unfriendly  to  the  cause  of  righteousness  have  attempted  to  make. 

Adamic  Dispensation 

(Adamic  Dispensation  ) 
See  DISPENSATIONS. 

Adamic  Language 

(Adamic  Language  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  REMEMBRANCE,  GAZELAM,  LANGUAGES,  TONGUES. 

In  the  beginning  God  gave  Adam  a  language  that  was  pure,  perfect,  and  undefiled.  This  Adamic 
language,  now  unknown,  was  far  superior  to  any  tongue  which  is  presently  extant.  For  instance,  the  name 
of  God  the  Father,  in  this  original  language,  is  Man  of  Holiness,  signifying  that  he  is  a  Holy  Man  and  not  a 
vague  spiritual  essence.  (Moses  6:57.) 

This  first  language  spoken  by  mortals  was  either  the  celestial  tongue  of  the  Gods  or  such  adaptation  of 
it  as  was  necessary  to  meet  the  limitations  of  mortality;  and  Adam  and  his  posterity  had  power  to  speak, 
read,  and  write  it.  (Way  to  Perfection,  pp.  60-69.)  In  writing  of  the  saints  in  the  day  of  the  first  man, 
Moses  says:  "And  a  book  of  remembrance  was  kept,  in  the  language  of  Adam,  for  it  was  given  unto  as 
many  as  called  upon  God  to  write  by  the  spirit  of  inspiration;  And  by  them  their  children  were  taught  to 
read  and  write,  having  a  language  which  was  pure  and  undefiled."  (Moses  6:5-6.)  The  beauty  and  power 
of  this  Adamic  language  is  indicated  by  a  statement  made  by  Moroni  to  the  Lord  about  the  Brother  of 
Jared  (who  spoke  the  original  and  pure  language):  "Thou  madest  him  that  the  things  which  he  wrote  were 
mighty  even  as  thou  art  unto  the  oveipowering  of  man  to  read  them."  (Ether  12:24.) 

During  the  millennium,  it  appears  that  men  will  again  have  power  to  speak  and  write  the  Adamic 
language.  Of  that  day  the  Lord  says  he  will  "turn  to  the  people  a  pure  language,  that  they  may  all  call  upon 
the  name  of  the  Lord,  to  serve  him  with  one  consent."  (Zeph.  3:9.)  In  some  instances  when  the  saints 
speak  in  tongues,  the  language  impressed  upon  them  by  the  power  of  the  Spirit  is  the  pure  Adamic  tongue. 

Adam-Ondi-Ahman 

(Adam-Ondi-Ahman  ) 

See  ADAM,  AHMAN,  GARDEN  OF  EDEN,  MILLENNIUM,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST, 
SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Adam  was  the  first  man  of  all  men;  Ahman  is  one  of  the  names  by  which  God  was  known  to  Adam. 
Adam-ondi-Ahman,  a  name  earned  over  from  the  pure  Adamic  language  into  English,  is  one  for  which  we 
have  not  been  given  a  revealed,  literal  translation.  As  near  as  we  can  judge  -  and  this  view  comes  down 
from  the  early  brethren  who  associated  with  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  who  was  the  first  one  to  use  the 
name  in  this  dispensation  -  Adam-ondi-Ahman  means  the  place  or  land  of  God  where  Adam  dwelt. 

Apparently  the  area  included  was  a  large  one;  at  least,  the  revelations  speak  of  the  land,  the  valley,  and 
the  mountains  of  Adam-ondi-Alnnan.  They  tell  us  that  Clirist  himself  "established  the  foundations  of 
Adam-ondi-Ahman"  (D.  &  C.  78:15-16),  and  that  it  included  the  place  now  known  as  Spring  Hill,  Daviess 
County,  Missouri.  (D.  &  C.  116.) 

Far  West,  Missouri,  also  appears  to  be  included  in  the  land  of  Adam-ondi-Ahman.  On  April  17,  1838, 
the  Lord  commanded  his  saints  to  assemble  at  Far  West,  which  place,  he  said,  was  holy  ground;  and  there 
they  were  to  build  a  city.  (D.  &  C.  115.)  By  July  8  of  that  year,  William  Marks  and  Newel  K.  Whitney  had 
not  left  their  temporal  concerns  in  Kirtland,  Ohio,  and  were  not  assembling  with  the  saints  coming  to 


15 


Zion.  In  rebuking  them  the  Lord  said  this:  "Is  there  not  room  enough  on  the  mountains  of  Adam-ondi- 
Ahman,  and  on  the  plains  of  Olaha  Shinehah,  or  the  land  where  Adam  dwelt,  that  you  should  covet  that 
which  is  but  the  drop,  and  neglect  the  more  weighty  matters?  Therefore,  come  up  hither  unto  the  land  of 
my  people,  even  Zion." 

William  Maries  was  told  that  he  was  to  "preside  in  the  midst  of  my  people  in  the  city  of  Far  West,"  and 
Newel  K.  Whitney  was  told  to  "come  up  to  the  land  of  Adam-ondi-Ahman,  and  be  a  bishop  unto  my 
people."  (D.  &C.  117.) 

The  early  brethren  of  this  dispensation  taught  that  the  Garden  of  Eden  was  located  in  what  is  known  to 
us  as  the  land  of  Zion,  an  area  for  which  Jackson  County,  Missouri,  is  the  center  place.  In  our  popular 
Latter-day  Saint  hymn  which  begins,  "Glorious  things  are  sung  of  Zion,  Enoch's  city  seen  of  old,"  we  find 
William  W.  Phelps  preserving  the  doctrine  that  "In  Adam-ondi-Ahman,  Zion  rose  where  Eden  was."  And 
in  another  hymn,  written  by  the  same  author  in  the  days  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  we  find  these 
expressions; 

This  earth  was  once  a  garden  place. 
With  all  her  glories  common. 
And  men  did  live  a  holy  race. 
And  worship  Jesus  face  to  face. 
In  Adam-ondi-Ahman. 
We  read  that  Enoch  walk'd  with 
God, 

Above  the  power  of  mammon. 
While  Zion  spread  herself  abroad. 
And  Saints  and  angels  sang  aloud. 
In  Adam-ondi-Ahman. 
Her  land  was  good  and  greatly  blest. 
Beyond  old  Israel's  Canaan; 
Her  fame  was  known  from  east  to 
west. 

Her  peace  was  great,  and  pure  the 
rest 

Of  Adam-ondi-Ahman. 
Hosannah  to  such  days  to  come  - 
The  Savior's  second  coming. 
When  all  the  earth  in  glorious  bloom. 
Affords  the  Saints  a  holy  home. 
Like  Adam-ondi-Ahman. 

One  of  the  greatest  spiritual  gatherings  of  all  the  ages  took  place  in  the  Valley  of  Adam-ondi-Ahman 
some  5,000  years  ago,  and  another  gathering  -  of  even  greater  importance  relative  to  this  earth's  destiny  - 
is  soon  to  take  place  in  that  same  location.  Our  revelations  recite:  "Three  years  previous  to  the  death  of 
Adam,  he  called  Seth,  Enos,  Cainan,  Mahalaleel,  Jared,  Enoch,  and  Methuselah  who  were  all  high  priests 
with  the  residue  of  his  posterity  who  were  righteous,  into  the  valley  of  Adam-ondi-Ahman  and  there 
bestowed  upon  them  his  last  blessing. 

"And  the  Lord  appeared  unto  them,  and  they  rose  up  and  blessed  Adam,  and  called  him  Michael,  the 
prince,  the  archangel.  And  the  Lord  administered  comfort  unto  Adam,  and  said  unto  him:  I  have  set  thee  to 
be  at  the  head;  a  multitude  of  nations  shall  come  of  thee,  and  thou  art  a  prince  over  them  forever.  And 
Adam  stood  up  in  the  midst  of  the  congregation;  and,  notwithstanding  he  was  bowed  down  with  age, 
being  full  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  predicted  whatsoever  should  befall  his  posterity  unto  the  latest  generation." 
(D.  &C.  107:53-56.) 

At  that  great  gathering  Adam  offered  sacrifices  on  an  altar  built  for  the  purpose.  A  remnant  of  that 
very  altar  remained  on  the  spot  down  tlirough  the  ages.  On  May  19,  1838,  Joseph  Smith  and  a  number  of 
his  associates  stood  on  the  remainder  of  the  pile  of  stones  at  a  place  called  Spring  Hill,  Daviess  County, 
Missouri.  There  the  Prophet  taught  them  that  Adam  again  would  visit  in  the  Valley  of  Adam-ondi-Ahman, 
holding  a  great  council  as  a  prelude  to  the  great  and  dreadful  day  of  the  Lord.  (Mediation  and  Atonement 
pp.  69-70.)  At  this  council,  all  who  have  held  keys  of  authority  will  give  an  accounting  of  their 
stewardship  to  Adam.  Clirist  will  then  come,  receive  back  the  keys,  and  thus  take  one  of  the  final  steps 
preparatory  to  reigning  personally  upon  the  earth.  (Dan.  7:9-14;  Teachings,  p.  157.) 


16 


Addresses 

(Addresses  ) 
See  SERMONS. 

Adjuration 

(Adjuration  ) 
See  EXORCISM. 

Administering  to  the  Sick 

(Administering  to  tire  Sick  ) 
See  ADMINISTRATIONS. 

Administrations 

(Administrations  ) 

See  CONSECRATION  OF  OIL,  FAITH,  HEALINGS,  LAYING  ON  OF  HANDS. 

"Is  any  sick  among  you?  let  him  call  for  the  elders  of  the  church;  and  let  them  pray  over  him, 
anointing  him  with  oil  in  the  name  of  the  Lord:  And  the  prayer  of  faith  shall  save  the  sick,  and  the  Lord 
shall  raise  him  up."  (Jas.  5:14-16.)  These  words  of  James  aptly  summarize  the  practice  of  the  Church  in  all 
ages  where  administrations  are  concerned.  (D.  &  C.  42:43-44;,  66:9;  Mark  5:23;  6:5;  16:18;  Luke4:40-41; 
13:11-13;  Acts  28:8.)  Administrations  are  of  two  parts:  anointings  and  sealings;  both  performances  are 
accompanied  by  the  laying  on  of  hands. 

It  is  the  policy  of  the  Church  that  administering  to  the  sick  should  be  done  at  the  request  of  the  sick 
person  or  someone  vitally  concerned,  so  that  it  will  be  done  in  answer  to  faith.  Those  called  to  perform  the 
ordinance  should  encourage  the  sick  person  to  rely  on  the  Lord's  promise,  "Whatsoever  thing  ye  shall  ask 
the  Father  in  my  name,  which  is  good  in  faith  believing  that  ye  shall  receive,  behold,  it  shall  be  done  unto 
you."  (Moro.  7:26.)  If  need  be  the  sick  person  should  be  encouraged  to  keep  the  commandments  so  that  he 
can  have  faith  and  be  entitled  to  the  blessings  of  the  Lord. 

In  the  perfoniiance  of  the  administration,  one  of  the  elders  should  anoint  the  sick  person  with  oil  on  or 
near  the  crown  of  the  head,  for  the  restoration  of  his  health.  Ordinarily  he  should  not  seal  the  anointing. 
Pure  olive  oil  which  has  been  consecrated  for  the  anointing  and  healing  of  the  sick  in  the  household  of 
faith  should  be  used.  Taking  consecrated  oil  internally,  or  using  it  for  anointing  or  rubbing  afflicted  parts 
of  the  body,  is  not  part  of  the  ordinance  of  administering  to  the  sick. 

After  the  anointing  two  or  more  elders  should  lay  their  hands  on  the  head  of  the  sick  person,  and  with 
one  of  them  acting  as  voice,  seal  the  anointing.  The  one  speaking  should  offer  such  prayers,  pronounce 
such  blessings,  give  such  promises,  say  such  things,  and  rebuke  the  affliction  -  all  as  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord 
may  dictate. 

Ordinarily  one  administration  is  sufficient  for  one  illness,  although  in  serious  cases,  or  where  other 
circumstances  seem  to  dictate  the  propriety  of  such,  a  sick  person  may  be  administered  to  several  times 
during  one  illness.  It  is  also  the  common  practice,  if  a  sick  person  has  recently  been  anointed,  for  those 
performing  a  second  administration  merely  to  give  the  sick  person  a  blessing  in  the  authority  of  the 
priesthood,  hi  an  emergency,  where  only  one  elder  is  present  or  available,  he  may  either  give  the  sick 
person  a  blessing  or  he  can  both  anoint  and  seal  in  a  formal  administration. 

Ordinances  of  administration  with  actual  healings  resulting  therefrom  are  one  of  the  evidences  of  the 
divinity  of  the  Lord's  work.  Where  these  are,  there  is  God's  kingdom;  where  these  are  not,  there  God's 
kingdom  is  not.  Sincere  investigators  must  necessarily  beware  of  the  devil's  substitutes  of  the  true 
ordinances. 

Adonai 

(Adonai  ) 

See  CHRIST,  LORD. 


17 


In  the  Old  Testament  record,  Christ  is  frequently  referred  to  under  the  Hebrew  word  Adonai  -  a  term 
having  reference  to  God,  meaning  literally  my  Lord,  but  usually  translated  as  Lord. 

Adoption 

(Adoption  ) 

See  BORN  AGAIN,  ISRAEL,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  SONS  OF  GOD,  SONS  OF  MOSES 
AND  AARON. 

By  the  law  of  adoption  those  who  receive  the  gospel  and  obey  its  laws,  no  matter  what  their  literal 
blood  lineage  may  have  been,  are  adopted  into  the  lineage  of  Abraham.  (Abra.  2:  9-11)  "The  effect  of  the 
Holy  Ghost  upon  a  Gentile,"  the  Prophet  says,  "is  to  purge  out  the  old  blood,  and  make  him  actually  of  the 
seed  of  Abraham."  Such  a  person  has  "a  new  creation  by  the  Holy  Ghost."  (Teachings,  pp.  149-150.) 
Those  who  magnify  their  callings  in  the  Melchizedek  priesthood  are  promised  that  they  will  be  "sanctified 
by  the  Spirit  unto  the  renewing  of  their  bodies.  They  become  the  sons  of  Moses  and  of  Aaron  and  the  seed 
of  Abraham."  (D.  &  C.  84:33-34)  Indeed,  the  faithful  are  adopted  to  the  family  of  Christ;  they  become 
"the  children  of  Christ,  his  sons,  and  his  daughters";  they  are  "spiritually  begotten,"  for  their  "hearts  are 
changed  through  faith  on  his  name,"  thus  being  "bom  of  him,"  becoming  "his  sons  and  his  daughters." 
(Mosiah  5:7.)  Paul  explained  the  doctrine  of  adoption  by  saying,  "As  many  as  are  led  by  the  Spirit  of  God, 
they  are  the  sons  of  God,"  because  they  receive  "the  Spirit  of  adoption,"  being  or  becoming  Israelites,  "to 
whom  pertaineth  the  adoption."  (Rom.  8:14-24;  9:4;  Gal.  4:5;  Eph.  1:5.) 

Adoration 

(Adoration  ) 
See  WORSHIP. 

Adultery 

(Adultery  ) 

See  DAMNATION,  FORNICATION,  SEX  IMMORALITY,  SIGN-SEEKING,  TELESTIAL  LAW. 

1.  "Thou  shall  not  commit  adultery."  (Ex.  20:14;  Deut.  5:18;  D.  &  C.  42:24.)  Sex  immorality  stands 
next  to  murder  in  the  category  of  personal  crimes;  it  is  "most  abominable  above  all  sins  save  it  be  the 
shedding  of  innocent  blood  or  denying  the  Holy  Ghost."  (Alma  39:5.)  Anciently  the  penalty  therefor  was 
death;  "the  adulterer  and  the  adulteress  shall  surely  be  put  to  death."  (Lev.  20: 10;  Deut.  22:21-29.) 

In  the  initial  day  of  judgment,  at  the  Second  Coming  of  our  Lord,  Christ  "will  be  a  swift  witness  .  .  . 
against  the  adulterers,"  and  they  shall  be  burned  as  stubble.  (Mai.  3:5;  4:1.)  Adulterers  shall  be  cast  down 
to  hell  to  suffer  the  vengeance  of  eternal  fire;  and  their  eventual  destiny  -  after  suffering  the  torments  of 
the  damned  until  the  second  resuiTection  -  shall  be  that  of  the  telestial  kingdom.  (D.  &  C.  76:103-106.) 
They  shall  not  inherit  the  kingdom  of  God.  (1  Cor.  6:9-1 1.)  Adultery  opens  the  flood  gates  of  wickedness 
in  general.  Physical  disease,  divorce,  illegitimacy,  violence,  broken  homes,  and  a  host  of  evils  always 
attend  adulterous  acts.  There  never  was  an  adulterer,  for  instance,  who  was  not  also  a  liar;  the  two  always 
go  together.  Adulterers  are  sign-seekers  (Matt.  12:39;  16:4);  their  spirits  are  diseased  so  as  to  hinder  them 
in  recognizing  and  accepting  the  gospel  truths  and  thus  becoming  heirs  of  salvation. 

Adulterous  acts  are  born  spiritually  before  they  are  committed  temporally;  they  proceed  out  of  the 
heart.  (Matt.  15:19;  Mark  7:21.)  As  a  man  "thinketh  in  his  heart,  so  is  he."  (Prov.  23:7.)  Therefore, 
"whosoever  looketh  on  a  woman  to  lust  after  her  hath  committed  adultery  with  her  already  in  his  heart." 
(Matt.  5:27-28;  3  Ne.  12:17-28.)  "He  that  looketh  on  a  woman  to  lust  after  her,  or  if  any  shall  commit 
adultery  in  their  hearts,  they  shall  not  have  the  Spirit,  but  shall  deny  the  faith  and  shall  fear."  (D.  &  C. 
63:16.) 

When  the  day  comes  that  men  live  again  -  as  they  did  in  the  golden  era  of  Nephite  history  -  the  perfect 
law  of  marriage,  then  "whoso  shall  marry  her  who  is  divorced"  shall  be  guilty  of  adultery.  (3  Ne.  12:31- 
32;  Matt.  5:31-32.)  "Whosoever  putteth  away  his  wife,  and  marrieth  another,  committeth  adultery:  and 
whosoever  marrieth  her  that  is  put  away  from  her  husband  committeth  adultery."  (Luke  16:18;  Matt. 
19:9.) 


18 


Is  it  possible  to  repent  of  adultery  and  gain  forgiveness  of  sins  so  as  to  be  saved  in  the  celestial 
kingdom  of  God?  Yes  in  most  cases;  No  in  some.  Forgiveness  with  resultant  celestial  salvation  depends 
upon  the  light  and  knowledge  of  the  one  guilty  of  the  grossly  wicked  adulterous  relationship.  Worldly 
people  who  repent  with  all  their  hearts,  accept  baptism,  and  then  conform  to  the  Lord's  law  shall  be  saved 
even  though  guilty  of  adultery  before  accepting  the  truth.  (1  Cor.  6:9- 11;  3  Ne.  30.) 

Speaking  to  members  of  the  Church  in  1831  -  prior  to  the  restoration  of  the  temple  covenants  and 
ceremonies  -  the  Lord  said:  "Thou  shalt  not  commit  adultery;  and  he  that  committeth  adultery,  and 
repenteth  not,  shall  be  cast  out.  But  he  that  has  committed  adultery  and  repents  with  all  his  heart,  and 
forsaketh  it,  and  doeth  it  no  more,  thou  shalt  forgive;  But  if  he  doeth  it  again,  he  shall  not  be  forgiven,  but 
shall  be  cast  out."  (D.  &  C.  42:24-26.) 

After  a  person  has  advanced  in  righteousness,  light,  and  truth  to  the  point  that  the  ftalness  of  the 
ordinances  of  the  house  of  the  Lord  have  been  received  so  that  he  has  been  sealed  up  unto  eternal  life,  and 
his  calling  and  election  has  been  made  sure,  then  as  expressed  in  the  Prophet's  language,  the  law  is:  "If  a 
man  commit  adultery,  he  cannot  receive  the  celestial  kingdom  of  God.  Even  if  he  is  saved  in  any  kingdom, 
it  cannot  be  the  celestial  kingdom."  (History  of  the  Church,  vol.  6,  p.  81;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2, 
pp.  92-94.) 

2.  In  a  spiritual  sense,  to  emphasize  how  serious  it  is,  the  damning  sin  of  idolatry  is  called  adultery. 
When  the  Lord's  people  forsake  him  and  worship  false  gods,  their  infidelity  to  Jehovah  is  described  as 
whoredoms  and  adultery.  (Jer.  3:  8-9;  Hos.  1:2;  3:1.)  By  forsaking  the  Lord,  his  people  are  unfaithful  to 
their  covenant  vows,  vows  made  to  him  who  symbolically  is  their  Husband. 

Advent 

(Advent  ) 

See  SECOND  COMD>JG  OF  CHRIST. 

Adversary 

(Adversary  ) 

See  AGENCY,  DEVIL,  SATAN. 

This  name  for  Satan  signifies  that  he  is  the  enemy  of  all  righteousness,  opposes  every  good  thing  with 
evil,  and  is  the  arch  foe  of  every  upright  person.  Endowed  with  agency,  he  came  out  in  open  rebellion  in 
pre-existence  and  has  ever  since  been  the  chief  antagonist  of  every  righteous  cause,  "For  it  must  needs  be, 
that  there  is  an  opposition  in  all  things."  (2  Ne.  2:11.)  "Be  sober,  be  vigilant,"  Peter  said,  "because  your 
adversary  the  devil,  as  a  roaring  lion,  walketh  about,  seeking  whom  he  may  devour."  (1  Pet.  5:8.) 

Adversities 

(Adversities  ) 

See  AFFLICTIONS. 

Advocacy 

(Advocacy  ) 

See  ADVOCATE,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  EXPLA.TION,  INTERCESSION,  MEDLA.TION, 
PROPITIATION,  RECONCILIATION. 

Our  Lord  acts  according  to  the  law  of  advocacy  or  intercession  in  pleading  the  cause  of  his  faithful 
saints  before  the  tribunals  of  eternity.  (D.  &  C.  45:3-4.) 

Advocate 

(Advocate  ) 

See  ADVOCACY,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CHRIST,  EXPIATOR,  INTERCESSOR, 
MEDLA.TOR,  PARACLETE,  PROPITIATOR,  RECONCILER. 


19 


Christ  is  the  Advocate  with  the  Father,  meaning  that  he  pleads  the  cause  of  the  righteous  in  the  courts 
above.  (D.  &  C.  29:5;  32:3;  62:1;  110:4;  Moro.  7:28;  1  John  2:1.)  "Listen  to  him  who  is  the  advocate  with 
the  Father,  who  is  pleading  your  cause  before  him  -  Saying:  Father,  behold  the  sufferings  and  death  of  him 
who  did  no  sin,  in  whom  thou  wast  well  pleased;  behold  the  blood  of  thy  Son  which  was  shed,  the  blood 
of  him  whom  thou  gavest  that  thyself  might  be  glorified;  Wherefore,  Father,  spare  these  my  brethren  that 
believe  on  my  name,  that  they  may  come  unto  me  and  have  everlasting  life."  (D.  &  C.  45:3-5.) 

Afflictions 

(Afflictions  ) 

See  PATIENCE,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  TRIBULATIONS. 

Afflictions,  including  sorrow,  adversity,  tribulation,  calamity,  and  trouble  -  all  these  are  the  common 
lot  of  mankind;  they  are  an  essential  cart  of  this  probation.  "Be  patient  in  afflictions."  (D.  &  C.  31:9; 
66:9.) 

Frequently  afflictions  are  imposed  as  a  result  of  disobedience,  and  they  could  be  avoided  by 
righteousness.  If  Zion,  for  instance,  "observe  not  to  do  whatsoever  I  have  commanded  her,"  the  Lord  said, 
"I  will  visit  her  according  to  all  her  works,  with  sore  affliction,  with  pestilence,  with  plague,  with  sword, 
with  vengeance,  with  devouring  fire."  (D.  &  C.  97:26;  101:1-9.) 

Agency 

(Agency  ) 

See  FREEDOM,  KNOWLEDGE,  LAW,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION, 
PREDESTINATION,  PRE-EXISTENCE. 

Agency  is  the  ability  and  freedom  to  choose  good  or  evil.  It  is  an  eternal  principle  which  has  existed 
with  God  from  all  eternity.  The  spirit  offspring  of  the  Father  had  agency  in  pre-existence  and  were  thereby 
empowered  to  follow  Christ  or  Lucifer  according  to  their  choice.  (Moses  4:3;  D.  &  C.  29:36-37.)  It  is  by 
virtue  of  the  exercise  of  agency  in  this  life  that  men  are  enabled  to  undergo  -  the  testing  which  is  an 
essential  part  of  mortality.  (Moses  3:17;  4:3;  7:32;  Abra.  3:25-28.) 

Four  gi'eat  principles  must  be  in  force  if  there  is  to  be  agency:  1 .  Laws  must  exist,  laws  ordained  by  an 
Omnipotent  power,  laws  which  can  be  obeyed  or  disobeyed;  2.  Opposites  must  exist  -  good  and  evil, 
virtue  and  vice,  right  and  wrong  -  that  is,  there  must  be  an  opposition,  one  force  pulling  one  way  and 
another  pulling  the  other;  3.  A  knowledge  of  good  and  evil  must  be  had  by  those  who  are  to  enjoy  the 
agency,  that  is,  they  must  know  the  difference  between  the  opposites;  and  4.  An  unfettered  power  of 
choice  must  prevail. 

Agency  is  given  to  man  as  an  essential  part  of  the  great  plan  of  redemption.  As  with  all  things 
appertaining  to  this  plan,  it  is  based  on  the  atoning  sacrifice  of  Christ.  As  Lehi  expressed  it:  "Because  that 
they  are  redeemed  from  the  fall  they  have  become  free  forever,  knowing  good  from  evil  to  act  for 
themselves  and  not  to  be  acted  upon,  save  it  be  by  the  punishment  of  the  law  at  the  great  and  last  day, 
according  to  the  commandments  which  God  hath  given.  Wherefore,  men  are  free  according  to  the  flesh; 
and  all  things  are  given  them  which  are  expedient  unto  man.  And  they  are  free  to  choose  liberty  and 
eternal  life,  through  the  great  mediation  of  all  men,  or  to  choose  captivity  and  death,  according  to  the 
captivity  and  power  of  the  devil;  for  he  seeketh  that  all  men  might  be  miserable  like  unto  himself."  (2  Ne. 
2:26-30;  10:23;  Alma  13:3;  Hela.  14:31.) 

Agency  is  so  fundamental  a  part  of  the  great  plan  of  creation  and  redemption  that  if  it  should  cease,  all 
other  things  would  vanish  away.  "All  truth  is  independent  in  that  sphere  in  which  God  has  placed  it,  to  act 
for  itself,  as  all  intelligence  also;  otherwise  there  is  no  existence."  (D.  &  C.  93:30.)  Expanding  and 
interpreting  this  revealed  principle,  Lehi  said:  "it  must  needs  be,  that  there  is  an  opposition  in  all  things.  If 
not  so,  .  .  .  righteousness  could  not  be  brought  to  pass,  neither  wickedness,  neither  holiness  nor  misery, 
neither  good  nor  bad.  Wherefore,  all  things  must  needs  be  a  compound  in  one;  wherefore,  if  it  should  be 
one  body  it  must  needs  remain  as  dead,  having  no  life  neither  death,  nor  coixuption  nor  incorruption, 
happiness  nor  misery,  neither  sense  nor  insensibility.  Wherefore,  it  must  needs  have  been  created  for  a 
thing  of  naught;  wherefore  there  would  have  been  no  purpose  in  the  end  of  its  creation.  Wherefore,  this 
thing  must  needs  destroy  the  wisdom  of  God  and  his  eternal  purposes,  and  also  the  power,  and  the  mercy, 
and  the  justice  of  God. 


20 


"And  if  ye  shall  say  there  is  no  law,  ye  shall  also  say  there  is  no  sin.  If  ye  shall  say  there  is  no  sin,  ye 
shall  also  say  there  is  no  righteousness.  And  if  there  be  no  righteousness  there  be  no  happiness.  And  if 
there  be  no  righteousness  nor  happiness  there  be  no  punishment  nor  misery.  And  if  these  things  are  not 
there  is  no  God.  And  if  there  is  no  God  we  are  not,  neither  the  earth;  for  there  could  have  been  no  creation 
of  things,  neither  to  act  nor  to  be  acted  upon;  wherefore,  all  things  must  have  vanished  away."  (2  Ne.  2:11- 
14;  D.&C.  29:39.) 

Agency  is  the  philosophy  of  opposites,  and  because  these  opposites  exist,  men  can  reap  either 
salvation  or  damnation  by  the  use  they  make  of  their  agency.  If  it  were  not  for  the  law  of  agency,  there 
could  be  no  judgment  according  to  works  and  consequently  no  rewards  or  punishments.  "Choose  ye  this 
day,  to  serve  the  Lord  God  who  made  you"  (Moses  6:33),  is  the  voice  of  the  Lord  to  all  people  of  all  ages. 
(Alma30:8;  Josh.  24:15.) 

Satan  "sought  to  destroy  the  agency  of  man"  (Moses  4:3),  an  eventuality  which  would  have  made  the 
attainment  of  salvation  impossible,  and  accordingly  he  was  cast  out  of  heaven.  Two  great  agencies  on 
earth  pattern  their  courses  in  accordance  with  Lucifer's  program  of  compulsion  and  seek  to  deny  the 
inalienable  right  of  agency  to  men.  These  are  the  church  of  the  devil  and  the  communistic  dictatorship, 
both  of  which  prosper  proportionately  as  they  are  able  to  withhold  truth  from  their  adherents  and  compel 
them  through  fear  to  confonn  to  the  "religious"  and  "party"  lines.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  the  will  of  the 
Lord  that  all  agencies,  governments  included,  should  be  so  ordained  "That  every  man  may  act  in  doctrine 
and  principle  pertaining  to  futurity,  according  to  the  moral  agency  which  I  have  given  unto  him,  that  every 
man  may  be  accountable  for  his  own  sins  in  the  day  of  judgment."  (D.  &  C.  101 :78.) 

Churches  which  teach  that  men  are  predestined  to  gain  salvation  or  damnation,  according  to  the 
election  of  God,  regardless  of  the  acts  of  the  individual,  find  no  place  in  their  theology  for  the  true 
doctrine  of  agency.  Their  reasoning  is  to  this  effect:  Why  is  there  any  need  for  agency,  so  as  to  be  able  to 
perform  good  works  leading  to  salvation,  if  your  salvation  is  detennined  by  Deity  on  the  basis  of 
predestination  regardless  of  works?  Thus  the  false  doctrine  of  predestination  begets  the  false  doctrine  that 
men  are  not  free  to  work  out  their  own  salvation,  as  such  is  made  possible  through  the  atoning  sacrifice  of 
Christ.  The  Church  of  England,  for  instance,  in  its  Articles  of  Religion,  under  the  heading  of  "Free  Will," 
says:  "The  condition  of  Man  after  the  fall  of  Adam  is  such,  that  he  cannot  turn  and  prepare  himself  by  his 
own  natural  strength  and  good  works,  to  faith,  and  calling  upon  God:  Wherefore  we  have  no  power  to  do 
good  works  pleasant  and  acceptable  to  God,  without  the  grace  of  God  by  Christ  preventing  us,  that  we 
may  have  a  good  will,  and  working  with  us,  when  we  have  that  good  will."  (Book  of  Common  Prayer,  p. 
663.) 

Agency,  of  course,  is  exercised  in  accordance  with  law.  Once  a  final  choice  has  been  made,  there  is  no 
turning  back  to  seek  the  opposite  goal.  Men  may  exercise  their  agency  to  repent  and  turn  to  the  Lord  in 
this  life,  in  which  event  they  will  be  saved.  But  if  they  choose  to  rebel  against  the  light  and  work 
wickedness,  they  will  be  damned.  And  once  they  are  damned,  there  is  no  power  of  choice  left  whereby 
they  can  alter  their  course  and  gain  salvation.  If  men  choose  to  commit  suicide,  for  instance,  they  will 
continue  to  have  agency  in  hell,  but  they  will  not  be  able  to  use  it  to  gain  their  lives  back  again.  The 
purpose  of  this  life  is  to  test  men,  to  see  if  they  will  take  the  bodies  which  have  been  given  them,  and  by 
the  righteous  exercise  of  agency  make  those  bodies  fit  abodes  for  the  Spirit  of  God. 

Age  of  Accountability 

(Age  of  Accountability  ) 

See  YEARS  OF  ACCOUNTABILITY. 

Age  of  Restoration 

(Age  of  Restoration  ) 

See  TIMES  OF  RESTITUTION. 

Agnosticism 

(Agnosticism  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  ATHEISM,  GOD,  INFIDELS. 


21 


Agnosticism  is  the  doctrine  that  God  is  not  known  and  cannot  be  known.  It  is  the  concept  that  his 
existence  can  be  neither  proved  nor  disproved,  and  hence  it  neither  affmns  nor  denies  tliat  existence.  To 
the  agnostics  God  is  unknown  and  unknowable  because  they  are  unwilling  to  accept  as  proof  the  evidence 
of  revelation  and  spiritual  manifestations.  Unless  this  is  done  no  man  can  come  to  a  knowledge  of  God, 
for  "the  things  of  God  knoweth  no  man,  but  the  Spirit  of  God.  .  .  .  The  natural  man  receiveth  not  the  things 
of  the  Spirit  of  God:  for  they  are  foolishness  unto  him:  neither  can  he  know  them,  because  they  are 
spiritually  discerned."  (1  Cor.  2:11-14.)  Similarly  agnosticism  rejects  any  knowledge  about  the  ultimate 
origin  of  the  universe. 

From  the  gospel  standpoint,  agnostics  are  properly  classified  as  being  in  opposition  to  the  truth. 
However  much  they  may  claim  to  be  neutral  by  neither  affirming  nor  denying  eternal  truths,  yet  that  very 
neutrality  makes  them  enemies  of  God.  In  the  ultimate  analysis  there  is  no  such  thing  as  neutrality.  "He 
that  is  not  with  me  is  against  me;  and  he  that  gathereth  not  with  me  scattereth  abroad."  (Matt.  12:30.) 

Ahman 

(Ahman  ) 

See  GOD,  MAN  OF  HOLINESS,  SON  OF  MAN. 

In  the  pure  language  spoken  by  Adam  -  and  which  will  be  spoken  again  during  the  millennial  era 
(Zeph.  3:9)  -  the  name  of  God  the  Father  is  Ahman,  or  possibly  Ah  Man,  a  name-title  having  a  meaning 
identical  with  or  at  least  very  closely  akin  to  Man  of  Holiness.  (Moses  6:57.)  God  revealed  himself  to 
Adam  by  this  name  to  signify  that  he  is  a  Holy  Man,  a  tmth  which  man  must  know  and  comprehend  if  he 
is  to  become  like  God  and  inherit  exaltation.  (1  John  3: 1-3;  D.  &  C.  132:19-24.) 

"There  is  one  revelation,"  Orson  Pratt  said,  "that  this  people  are  not  generally  acquainted  with.  I  think 
it  has  never  been  published,  but  probably  will  be  in  the  Church  History.  It  is  given  in  questions  and 
answers.  The  first  question  is,  'What  is  the  name  of  God  in  the  pure  language?'  The  answer  says,  'Ahman.' 
'What  is  the  name  of  the  Son  of  God?'  Answer,  son  Ahman  -  the  greatest  of  all  the  parts  of  God  excepting 
Ahman.'  'What  is  the  name  of  men?'  sons  Ahman,'  is  the  answer.  'What  is  the  name  of  angels  in  the  pure 
language?'  Angloman. 

"This  revelation  goes  on  to  say  that  Sons  Ahman  are  the  greatest  of  all  the  parts  of  God  excepting  Son 
Ahman  and  Ahman,  and  that  Angloman  are  the  greatest  of  all  the  parts  of  God  excepting  Sons  Ahman, 
Son  Ahman  and  Ahman,  showing  that  the  angels  are  a  little  lower  than  man."  (Journal  of  Discourses,  vol. 
2,  p.  342.) 

Since  God  revealed  himself  to  Adam  by  certain  names,  we  might  suppose  that  those  names,  or  variants 
of  them,  would  be  preserved  among  succeeding  generations,  even  though  people  coming  later  developed 
false  religions.  It  is,  also,  not  uncommon  for  important  names  to  be  earned  from  one  language  to  another 
by  transliteration  rather  than  translation.  Hence,  it  is  of  more  than  passing  interest  to  note  that  the 
Egyptians  worshiped  a  deity,  considered  by  them  to  be  supreme,  whose  name  bears  a  striking  resemblance 
to  that  of  the  true  God,  as  his  name  was  recorded  in  the  Adamic  language.  The  Egyptian  deity  Ammon,  or 
Amon,  or  Amen  (who  corresponds  to  Zeus  of  the  Greeks  and  Jupiter  of  the  Romans)  was  first  worshiped 
as  the  local  deity  of  Thebes;  he  was  shown  as  a  ramheaded  god  of  life  and  reproduction.  Later,  united  with 
the  sun-god  to  become  a  supreme  deity,  he  was  known  as  Amen-Ra,  with  the  other  gods  as  his  members 
or  parts. 

It  is  also  interesting  to  note  that  Amen,  a  transliterated  word  which  is  the  same  in  Egyptian,  Hebrew, 
Latin,  Greek,  Anglo-Saxon,  and  English,  is  one  of  the  names  of  Christ.  Speaking  to  John  on  the  isle  of 
Patmos,  our  Lord  said:  "These  things  saith  the  Amen,  the  faithful  and  true  witness,  the  beginning  of  the 
creation  of  God."  (Rev.  3:14.) 

Alchemy 

(Alchemy  ) 

See  MAGIC,  OCCULTISM,  SORCERY. 

Alchemy  is  the  great  medieval  science  which,  bordering  on  magic  and  sorcery,  had  as  its  objectives  to 
transmute  base  metals  into  gold,  to  discover  the  universal  cure  for  diseases,  and  to  prolong  life 
indefinitely. 


22 


Alcoholic  Beverages 

(Alcoholic  Beverages  ) 
See  STRONG  DRINKS. 

Alleluia 

(Alleluia  ) 

See  HALLELUJAH. 

Almighty 

(Almighty  ) 

See  ALMIGHTY  GOD. 


Almighty  God 

(Almighty  God  ) 

See  CHRIST,  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  GOD,  LORD,  LORD  OMNIPOTENT,  OMNIPOTENCE. 

Both  the  Father  and  the  Son,  being  omnipotent  Gods,  are  designated  by  the  name-titles.  Almighty 
(Gen.  49:25;  Rev.  l:8;2Ne.  23:6;  Hela.  10: 1 1;  D.  &  C.  84:96;  121:33),  Almighty  God  (Gen.  17:1;28:3;  1 
Ne.  17:48;  D.  &  C.  20:21;  87:6;  88:106),  Lord  Almighty  (D.  &  C.  84:118;  2  Cor.  6:18),  and  Lord  God 
Almighty  (Rev.  4:8;  11:  17.;  21:22;  D.  &  C.  109:77;  121:4;  1  Ne.  1:14;  2  Ne.  9:46.)  These  designations 
signify  that  these  holy  beings  have  all  power  and  unlimited  might.  A  deep  sense  of  reverence  is  implicit  in 
the  use  of  each  name-title. 

Almsgiving 

(Almsgiving  ) 

See  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  DOLE,  EMPLOYMENT,  IDLENESS,  WORK. 

Almsgiving  is  the  contribution  of  free  gifts  to  relieve  the  poor;  the  spirit  that  attends  such  a  course  is  of 
God  and  finds  its  highest  manifestation  in  the  organized  charitable  enteiprises  of  his  earthly  kingdom. 
Paul,  for  instance,  in  his  day,  carried  alms  to  the  poor  saints  in  Jerusalem  (Acts  24:17),  he  having  first 
assembled  the  contributions  from  the  saints  in  Macedonia  and  Achaia.  (Acts  11:29;  Rom.  15:25-28.)  In 
modem  times  the  major  portion  of  the  almsgiving  of  the  saints  is  administered  through  the  great  church 
Welfare  Plan. 

Giving  alms  is  not  an  optional  thing;  it  is  a  command  of  the  Lord.  (Luke  11:41;  12:31-34.)  "verily, 
verily,  I  say  that  I  would  that  ye  should  do  alms  unto  the  poor,"  our  Lord  said  to  his  Nephite  saints,  "but 
take  heed  that  ye  do  not  your  alms  before  men  to  be  seen  of  them;  otherwise  ye  have  no  reward  of  your 
Father  who  is  in  heaven.  Therefore,  when  ye  shall  do  your  alms  do  not  sound  a  trumpet  before  you,  as  will 
hypocrites  do  in  the  synagogues  and  in  the  streets,  that  they  may  have  glory  of  men.  Verily  I  say  unto  you, 
they  have  their  reward.  But  when  thou  doest  alms  let  not  thy  left  hand  know  what  thy  right  hand  doeth; 
That  thine  alms  may  be  in  secret;  and  thy  Father  who  seeth  in  secret,  himself  shall  reward  thee  openly."  (3 
Ne.  13:1-4;  Matt.  6:1-4.) 

Prayers  are  answered  for  those  who  freely  give  alms  to  the  poor,  but  the  heavens  are  sealed  where  the 
petitions  of  those  who  do  not  give  alms  are  concerned.  "If  ye  turn  away  the  needy,  and  the  naked,  and  visit 
not  the  sick  and  afflicted,  and  impart  of  your  substance,  if  ye  have,  to  those  who  stand  in  need  - 1  say  unto 
you,  if  ye  do  not  any  of  these  things,  behold,  your  prayer  is  vain,  and  availeth  you  nothing,  and  ye  are  as 
hypocrites  who  do  deny  the  faith."  (Alma  34:28;  Acts  10;  D.  &  C.  88:2;  112:1.) 

Alpha  and  Omega 

(Alpha  and  Omega  ) 

See  ALPHUS,  BEGINNING  AND  END,  CHRIST,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY,  EVERLASTING 
TO  EVERLASTING,  FIRST  AND  LAST,  OMEGUS. 


23 


Christ  bears  the  title  Alpha  and  Omega.  (D.  &  C.  19:1;63:60;  68:35;  75:1;  81:7;  112:34;  132:66;  Rev. 
1 :  8-17;  21:6;  22:13.)  These  words,  the  first  and  last  letters  of  the  Greek  alphabet,  are  used  figuratively  to 
teach  the  timelessness  and  eternal  nature  of  our  Lord's  existence,  that  is,  that  "from  eternity  to  eternity  he 
is  the  same,  and  his  years  never  fail."  (D.  &  C.  76:4.) 

Alphus 

(Alphus  ) 

See  ALPHA  AND  OMEGA,  CHRIST,  OMEGUS. 

One  of  the  name-titles  of  Christ  is  Alphus  (D.  &  C.  95:17),  a  derivative  of  the  Greek  Alpha.  Use  of 
this  title  emphasizes  our  Lord's  high  status  of  godhood  in  pre-existence;  he  was  God  from  eternity;  by 
diligence  and  obedience,  while  yet  a  Spirit  Being,  he  became  "like  unto  God"  the  Father.  (Abra.  3:22-24.) 

Altars 

(Altars  ) 

See  SACRIFICES,  TEMPLES. 

In  the  days  when  sacrifices  were  required  as  part  of  true  divine  worship,  they  were  offered  on  raised 
earth  or  stone  structures  called  altars.  Noah  (Gen.  8:20),  Abraham  (Gen.  12:7),  and  Lehi  (1  Ne.  2:7),  for 
instance,  built  altars  and  offered  sacrifices  upon  them.  Altars  were  also  found  in  the  temples  and  perhaps 
in  other  holy  structures,  at  which  God  was  worshiped  (Alma  15:17),  and  where  the  faithful  came  "to  call 
on  his  name  and  confess  their  sins  before  him."  (Alma  17:4.)  Today,  as  anciently,  temples  contain  altars  at 
which  sacred  ordinances,  including  celestial  marriage,  are  performed.  John  saw  a  "golden  altar"  in  heaven 
before  the  tin-one  of  God.  (Rev.  6:9;  8:3;  9:13.) 

Amen 

(Amen  ) 

See  AHMAN,  CHRIST,  PRAYER. 

1 .  In  Hebrew  amen  means  tmly,  certainly,  faithfully;  in  English  it  means  so  be  it;  and  it  has  always 
had  a  distinctively  religious  usage.  Saying  amen  is  a  proper  means  of  making  solemn  affirmation  (Rev. 
1:18;  22:20);  it  is  an  utterance  used  in  confinning  agreements  (1  Kings  1:36);  prayers  and  sermons  are 
properly  so  ended  (Matt.  6:13);  those  who  hear  and  concur  in  prayers  and  sennons  should  add  their  own 
amen  (1  Cor.  14: 16);  indeed,  by  saying  amen  concurrence  is  given  to  any  worshipful  utterance,  sermon,  or 
solemn  declaration.  (D.  &  C.  88: 135;  Ps.  106:48;  Rev.  5:13-14;  19:4.)  There  are  about  a  score  of  instances 
in  which  the  tenn  is  found  in  the  Bible,  nearly  twice  that  many  in  the  Book  of  Mormon,  and  nearly  every 
revelation  in  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  is  so  closed. 

As  a  result  of  unrighteousness,  it  is  "Amen  to  the  priesthood"  of  a  man,  meaning  that  his  priesthood 
comes  to  an  end,  as  far  as  being  a  power  which  would  assure  the  bearer  of  eternal  life  is  concerned.  (D.  & 
C.  121:33-46.) 

2.  One  of  Chi'ist's  names  is  Amen  (Rev.  3:14),  a  title  given  to  show  that  it  is  in  and  thi'ough  him  that 
the  seal  of  divine  affinnation  is  placed  on  all  the  promises  of  the  Father. 

America 

(America  ) 

See  AMERICAN  INDIANS,  CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES,  INALIENABLE 
RIGHTS,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

America,  meaning  the  United  States  of  America,  is  the  Gentile  nation  established  on  the  Western 
Hemisphere  in  the  last  days  "by  the  power  of  the  Father,"  so  that  the  true  Church  might  be  set  up  and 
preserved  among  men.  The  American  nation  as  such  -  with  all  its  freedoms,  rights,  and  constitutional 


24 


guarantees  -  came  into  being  and  continues  to  exist  so  that  a  proper  religious  climate  would  prevail  for  the 
restoration  and  spread  of  the  gospel.  (3  Ne.  21.) 

American  Indians 

(American  Indians  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  MORMON,  JAREDITES,  JEWS,  MEDICINE  MEN,  MULEKITES,  NEPHITES 
AND  LAMANITES,  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL. 

When  Columbus  discovered  America,  the  native  inhabitants,  the  American  Indians  as  they  were  soon 
to  be  designated,  were  a  people  of  mixed  blood  and  origin.  Chiefly  they  were  Lamanites,  but  such 
remnants  of  the  Nephite  nation  as  had  not  been  destroyed  had,  of  course,  mingled  with  the  Lamanites.  (1 
Ne.  13:30;  2  Ne.  3:1-3;  9:53;  Alma  45:13-14;  D.  &  C.  3:16-19.)  Thus  the  Indians  were  Jews  by  nationality 
(D.  &  C.  57:4),  their  forefathers  having  come  out  from  Jerusalem,  from  the  kingdom  of  Judah.  (2  Ne. 
33:8-10.) 

Thus  also  they  were  of  the  House  of  Israel.  Lehi  was  of  the  tribe  of  Manasseh  (Alma  10:3),  Ishmael  of 
the  tribe  of  Ephraim,  and  Mulek  of  the  tribe  of  Judah.  (Hela.  8:20-22.)  We  have  no  knowledge  of  the  tribal 
affiliation  of  Zoram,  and  it  is  possible  that  other  tribes  may  have  been  represented  in  the  colony  that 
accompanied  Mulek.  It  was  primarily  the  tribes  of  Benjamin  and  Judah  which  made  up  the  kingdom  of 
Judah,  but  there  may  have  been  a  sprinkling  of  all  the  tribes  intenningled  with  them. 

The  American  Indians,  however,  as  Columbus  found  them  also  had  other  blood  than  that  of  Israel  in 
their  veins.  It  is  possible  that  isolated  remnants  of  the  Jaredites  may  have  lived  through  the  period  of 
destruction  in  which  millions  of  their  fellows  perished.  It  is  quite  apparent  that  groups  of  orientals  found 
their  way  over  the  Bering  Strait  and  gradually  moved  southward  to  mix  with  the  Indian  peoples.  We  have 
records  of  a  colony  of  Scandinavians  attempting  to  set  up  a  settlement  in  America  some  500  years  before 
Columbus.  There  are  archeological  indications  that  an  unspecified  number  of  groups  of  people  probably 
found  their  way  from  the  old  to  the  new  world  in  pre-Columbian  times.  Out  of  all  these  groups  would 
have  come  the  American  Indians  as  they  were  discovered  in  the  1 5th  century. 

Since  the  days  of  the  Spanish  conquests  and  colonizations  of  Mexico  and  South  America,  there  has 
been  farther  dilution  of  the  pure  Lamanitish  blood.  But  with  it  all,  for  the  great  majority  of  the 
descendants  of  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  Western  Hemisphere,  the  dominant  blood  lineage  is  that  of 
Israel.  The  Indians  are  repeatedly  called  Lamanites  in  the  revelations  to  the  Prophet,  and  the  promise  is 
that  in  due  course  they  "shall  blossom  as  the  rose"  (D.  &  C.  49:24),  that  is,  become  again  a  white  and 
delightsome  people  as  were  their  ancestors  a  great  many  generations  ago. 

Amusements 

(Amusements  ) 
See  RECREATION. 

Anarchy 

(Anarchy  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Anathema 

(Anathema  ) 

See  DAMNATION,  EXCOMMUNICATION. 

Anathema  is  a  Greek  word  meaning  accursed.  Hence,  a  person  or  thing  cursed  by  God  or  his  authority, 
as  for  instance  one  who  has  been  excommunicated,  is  anathema.  (Rom.  9:3.)  "Wo  unto  them  who  are  cut 
off  from  my  church,  for  the  same  are  overcome  of  the  world."  (D.  &  C.  50:8.) 

Paul's  statement,  "If  any  man  love  not  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  let  him  be  Anathema  Maranatha"  (1  Cor. 
16:22),  probably  means,  let  him  be  accursed  until  the  Lord  comes."  Maranatha,  an  Aramaic  word 
meaning,  O  our  Lord,  come,  appears  to  have  been  used  by  the  primitive  saints  as  a  watchword  or 
salutation  by  which  they  reminded  each  other  of  the  promised  second  Coming.  Paul's  statement,  "The 


25 


Lord  is  at  hand"  (Philip.  4:5),  and  Jolm's,  "Even  so,  come,  Lord  Jesus"  (Rev.  22:20),  carry  the  same  hope 
and  encouragement. 

Anathema  Maranatha 

(Anathema  Maranatha  ) 
See  ANATHEMA. 

Ancestors 

(Ancestors  ) 

See  GENEALOGICAL  RESEARCH. 

Ancient  of  Days 

(Ancient  of  Days  ) 

See  ADAM,  ADAM-GOD  THEORY,  ADAM-ONDI-AHMAN,  BIRTHRIGHT,  MICHAEL  THE 
ARCHANGEL,  PATRIARCHAL  ORDER. 

Having  particular  reference  to  his  position  as  the  patriarchal  head  of  the  human  family  -  the  first  man, 
"the  first  and  oldest  of  all,  the  great,  grand  progenitor"  -  Adam  is  known  as  the  Ancient  of  Days.  (D.  &  C. 
27:11;  Teachings,  pp.  157-159,  167-169.)  In  this  capacity  he  will  yet  sit  in  formal  judgment  upon  "ten 
thousand  times  ten  thousand"  of  his  posterity,  and  before  him  at  Adam-ondi-Ahman  will  be  brought  the 
Son  of  Man  to  receive  "dominion,  and  glory,  and  a  kingdom,  that  all  people,  nations,  and  languages, 
should  serve  him."  (Dan.  7:9-14.) 

Angel 

(Angel  ) 

See  CHRIST,  MESSENGER  OF  SALVATION,  MESSENGER  OF  THE  COVENANT. 

Our  Lord  is  called  The  Angel  by  Jacob  in  the  blessing  which  he  gave  to  Epliraim  and  Manasseh.  "God, 
before  whom  my  fathers  Abraham  and  Isaac  did  walk,  the  God  which  fed  me  all  my  life  long  unto  this 
day.  The  Angel  which  redeemed  me  from  all  evil,  bless  the  lads,"  he  said.  (Gen.  48:  15-16.)  The  Inspired 
Version  makes  no  change  in  this  statement,  although  a  number  of  other  matters  in  connection  with  the 
same  occurrences  are  changed  in  that  more  perfect  version.  Obviously  the  meaning  is  that  Christ  is  the 
Messenger  of  Salvation,  the  Messenger  of  the  Covenant  (Mai.  3:1),  the  One  carrying  out  his  Father's  will. 
(Moses  4:2.) 

It  may  be  that  the  King  James  translators  were  attempting  to  use  language  in  the  same  way  when  they 
recorded  the  experience  of  Moses  at  the  burning  bush  in  these  words:  "And  the  angel  of  the  Lord  appeared 
unto  him  in  a  flame  of  fire  out  of  the  midst  of  a  bush.  .  .  .  And  .  .  .  God  called  unto  him  out  of  the  midst  of 
the  bush,  and  said,  ...  I  am  the  God  of  thy  father,  the  God  of  Abraham,  the  God  of  Isaac,  and  the  God  of 
Jacob."  (Ex.  3:2-6.) 

It  was  not  an  angel  in  the  usual  sense  of  the  word  but  the  Lord  Jesus  who  appeared  to  Moses  in  the 
bush.  The  passage  is  more  meaningful  if  the  term  The  Angel  is  interpreted  in  the  same  sense  in  which 
Jacob  used  it.  In  this  instance  the  Inspired  Version  concurs  by  changing  the  account  to  read,  "The  presence 
of  the  Lord  appeared  unto  him,  in  a  flame  of  fire  in  the  midst  of  a  bush"  (Inspired  Version,  Ex.  3:2),  thus 
showing  that  what  the  King  James  Version  calls  The  Angel  is  The  Lord. 

Angel  of  Light 

(Angel  of  Light  ) 
See  DEVIL. 

Angel  of  the  Bottomless  Pit 

(Angel  of  the  Bottomless  Pit  ) 
See  BOTTOMLESS  PIT,  DEVIL. 


26 


John  used  this  expressive  language,  angel  of  the  bottomless  pit,  to  describe  Satan,  having  particular 
reference  to  his  status  as  the  king  of  hell,  the  ruling  authority  over  those  cast  into  the  pit  which  is  hell. 
(Rev.  9:11.) 

Angels 

(Angels  ) 

See  ANGEL,  ANGEL  OF  THE  BOTTOMLESS  PIT,  ANGLO-MAN,  ARCHANGELS,  GUARDIAN 
ANGELS,  KEYS  OF  THE  MINISTERING  OF  ANGELS,  MICHAEL  THE  ARCHANGEL, 
MMISTERING  OF  ANGELS,  PLURALITY  OF  GODS,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  RECORDING  ANGELS, 
RESURRECTION,  SERVANTS  OF  GOD,  SPIRIT  CHILDREN,  TRANSLATED  BEINGS. 

God's  messengers,  those  individuals  whom  he  sends  (often  from  his  personal  presence  in  the  eternal 
worlds),  to  deliver  his  messages  (Luke  1:11-38);  to  minister  to  his  children  (Acts  10: 1-8,  30-32);  to  teach 
them  the  doctrines  of  salvation  (Mosiah  3);  to  call  them  to  repentance  (Moro.  7:31);  to  give  them 
priesthood  and  keys  (D.  &  C.  13;  128:20-21);  to  save  them  in  perilous  circumstances  (1  Ne.  3:29-31;  Dan. 
6:22);  to  guide  them  in  the  performance  of  his  work  (Gen.  24:  7);  to  gather  his  elect  in  the  last  days  (Matt. 
24:31);  to  perform  all  needful  things  relative  to  his  work  (Moro.  7:29-33)  -  such  messengers  are  called 
angels. 

These  messengers,  agents,  angels  of  the  Almighty,  are  chosen  from  among  his  offspring  and  are 
themselves  pressing  forward  along  the  course  of  progression  and  salvation,  all  in  their  respective  spheres. 
The  following  types  of  beings  serve  the  Lord  as  angels: 

1 .  Pre-existent  Spirits.  -  Before  men  were  first  placed  on  this  earth,  there  was  war  in  heaven.  "Michael 
and  his  angel  fought  against  the  dragon;  and  the  dragon  fought  and  his  angels."  (Rev.  12:7.)  All  the  angels 
here  involved  were  the  spirit  children  of  the  Father.  The  angel  who  appeared  to  Adam,  the  first  man,  and 
asked  him  why  he  was  offering  sacrifices  apparently  was  one  of  these  spirits  from  pre-existence  (Moses 
5:6-8),  for  no  angels  minister  to  this  earth  except  those  who  belong  to  it  (D.  &  C.  130:5),  and  up  to  that 
time  no  one  had  been  either  translated  or  resurrected. 

2.  Translated  Beings.  -  Many  righteous  Persons  in  the  early  days  of  the  earth's  history  were  translated. 
(Inspired  Version,  Gen.  14:26-36.)  Enoch  and  the  whole  city  of  Zion  were  among  these.  (Moses  7:18-69.) 
These  translated  Personages  became  "ministering  angels  unto  many  planets."  (Teachings,  p.  170.)  Many 
of  the  angels  who  ministered  to  righteous  men  anciently,  without  question,  were  translated  beings.  The 
Three  Nephites,  after  their  translation,  became  "as  the  angels  of  God"  (3  Ne.  28:30),  and  have  continued  to 
minister  and  appear  unto  mortal  men  from  time  to  time.  John  the  Revelator  ministered  as  a  translated 
being  to  the  Prophet  and  Oliver  Cowdeiy  in  connection  with  the  restoration  of  the  Melchizedek 
Priesthood.  (D.  &  C.  7;  27:12-13.)  It  could  well  be  that  Paul  had  translated  beings  in  mind  when  he  said 
that  "some  have  entertained  angels  unawares."  (Heb.  13:2.) 

3.  Spirits  Of  Just  Men  Made  Perfect.  -  Part  of  the  "innumerable  company  of  angels"  in  "the  heavenly 
place"  are  the  "spirits  of  just  men  made  perfect."  (D.  &  C.  76:66-69;  Heb.  12:22-24)  These  are  the  spirits 
of  men  who  have  worked  out  their  salvation,  but  are  awaiting  the  day  of  the  resuiTcction.  (D.  &  C.  129.) 

4.  ResuiTccted  Personages.  -  Many  instances  of  ministration  by  resurrected  angels  have  occurred  since 
the  coming  forth  of  our  Lord  from  the  tomb.  (Matt.  27:52-53;  Hela.  14:25.)  These  angels,  having  bodies  of 
flesh  and  bones  (D.  &  C.  129),  have  played  an  indispensable  part  in  the  restoration  of  the  gospel.  Peter, 
James  (D.  &  C.  27:12-13;  128:  20),  John  the  Baptist  (D.  &  C.  13),  Moroni,  Michael,  Gabriel,  Raphael  (D. 
&  C.  128:20-21),  Moses,  Elijah,  and  Ellas  (D.  &  C.  110:11-16;  133:  54-55)  all  came  to  earth  as 
resurrected  personages  to  confer  their  keys,  powers,  and  authorities  again  upon  men.  Moses  and  Elijah, 
who  the  first  instance  had  been  translated,  "were  with  Clirist  in  his  resurrection."  (D.  &  C.  133:55.) 

It  is  of  these  angels,  and  others  of  like  righteousness,  that  the  revelation  says:  "Then  shall  the  angels  be 
crowned  with  the  glory  of  his  might,  and  the  saints  shall  be  filled  with  his  glory,  and  receive  their 
inheritance  and  be  made  equal  with  him"  (D.  &  C.  88:107),  meaning  that  these  worthy  saints  and  angels 
shall  receive  exaltation.  They  shall  be  gods.  But  those  angels  who  did  not  abide  in  the  ftilness  of  the 
gospel  law  shall,  after  their  resurrection,  continue  as  "angels  of  God  forever  and  ever."  Such  group  shall 
be  "ministering  servants,  to  minister  for  those  who  are  worthy  of  a  far  more,  and  an  exceeding,  and  an 
eternal  weight  of  glory."  (D.  &  C.  132:16-17.) 


27 


5.  Righteous  Mortal  Men.  -  Even  certain  righteous  mortal  men  are  called  angels  in  the  revelations.  The 
King  James  version  gives  an  account  of  "two  angels"  rescuing  Lot  from  Sodom.  In  the  account  these 
angels  are  called  "men"  and  the  wicked  inhabitants  of  Sodom  so  considered  them.  (Gen.  19.)  The  Inspired 
version  tells  us  that  actually  there  were  "three  angels,"  and  that  these  "angels  of  God"  in  reality  "were  holy 
men."  (Inspired  Version,  Gen.  19.) 

Also  in  the  King  James  version,  the  Lord  is  quoted  as  saying  such  things  as,  "Unto  the  angel  of  the 
church  of  Ephesus  write"  (Rev.  2:1)  such  and  such,  meaning  that  the  message  should  be  written  to  the 
bishop  or  presiding  elder,  such  individual  being  designated  as  an  angel.  (Rev.  2:8,  12,  18;  3:1,  7,  14.)  In 
the  Inspired  version  this  rather  unusual  usage  of  the  name  angel  is  changed  so  that  the  quotation  reads, 
"Unto  the  servant  of  the  church  of  Ephesus  write."  (Inspired  Version,  Rev.  2:1,  8,  12,  18;  3:1,  7,  14.)  This 
inspired  rendition  more  accurately  accords  with  the  manner  in  which  we  ordinarily  use  words  today. 

Angels  of  the  Devil 

(Angels  of  the  Devil  ) 
See  DEVILS. 

Angel's  Time 

(Angel's  Time  ) 
See  TIME. 

Anger 

(Anger  ) 

See  GNASHING  OF  TEETH,  INDIGNATION,  WRATH. 

As  with  nearly  all  strong  emotions  or  passions,  anger  is  manifest  both  in  righteousness  and  in 
unrighteousness.  Always  there  is  a  sense  of  displeasure  attending  it,  and  usually  this  is  accompanied  by  a 
feeling  of  antagonism,  excited  by  a  sense  of  injury  or  insult. 

Righteous  anger  is  an  attribute  of  Deity.  His  anger  is  everlastingly  kindled  against  the  wicked.  (D.  & 
C.  1:13;  5:8;  60:2;  63:11,  32;  84:24.)  Similarly,  an  inspired  man  might  speak  or  act  in  righteous  anger,  as 
when  Moses  broke  the  tablets  upon  which  the  Ten  Commandments  were  written,  or  as  when  our  Lord 
drove  the  money  changers  from  the  temple. 

But  where  man  is  concerned  there  is  peril  in  anger,  and  the  fear  is  ever  present  that  the  emotion  and 
passion  attending  it  will  be  exercised  in  unrighteousness.  "Can  ye  be  angry,  and  not  sin?"  Paul  asked. 
(Inspired  Version,  Eph.  4:26.)  "Whosoever  is  angry  with  his  brother  without  a  cause,"  our  Lord  said  in  the 
Sermon  on  the  Mount,  "shall  be  in  danger  of  the  judgment."  (Matt.  5:22.) 

Anglo-Man 

(Anglo-Man  ) 

See  AHMAN,  ANGELS. 

Because  angels  are  of  the  same  race  as  man  and  God,  it  is  with  perfect  logic  that  in  the  pure  language 
spoken  by  Adam,  they  were  designated  as  Anglo-man.  This  is  in  harmony  with  the  Adamic  designation  of 
God  as  Ahman,  of  the  Son  as  Son  Ahman,  and  of  men  generally  as  Sons  Airman. 

Anguish 

(Anguish  ) 

See  CONSCIENCE,  HELL,  REMORSE,  SORROW. 

Both  the  righteous  and  the  wicked  suffer  anguish  of  soul,  meaning  excruciating  distress  and  extreme 
pain  of  body  and  mind.  The  righteous  suffer  anguish  in  this  life  because  of  the  sins  and  rebellion  of  their 
brethren.  (1  Ne.  17:47;  2  Ne.  26:7;  Mosiah  25:11;  Alma  8:14;  Morni.  6:16.)  Christ  himself  suffered  until 
blood  came  from  every  pore,  so  great  was  "his  anguish  for  the  wickedness  and  the  abominations  of  his 
people."  (Mosiah  3:7.) 


28 


The  wicked  and  rebellious  may  suffer  some  anguish  of  conscience  in  this  life  (Alma  38:8;  D.  &  C. 
124:52),  but  the  great  penalty  for  their  rebellion  is  in  the  future.  Of  such  a  person,  King  Benjamin  said:  "If 
that  man  repenteth  not,  and  remaineth  and  dieth  an  enemy  to  God,  the  demands  of  divine  justice  do 
awaken  his  immortal  soul  to  a  lively  sense  of  his  own  guilt  which  doth  cause  him  to  shrink  from  the 
presence  of  the  Lord,  and  doth  fill  his  breast  with  guilt,  and  pain,  and  anguish,  which  is  like  an 
unquenchable  fire,  whose  flame  ascendeth  up  forever  and  ever."  (Mosiah  2:38;  Rom.  2:9.) 

Animal  Magnetism 

(Animal  Magnetism  ) 
See  SPIRITUALISM. 

Animals 

(Animals  ) 

See  CREATION,  EVOLUTION,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  RESURRECTION. 

Animals,  birds,  fowls,  fishes,  plants,  and  all  forais  of  life  occupy  an  assigned  sphere  and  play  an 
eternal  role  in  the  great  plan  of  creation,  redemption,  and  salvation.  They  were  all  created  as  spirit  entities 
in  pre-existence.  (Moses  3:1-9.)  When  first  placed  on  earth  in  the  Garden  of  Eden,  they  were  immortal. 
The  revealed  record,  speaking  of  the  edenic  day,  specifies:  "All  things  which  were  created  must  have 
remained  in  the  same  state  in  which  they  were  after  they  were  created;  and  they  must  have  remained 
forever,  and  had  no  end."  (2  Ne.  2:22.)  Such  would  have  been  the  continuing  condition  had  there  been  no 
fall  of  Adam,  but  Adam  and  all  forais  of  life  were  subject  to  the  fall  and  have  been  living  on  earth  in  their 
mortal  states  ever  since. 

At  the  Second  Coming,  when  the  earth  is  taken  back  to  its  edenic  state,  "every  corruptible  thing,  both 
of  man,  or  of  the  beasts  of  the  field,  or  of  the  fowls  of  the  heavens,  or  of  the  fish  of  the  sea,  that  dwells 
upon  all  the  face  of  the  earth,  shall  be  consumed.  .  .  .  And  in  that  day  the  enmity  of  man,  and  the  enmity  of 
beasts,  yea,  the  enmity  of  all  flesh,  shall  cease  from  before  my  face."  (D.  &  C.  101:24-26.)  Then  finally, 
all  these  forms  of  life  will  come  up  in  the  resurrection,  "in  their  destined  order  or  sphere  of  creation,  in  the 
enjoyment  of  their  eternal  felicity."  (D.  &  C.  77:3.) 

Animal  Sacrifices 

(Animal  Sacrifices  ) 
See  SACRIFICES. 

Annihilation 

(Annihilation  ) 

See  CREATION,  DEATH,  ELEMENTS,  SPIRIT  ELEMENT. 

There  is  no  such  thing  as  amiihilation,  no  such  thing  as  matter  or  element  of  any  sort  going  out  of 
existence.  The  elements  are  etemal;  they  may  be  organized  and  reorganized,  but  they  cannot  be  destroyed. 
(D.  &  C.  93:33;  Teachings,  pp.  350-352.) 

Annunciation 

(Annunciation  ) 

See  CHRIST,  MARY,  VIRGIN  BIRTH. 

Gabriel's  appearance  to  Mary  to  make  solemn  announcement  of  the  coming  birth  of  our  Lord  is 
referred  to  as  the  Annunciation.  (Luke  1:  26-38.) 

Anointed  One 

(Anointed  One  ) 

See  CHRIST,  MESSIAH. 


29 


Literally  interpreted  the  Hebrew  Messiah  means  Anointed  One,  and  accordingly  Christ  is  the  Anointed 
One.  (Ps.  2;  Acts  4:23-30.)  He  was  the  Anointed  of  the  Father  to  caiTy  the  eternal  truths  of  salvation  to  the 
living  and  the  dead.  (Isa.  61:1-3;  Luke  4:16-32;  Acts  10:38.) 

Anointings 

(Anointings  ) 

See  TEMPLE  ORDINANCES. 

Anointing  With  Oil 

(Anointing  With  Oil  ) 
See  ADMINISTRATIONS. 

Anthems 

(Anthems  ) 
See  Music. 

Anthropomorphic  God 

(Anthropomorphic  God  ) 
See  GOD. 

Strictly  speaking  anthropomorphism  is  the  conception  that  God  has  human  attributes  and 
characteristics;  hence,  people  who  profess  to  worship  a  personal  God  are  sometimes  said  to  believe  in  an 
anthropomorphic  God.  Actually,  of  course,  man  was  created  in  God's  image,  not  God  in  man's.  But  since 
man  is  the  inheritor  of  the  physical  form  and,  to  some  extent,  the  attributes  and  characteristics  of  Deity,  it 
follows  that  Deity  has  the  same  form  and  the  fulness  of  the  attributes  enjoyed  by  men,  and  so  in  a  rather 
inaccurate  sense  it  may  be  agreed  that  the  tme  God  is  an  anthropomorphic  Being. 

Anthropomorphism 

(Anthropomorphism  ) 

See  ANTHROPOMORPHIC  GOD. 

Antichrists 

(Antichrists  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHRIST,  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL,  DEVIL,  FALSE  CHRISTS,  MAN  OF  SIN. 

An  antichrist  is  an  opponent  of  Christ;  he  is  one  who  is  in  opposition  to  the  true  gospel,  the  true 
Church,  and  the  true  plan  of  salvation.  (1  John  2:19;  4:4-6.)  He  is  one  who  offers  salvation  to  men  on 
some  other  teims  than  those  laid  down  by  Christ.  Sherem  (Jac.  7:1-23),  Nehor  (Alma  1:2-16),  and  Korihor 
(Alma  30:6-60)  were  antichrists  who  spread  their  delusions  among  the  Nephites. 

"Many  deceivers  are  entered  into  the  world,  who  confess  not  that  Jesus  Christ  is  come  in  the  flesh. 
This  is  a  deceiver  and  an  antichrist."  (2  John  7.)  "Who  is  a  liar  but  he  that  denieth  that  Jesus  is  the  Christ?" 
John  asked.  "He  is  an  antichrist,  that  denieth  the  Father  and  the  Son."  (1  John  2:22.)  Though  many  modem 
day  religionists  profess  to  believe  in  Christ,  the  fact  is  they  do  not  accept  him  as  the  literal  Son  of  God  and 
have  not  turned  to  him  with  the  full  knowledge  and  devotion  necessary  to  gain  salvation.  "Whosoever 
receiveth  my  word  receiveth  me,"  he  said,  "and  whosoever  receiveth  me,  receiveth  those,  the  First 
Presidency,  whom  I  have  sent,  whom  I  have  made  counselors  for  my  name's  sake  unto  you."  (D.  &  C. 
112:20.) 

The  saints  in  the  meridian  of  time,  knowing  there  would  be  a  great  apostasy  between  their  day  and  the 
Second  Coming  of  our  Lord,  referred  to  the  great  apostate  church  as  the  anti-christ.  "Little  children,  it  is 
the  last  time,"  John  said,  "and  as  ye  have  heard  that  antichrist  shall  come,  even  now  are  there  many 
antichrists;  whereby  we  know  that  it  is  the  last  time."  (1  John  2:18.)  "And  every  spirit  that  confesseth  not 


30 


that  Jesus  Christ  is  come  in  the  flesh  is  not  of  God:  and  this  is  that  spirit  of  anticlirist,  whereof  ye  have 
heard  that  it  sliould  come;  and  even  now  already  is  it  in  the  world."  (1  John  4:3.)  This  great  antichrist 
which  is  to  stand  as  the  antagonist  of  Christ  in  the  last  days,  and  which  is  to  be  overthrown  when  he  comes 
to  cleanse  the  earth  and  usher  in  millennial  righteousness,  is  the  church  of  the  devil  (Rev.  13;  17),  with  the 
man  of  sin  at  its  head.  (2  Thess.  2:1-12.) 

Apocalypse 

(Apocalypse  ) 

See  BIBLE,  ESCHATOLOGY,  REVELATION. 

Anything  viewed  as  a  prophetic  revelation  is  an  apocalypse.  The  name  comes  from  a  Greek  word 
meaning  revelations;  the  book  of  Revelation  in  the  Bible  is  called  the  Apocalypse.  Much  apocalyptic 
literature  is  also  found  in  other  parts  of  the  Bible  as  well  as  in  all  of  the  standard  works  of  the  Church. 
Uninspired  scholars  theorize  that  apocalyptic  writings  are  attempts  on  the  part  of  the  prophets  to  escape 
from  reality,  to  hold  out  future  and  ethereal  hopes  of  better  things  to  people  who  are  presently  bound  down 
by  the  tumioil  and  strife  of  this  life.  Actually,  of  course,  these  so-called  apocalyptic  records  are  not  hidden 
from  the  understanding  of  those  who  have  the  same  spirit  of  revelation  which  rested  upon  the  original 
prophets.  (2  Pet.  1:20-21.)  They  are  part  of  the  Lord's  revelation  of  his  eternal  plan  of  salvation. 

Apocrypha 

(Apocrypha  ) 

See  BIBLE,  CANON  OF  SCRIPTURE,  INSPIRED  VERSION  OF  THE  BIBLE,  KING  JAMES 
VERSION  OF  THE  BIBLE,  LOST  SCRIPTURE,  NEW  TESTAMENT,  OLD  TESTAMENT, 
SCRIPTURE,  STANDARD  WORKS. 

Scholars  and  Biblical  students  have  grouped  certain  apparently  scriptural  Old  Testament  writings, 
which  they  deem  to  be  of  doubtful  authenticity  or  of  a  spurious  nature,  under  the  title  of  the  Apociypha. 
There  has  not  always  been  agreement  as  to  the  specific  writings  which  should  be  designated  as 
apocryphal,  but  the  following  are  now  generally  so  listed:  1st  and  2nd  Esdras  (sometimes  called  3rd  and 
4th  Esdras,  because  in  the  Douay  Bible,  Ezra  is  1  st  Esdras,  and  Nehemiah,  2nd  Esdras);  Tobit;  Judith;  the 
rest  of  the  chapters  of  Esther;  Wisdom  of  Solomon;  Wisdom  of  Jesus  the  Son  of  Sirach  or  Ecclesiasticus; 
Bamch  and  the  Epistle  of  Jeremiah;  additional  parts  of  Daniel,  including  the  Song  of  the  Three  Holy 
Children,  the  History  of  Susanna,  and  the  History  of  the  Destruction  of  Bel  and  the  Dragon;  Prayer  of 
Manasses;  1st  and  2nd  Maccabees  (called  in  the  Douay  Version,  1st  and  2nd  Maccabees). 

These  apocryphal  writings  were  never  included  in  the  Hebrew  Bible,  but  they  were  in  the  Greek 
Septuagint  (the  Old  Testament  used  by  the  early  apostles)  and  in  the  Latin  Vulgate.  Jerome,  who 
translated  the  Vulgate,  was  required  to  include  them  in  his  translation,  though  he  is  quoted  as  having 
decided  they  should  be  read  "for  example  of  life  and  instruction  of  manners"  and  should  not  be  used  "to 
establish  any  doctrine."  Luther's  German  Bible  grouped  the  apocryphal  books  together  (omitting  1st  and 
2nd  Esdras)  at  the  end  of  the  Old  Testament  under  the  heading:  "Apocrypha:  these  are  books  which  are 
not  held  equal  to  the  sacred  scriptures,  and  yet  are  useful  and  good  for  reading." 

The  Apocrypha  was  included  in  the  King  James  version  of  1611,  but  by  1629  some  English  Bibles 
began  to  appear  without  it,  and  since  the  early  part  of  the  19th  century  it  has  been  excluded  from  almost 
all  protestant  Bibles.  The  American  Bible  Society,  founded  in  1816,  has  never  printed  the  Apocrypha  in  its 
Bibles,  and  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society  has  excluded  it  from  all  but  some  pulpit  Bibles  since 
1827. 

From  these  dates  it  is  apparent  that  controversy  was  still  raging  as  to  the  value  of  the  Apocrypha  at  the 
time  the  Prophet  began  his  ministry.  Accordingly,  in  1833,  while  engaged  in  revising  the  King  James 
version  by  the  spirit  of  revelation,  the  Prophet  felt  impelled  to  inquire  of  the  Lord  as  to  the  authenticity  of 
the  Apocrypha.  From  the  answer  it  is  clear  that  the  books  of  the  Apocrypha  were  inspired  writings  in  the 
first  instance,  but  that  subsequent  interpolations  and  changes  had  perverted  and  twisted  their  original 
contexts  so  as  to  leave  them  with  doubtful  value. 

Speaking  of  the  Apocrypha  the  Lord  says:  "There  are  many  things  contained  therein  that  are  true,  and 
it  is  mostly  translated  correctly;  There  are  many  things  contained  therein  that  are  not  true,  which  are 
interpolations  by  the  hands  of  men.  Verily,  1  say  unto  you,  that  it  is  not  needful  that  the  Apocrypha  should 


31 


be  translated.  Therefore,  whoso  readeth  it,  let  him  understand,  for  the  Spirit  manifesteth  truth;  And  whoso 
is  enlightened  by  the  Spirit  shall  obtain  benefit  therefrom;  And  whoso  receiveth  not  by  the  Spirit,  cannot 
be  benefited.  Therefore  it  is  not  needful  that  it  should  be  translated."  (D.  &  C.  91.) 

There  are  certain  Oriental  Christian  churches  which  have  in  their  Bibles  or  other  ecclesiastical 
literature  some  added  apocryphal  writings  of  Jewish  origin.  These  books  are  supposed  to  have  been 
written  between  200  B.C.  and  100  A.D.  Those  written  in  Hebrew  are:  Testaments  of  the  Twelve 
Patriarchs,  Psalms  of  Solomon,  Lives  of  the  Prophets.  Those  written  in  Ai'amaic  are:  Jubilees,  Testament 
of  Job,  Enoch,  Martyrdom  of  Isaiah,  Paralipomena  of  Jeremiah,  Life  of  Adam  and  Eve,  Assumption  of 
Moses,  Syriac  Baruch,  Apocalypse  of  Abraham.  Those  written  in  Greek  are:  Letter  of  Aristeas,  Sibylline 
Oracles  three,  four,  and  five;  3rd  and  4th  Maccabees,  Slavic  Enoch,  Greek  Baruch. 

Obviously,  to  gain  any  real  value  from  a  study  of  apocryphal  writings,  the  student  must  first  have  an 
extended  background  of  gospel  knowledge,  a  comprehensive  understanding  of  the  standard  works  of  the 
Church,  plus  the  guidance  of  the  Spirit. 

ApoUyon 

(Apollyon  ) 

See  ABADDON,  DESTROYER,  DEVIL. 

This  is  one  of  the  names  of  Satan.  It  is  of  Greek  origin  and  means  literally  the  Destroyer.  Abaddon  is 
the  Hebrew  equivalent.  (Rev.  9:1 1.) 

Apostasy 

(Apostasy  ) 

See  ABOMINATIONS,  AGNOSTICISM,  ANATHEMA,  ANTICHRISTS,  ATHEISM, 
BLASPHEMY,  BROAD-MINDEDNESS,  CARD  PLAYING,  CELIBACY,  CHRISTENDOM, 
CHRISTENING,  CHRISTLA.NITY,  CHRISTMAS,  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL,  CLINIC  BAPTISMS, 
CREEDS,  DAMNATION,  DARK  AGES,  DARKNESS,  DEVIL,  DOCTRINE,  EASTER,  EUCHARIST, 
EVOLUTION,  EXCOMMUNICATION,  EXTREME  UNCTION,  FALLEN  MAN,  FALSE  CHRISTS, 
FALSE  GODS,  GAMBLING,  GNOSTICISM,  GOD  AS  A  SPIRIT,  GOSPEL,  GOSPEL  HOBBIES, 
GOVERNMENT  OF  GOD,  HELL,  HERESY,  IDOLATRY,  IGNORANCE,  INFANT  BAPTISM, 
INQUISITIONS,  KINGCRAFT,  MAN  OF  SIN,  MINISTERIAL  TITLES,  MURDERERS, 
MYTHOLOGY,  OBEDIENCE,  PERSECUTION,  PHILOSOPHY,  POLYTHEISM,  PRIESTCRAFT, 
PROFANITY,  REBELLION,  RELIGIOUS  SYNCRETISM,  REORGANIZED  CHURCH  OF  JESUS 
CHRIST  OF  LATTER  DAY  SAINTS,  RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  RIGHTEOUSNESS, 
SCATTERING  OF  ISRAEL,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST,  SECRET  COMBINATIONS,  SEX 
IMMORALITY,  SHRINES,  SIGN  OF  THE  CROSS,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  SIN,  SONS  OF 
PERDITION,  SORCERY,  SPIRITUALISM,  TELESTLA.L  LAW,  TEMPTATION,  UNKNOWN  GOD, 
WAR,  WICKEDNESS,  WITCHCRAFT,  WORSHIP  OF  IMAGES. 

From  Adam  to  the  present,  the  whole  history  of  the  world  has  been  one  recurring  instance  of  personal 
and  group  apostasy  after  another.  To  Adam  the  Lord  gave  the  true  gospel  and  the  tme  government  so  that 
all  matters  pertaining  to  this  mortal  sphere  could  be  governed  and  aiTanged  in  haraiony  with  the  order  of 
heaven.  Apostasy  consists  in  the  abandonment  and  forsaking  of  these  true  principles,  and  all  those  who  do 
not  believe  and  conform  to  them  are  in  a  apostate  condition,  whether  they  are  the  ones  who  departed  from 
the  truth  or  whether  they  inherited  their  false  concepts  from  their  apostate  fathers. 

Apostate  peoples  were  swept  off  the  earth  by  the  universal  flood  in  Noah's  day,  but  immediately  the 
process  of  apostatizing  began  again,  and  soon  there  were  apostate  individuals,  groups,  peoples,  nations, 
and  religions.  The  Lord's  handdealings  with  men  have  always  been  designed  to  keep  the  faithful  from  the 
treason  of  apostasy  and  to  encourage  those  who  do  not  have  the  fulness  of  truth  to  come  to  the  light  and 
reap  the  blessings  of  obedience. 

Blessings  have  always  attended  conformity  to  true  principles,  while  cursings  have  been  the  fruit  of 
apostasy.  The  scattering  of  Israel,  for  example,  took  place  because  that  people  forsook  their  God  and  the 
true  principles  he  had  revealed  to  them.  Their  gathering  takes  place  as  they  return  to  him  and  begin  to  live 
his  laws.  (Jer.  16:10-21.) 


32 


In  the  meridian  of  time  our  Lord  personally  restored  his  gospel  and,  through  the  ministry  of  his 
apostolic  witnesses,  offered  its  saving  truths  to  all  men.  (Mark  1:14-15;  16:14-18.)  He  did  not,  however, 
restore  the  true  order  of  political  government;  that  was  reserved  for  a  fliture  millennial  era.  (Acts  1:6-8.) 
Consequently  men  remained  in  subjection  to  man-made  governments,  but  had  the  opportunity  to  accept 
the  saving  truths  of  pure  religion.  The  great  apostasy  which  is  of  importance  and  concern  to  men  in  this 
day  is  the  one  which  took  place  when  men  departed  from  the  pure  Christianity  which  was  restored  in  the 
meridian  of  time. 

This  universal  apostasy  began  in  the  days  of  the  ancient  apostles  themselves  (2  Pet.  2:1-2);  and  it  was 
known  to  and  foretold  by  them.  Paul  recorded  specifically  that  the  Second  Coming  would  not  be  until  this 
great  falling  away  took  place.  (2  Thess.  2:1-12.)  He  warned  of  the  "perilous  times"  that  should  come  "in 
the  last  days";  times  when  men  would  have  "a  form  of  godliness,"  but  would  deny  "the  power  thereof; 
times  when  they  would  be  "Ever  learning,  and  never  able  to  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  truth"  (2  Tim. 
3:1-7);  times  in  which  they  would  be  turned  "from  the  truth  .  .  .  unto  fables."  (2  Tim.  4:1-4.)  Our  Lord 
foretold  the  perplexities,  calamities,  and  apostate  wickedness  of  these  same  days.  (Matt.  24;  Mark  13; 
Luke  21.) 

With  the  loss  of  the  gospel,  the  nations  of  the  earth  went  into  a  moral  eclipse  called  the  Dark  Ages. 
Apostasy  was  universal.  "Darkness  covereth  the  earth,  and  gross  darkness  the  minds  of  the  people,  and  all 
flesh  has  become  corrupt  before  my  face."  (D.  &  C.  1 12:23.)  And  this  darkness  still  prevails  except  among 
those  who  have  come  to  a  knowledge  of  the  restored  gospel.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  265-326.) 

No  better  descriptions  are  to  be  found  of  the  conditions  of  false  latter-day  churches  than  those 
recorded  prophetically  by  Nephite  prophets.  Nephi  said:  "In  the  last  days,  or  in  the  days  of  the  Gentiles  - 
yea,  behold  all  the  nations  of  the  Gentiles  and  also  the  Jews,  both  those  who  shall  come  upon  this  land  and 
those  who  shall  be  upon  other  lands,  yea,  even  upon  all  the  lands  of  the  earth,  behold,  they  will  be  drunken 
with  iniquity  and  all  manner  of  abominations."  (2  Ne.  27:1.)  He  spoke  in  detail  of  the  many  churches;  of 
their  pride,  worldly  learning,  and  denial  of  miracles;  of  their  "envyings,  and  strifes,  and  malice";  of  the 
secret  combinations  of  the  devil  which  commit  murders  and  iniquities;  of  their  priestcrafts  and  iniquities 
(2  Ne.  26:20-29);  of  the  ministers  who  "shall  teach  with  their  learning,  and  deny  the  Holy  Ghost,  which 
giveth  utterance"'  and  of  their  "false  and  vain  and  foolish  doctrines."  (2  Ne.  28.) 

Moroni  described  the  direful  apostasy  that  would  prevail  in  the  day  of  the  coming  forth  of  the  Book  of 
Mormon.  That  volume  "shall  come  in  a  day,"  he  said,  "when  the  power  of  God  shall  be  denied,  and 
churches  become  defiled  and  be  lifted  up  in  the  pride  of  their  hearts;  yea,  even  in  a  day  when  leaders  of 
churches  and  teachers  shall  rise  in  the  pride  of  their  hearts,  even  to  the  envying  of  them  who  belong  to 
their  churches.  .  .  .  Yea,  it  shall  come  in  a  day  when  there  shall  be  great  pollutions  upon  the  face  of  the 
earth;  there  shall  be  murders,  and  robbing,  and  lying,  and  deceivings,  and  whoredoms,  and  all  manner  of 
abominations;  when  there  shall  be  many  who  will  say.  Do  this,  or  do  that,  and  it  mattereth  not,  for  the 
Lord  will  uphold  such  at  the  last  day.  But  wo  unto  such,  for  they  are  in  the  gall  of  bitterness  and  in  the 
bonds  of  iniquity.  Yea,  it  shall  come  in  a  day  when  there  shall  be  churches  built  up  that  shall  say:  Come 
unto  me,  and  for  your  money  you  shall  be  forgiven  of  your  sins. 

"O  ye  wicked  and  perverse  and  stiffnecked  people,  why  have  ye  built  up  churches  unto  yourselves  to 
get  gain?  Why  have  ye  transfigured  the  holy  word  of  God,  that  ye  might  bring  damnation  upon  your 
souls?  Your  churches,  yea,  even  every  one,  have  become  polluted  because  of  the  pride  of  your  hearts.  For 
behold,  ye  do  love  money,  and  your  substance  and  your  fine  apparel,  and  the  adorning  of  your  churches, 
more  than  ye  love  the  poor  and  the  needy,  the  sick  and  the  afflicted.  O  ye  pollutions,  ye  hypocrites,  ye 
teachers,  who  sell  yourselves  for  that  which  will  canker,  why  have  ye  polluted  the  holy  church  of  God? 
Why  are  ye  ashamed  to  take  upon  you  the  name  of  Christ?  Why  do  ye  not  think  that  gi'eater  is  the  value  of 
an  endless  happiness  than  that  misery  which  never  dies  -  because  of  the  praise  of  the  world?  Why  do  ye 
adorn  yourselves  with  that  which  hath  no  life,  and  yet  suffer  the  hungry,  and  the  needy,  and  the  naked,  and 
the  sick  and  the  afflicted  to  pass  by  you,  and  notice  them  not?  Yea,  why  do  ye  build  up  your  secret 
abominations  to  get  gain,  and  cause  that  widows  should  mourn  before  the  Lord,  and  also  orphans  to  mourn 
before  the  Lord,  and  also  the  blood  of  their  fathers  and  their  husbands  to  cry  unto  the  Lord  from  the 
ground  for  vengeance  upon  your  heads?"  (Morm.  8:28-41.) 

To  the  extent  that  worldliness  false  doctrine,  and  iniquity  are  found  among  the  saints,  they  too  partake 
of  the  spirit  of  the  great  apostasy.  Speaking  of  men  in  the  last  days  Nephi  said:  "They  have  all  gone  astray 
save  it  be  a  few,  who  are  the  humble  followers  of  Christ;  nevertheless,  they  are  led,  that  in  many  instances 
they  do  err  because  they  are  taught  by  the  precepts  of  men."  (2  Ne.  28:14.)  It  follows  that  if  members  of 
the  Church  believe  false  doctrines;  if  they  accept  false  educational  theories;  if  they  fall  into  the  practices 


33 


and  abominations  of  the  sectarians;  if  they  use  tea,  coffee,  tobacco  or  liquor;  if  they  fail  to  pay  an  honest 
tithing;  if  they  find  fault  with  the  Lord's  anointed;  if  they  play  cards;  if  they  do  anything  contrary  to  the 
standards  of  personal  righteousness  required  by  the  gospel  -  then  to  that  extent  they  are  in  personal 
apostasy  and  need  to  repent. 

Since  truth  is  always  in  harmony  with  itself,  and  since  all  true  saints  "speak  the  same  thing,"  have  "no 
divisions"  among  them,  and  are  "perfectly  joined  together  in  the  same  mind  and  in  the  same  judgment"  (1 
Cor.  1:10-13),  it  follows  that  where  there  are  divisions  and  contention  there  apostasy  is  present. 

If  modem  churches  do  not  confomi  to  the  New  Testament  pattern  of  the  true  Church,  then  the  non- 
conforming organizations  are  apostate.  This  simple  test  of  the  authenticity  of  any  church  claiming  to  be 
the  Lord's  may  be  made  by  finding  answer  to  such  questions  as:  Where  is  there  a  church  that  has 
(according  to  the  New  Testament  pattern)  some  combination  of  the  names  of  Christ  as  its  name?  Where  is 
there  a  church  claiming  to  have  priesthood  of  both  the  Aaronic  and  Melchizedek  orders,  as  set  forth  in  the 
New  Testament?  Where  are  there  apostles,  prophets,  seventies,  and  all  the  officers  put  in  the  Church  by 
our  Lord?  Where  do  we  find  all  of  the  gospel  ordinances,  among  others  -  baptism  for  the  dead,  the  laying 
on  of  hands  for  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  administering  to  the  sick? 

Where  are  the  true  New  Testament  doctrines  taught:  That  the  plan  of  salvation  consists  in  faith, 
repentance,  baptism,  gaining  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  enduring  in  good  works  to  the  end;  that  there 
are  degrees  of  glory  in  the  eternal  worlds;  that  the  gospel  is  preached  in  the  spirit  world;  that  there  was  to 
be  a  universal  apostasy,  followed  by  an  era  of  restoration;  that  the  gospel  was  to  be  returned  to  earth  by 
angelic  ministration;  that  Israel  was  to  be  gathered  in  a  day  subsequent  to  New  Testament  times;  and  so 
forth?  Where  are  all  these  New  Testament  doctrines  taught?  And  above  all,  where  are  the  gifts  of  the 
Spirit,  the  signs,  visions,  miracles,  and  marvelous  works  that,  without  respect  of  persons,  "shall  follow 
them  that  believe"?  (Mark  16: 17.)  For  those  who  are  honest  and  sincere  in  their  search,  it  is  not  difficult  to 
find  out  whether  there  has  been  a  imiversal  apostasy,  and  if  so,  where  the  truth  is  today. 

Apostate  Cults 

(Apostate  Cults  ) 
See  SECTS. 

Apostates 

(Apostates  ) 
See  APOSTASY. 

Apostle 

(Apostle  ) 

See  APOSTLES,  CHRIST. 

Christ  is  the  great  Apostle  of  the  Church.  (Heb.  3:1.)  This  means,  not  that  he  held  the  ordained  office 
of  apostle  in  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood,  but  that  he  himself  stands  as  a  special  witness  of  his  own  divine 
mission.  "I  am  the  Son  of  God"  is  the  witness  he  bears  of  himself  (John  10:36;  D.  &  C.  45:52.) 

Apostles 

(Apostles  ) 

See  APOSTOLIC  FATHERS,  APOSTOLIC  SUCCESSION,  DISCIPLES,  JUDGES, 
MELCHIZEDEK  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES,  PROPHETS, 
TESTIMONY. 

1 .  An  apostle  is  a  Special  witness  of  the  name  of  Christ  who  is  sent  to  teach  the  principles  of  salvation 
to  others.  He  is  one  who  knows  of  the  divinity  of  the  Savior  by  personal  revelation  and  who  is  appointed 
to  bear  testimony  to  the  world  of  what  the  Lord  has  revealed  to  him.  Every  elder  in  the  Church  is  or 
should  be  an  apostle;  that  is,  as  a  minister  of  the  Lord  and  as  a  recipient  of  personal  revelation  from  the 
Holy  Ghost,  every  elder  has  the  call  to  bear  witness  of  the  truth  on  all  proper  occasions.  Indeed,  every 


34 


member  of  the  Church  should  have  apostoHc  insight  and  revelation,  and  is  under  obligation  to  raise  the 
warning  voice.  (D.  &  C.  88:81;  Mosiah  18:9.) 

In  September,  1832,  (nearly  two  and  a  half  years  before  there  were  any  ordained  apostles  in  the 
Church)  the  Lord  said  to  certain  missionaries:  "You  are  mine  apostles,  even  God's  high  priests."  (D.  &  C. 
84:63-64)  In  fact,  Joseph  Smith  became  an  apostle  in  the  spring  of  1820,  as  a  result  of  the  First  Vision, 
even  before  priesthood  was  conferred  upon  him  through  the  ministration  of  Peter,  James,  and  John;  and 
after  the  Church  was  established,  the  Lord  ordained  (meaning  decreed)  that  he  continue  to  serve  in  this 
high  apostolic  station.  (D.  &  C.  20:1-4;  21:1;  27:12;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  144-149.) 

Men  are  saved  by  giving  heed  to  the  words  of  the  prophets  and  apostles  sent  among  them  and  are 
damned  for  failure  to  heed  the  inspired  testimony.  (D.  &  C.  1:14.)  And  as  with  nearly  all  things,  the  devil 
offers  a  spurious  substitute  to  deceive  men.  These  "are  false  apostles,  deceitful  workers,  transforaiing 
themselves  into  the  apostles  of  Christ."  (2  Cor.  11:13.)  But  faithfiil  members  of  the  Church  have  the 
assurance  that  they  shall  sit  in  judgment,  "And  liars  and  hypocrites  shall  be  proved  by  them,  and  they  who 
are  not  apostles  and  prophets  shall  be  known."  (D.  &  C.  64:37-39;  Rev.  2:2.) 

2.  In  the  ordained  sense,  an  apostle  is  one  who  is  ordained  to  the  office 

of  apostle  in  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood.  Ordinarily  those  so  ordained  are  also  set  apart  as  members 
of  the  Council  of  the  Twelve  and  are  given  all  of  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  of  God  on  earth.  This 
apostleship  caiTies  the  responsibility  of  proclaiming  the  gospel  in  all  the  world  and  also  of  ministering  the 
affairs  of  the  Church.  Christ  "chose  twelve,  whom  also  he  named  apostles"  (Luke  6:13)  and  upon  their 
shoulders  the  burden  of  the  kingdom  rested  after  he  ascended  to  his  Father.  (1  Cor.  12:28.)  The  original 
Twelve  in  latter  days  were  selected  by  revelation  by  the  Three  Witnesses  to  the  Book  of  Mormon.  (D.  & 
C.  18:26-47) 

The  Twelve  disciples  among  the  Nephites  ministered  in  an  ordained  apostolic  capacity.  (3  Ne.  18;  19; 
27;  28.)  In  writing  about  the  Book  of  Mormon,  the  Prophet  said  that  it  "tells  us  that  our  Savior  made  his 
appearance  upon  this  continent  after  his  resurrection;  that  he  planted  the  gospel  here  in  all  its  fulness,  and 
richness,  and  power,  and  blessing;  that  they  had  apostles,  prophet,  pastors  teachers,  and  evangelists;  the 
same  order,  the  same  priesthood  the  same  ordinances,  gifts,  powers,  and  blessings  as  were  enjoyed  on  the 
eastern  continent."  (History  of  the  Church,  vol.  4,  p.  538.) 

Apostles  Creed 

(Apostles  Creed  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  ATHANASIAN  CREED,  CREEDS,  NICENE  CREED. 

According  to  tradition  -  the  source  of  authority  for  so  many  false  doctrinal  and  historical  conclusions 
for  which  there  is  neither  evidence  nor  proof  -  this  creed  dates  back  to  apostolic  times.  The  legend  is  that  it 
was  formulated  by  the  Twelve  Apostles  "on  the  day  of  Pentecost,  while  still  under  the  direct  inspiration  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,"  each  of  the  group  contributing  to  the  final  result.  As  to  the  actual  origin  of  the  creed, 
however,  some  Catholic  historians  trace  it  to  a  baptismal  confession  in  use  in  Southern  Gaul  not  earlier 
than  the  latter  part  of  the  5th  century.  Others  claim  to  find  indications  that  an  older  form  of  the  creed  was 
in  use  in  Rome  as  early  as  the  middle  of  the  2nd  century. 

The  creed  professes  to  recite  briefly  "the  fiindamental  tenets  of  Christian  belief."  There  have  been 
many  versions  in  many  places,  all  differing  somewhat  from  each  other.  (Catholic  Encyclopedia,  vol.  1,  pp. 
629-632.)  The  modem  version,  as  published  in  Catholic  manuals  of  devotion  is: 

"I  believe  in  God,  the  Father  Almighty,  Creator  of  heaven  and  earth;  and  in  Jesus  Christ,  His  only  Son, 
our  Lord,  who  was  conceived  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  bom  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  suffered  under  Pontius  Pilate, 
was  cmcified,  died,  and  was  buried.  He  descended  into  hell;  the  third  day  He  rose  again  from  the  dead;  He 
ascended  into  heaven,  sitteth  at  the  right  hand  of  God,  the  Father  Almighty;  ftom  thence  He  shall  coine  to 
judge  the  living  and  the  dead.  I  believe  in  the  Holy  Ghost;  the  Holy  Catholic  Church;  the  coimnunion  of 
Saints;  the  forgiveness  of  sins;  the  resurrection  of  the  body;  the  life  everlasting.  Amen." 

Apostleship 

(Apostleship  ) 
See  APOSTLES. 


35 


Apostolic  Dispensation 

(Apostolic  Dispensation  ) 
See  DISPENSATIONS. 

Apostolic  Fathers 

(Apostolic  Fathers  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  APOSTLES,  APOSTOLIC  SUCCESSION,  SCRIPTURE,  STANDARD  WORKS. 

Those  religious  writers  who  followed  closely  on  the  heels  of  the  early  apostles  are  called  the  apostolic 
fathers.  They  did  not  write  by  way  of  revelation  or  coimnandment,  as  the  apostles  did,  and  their  writings 
are  not  scripture.  But  because  they  had  opportunity  to  record  their  views  on  church  government, 
organization,  and  doctrine  in  a  day  when  the  apostasy  was  not  yet  complete,  such  views  are  of  real  value 
in  the  study  of  primitive  Christianity. 

"In  addition  to  the  New  Testament  books,  a  certain  number  of  writings  of  the  first  two  hundred  years 
of  the  Christian  Era  of  authors  who  had  known  the  apostles,  the  'Church  Fathers,'  have  survived.  They 
include  (1)  The  Letter  of  Clement  of  Rome,  anonymous,  but  attributed  to  Clement,  written  about  96  A.D.; 
(2)  The  Letters  of  Ignatius  of  Antioch,  martyred,  according  to  Eusebius,  108  A.D..  in  Rome;  (3)  The 
Teachings  of  the  Twelve  or  the  Didache,  anonymous  discovered  by  Bryennios  in  1875  in  the  Patriarchal 
Library  of  Jerusalem  at  Constantinople;  (4)  The  Letter  of  Barnabas,  really  anonymous,  written  probably 
during  the  first  century;  (5)  The  Letter  of  polycarp,  martyred,  according  to  Eusebius,  in  166-167  A.D.;  (6) 
The  Shepherd  of  Hermas,  written  by  Hennas,  brother  of  Pius  who  was  bishop  of  Rome  about  148  A.D.; 
and  (7)  Fragments  of  Papias. 

"The  difference  in  value  between  the  books  of  the  New  Testament  and  the  writings  of  the  Apostolic 
Fathers  is  very  striking.  It  is  difficult  to  understand  how  so  great  a  change  could  have  occurred  in  so  short 
a  time.  'Until  the  death  of  the  Apostles  the  deposit  of  revelation  was  progressively  enriched,  as  Saint  Paul 
writes:  "the  mystery  of  Christ  has  not  been  made  known  in  other  ages  to  the  sons  of  man  so  clearly  as  it 
has  now  been  revealed  to  the  holy  apostles  and  prophets  (Eph.  3:45)";  after  the  death  of  the  apostles,  no 
new  enrichment  will  be  made.'  (Lebreton  et  Zeiller  (Catholique),  L'Eglise  primitive,  p.  321.)"  (James  L. 
Barker,  Protestors  of  Christendom,  pp.  23-24.) 

Apostolic  Letters 

(Apostolic  Letters  ) 
See  EPISTLES. 

Apostolic  Succession 

(Apostolic  Succession  ) 

See  APOSTLES,  APOSTOLIC  FATHERS,  ASSISTANT  PRESIDENT  OF  THE  CHURCH,  FIRST 
PRESIDENCY,  KEYS  OF  THE  KINGDOM. 

Every  apostle  who  is  set  apart  as  a  member  of  the  Council  or  Quorum  of  the  Twelve  is  given  the  keys 
of  the  kingdom.  (D.  &  C.  1 12: 14-32;  Discourses  of  Wilford  Woodruff,  pp.  71-77.)  Since  keys  are  the  right 
of  presidency  and  the  kingdom  of  God  on  earth  is  the  Church,  it  follows  that  each  apostle  so  set  apart 
receives  the  inherent  power  and  authority  to  preside  over  the  Church  and  direct  all  of  its  affairs.  The 
fulness  of  these  keys  can  be  exercised  only  in  the  event  an  apostle  becomes  the  senior  apostle  of  God  on 
earth,  for  unless  he  does  there  will  always  be  someone  above  him  to  direct  his  labors.  The  senior  apostle  is 
always  chosen  and  set  apart  as  the  President  of  the  Church,  and  through  this  system  of  apostolic 
succession,  the  Lord  has  made  provision  for  the  continuation  and  preservation  of  his  kingdom  on  earth. 
(Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  144-159.) 

The  quomm  of  the  First  Presidency  is  the  supreme  governing  body  of  the  Church,  but  the  Twelve  form 
a  quorum  "equal  in  authority  and  power"  to  them,  meaning  that  when  there  is  no  First  Presidency  of  three 
men,  then  the  Twelve  become  the  First  Presidency  in  that  they  can  then  exercise  all  of  the  power  and 
authority  previously  reserved  to  the  Presidency.  In  the  same  sense  the  Seventy  (meaning  the  first  quorum 


36 


of  the  Seventy,  a  body  of  70  men)  form  a  quoram  equal  in  authority  to  that  of  the  Council  of  the  Twelve. 
(D.  &  C.  107:22-30.) 

"The  duty  of  the  Twelve  Apostles  of  the  Church,"  President  Joseph  F.  Sinith  said,  "is  to  preach  the 
gospel  to  the  world,  to  send  it  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth  and  to  bear  testimony  of  Jesus  Christ  the  Son 
of  God,  as  living  witnesses  of  his  divine  mission.  That  is  their  special  calling,  and  they  are  always  under 
the  direction  of  the  Presidency  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  when  that  presidency  is 
intact,  and  there  is  never  at  the  same  time  two  equal  heads  in  the  Church  -  never.  The  Lord  never  ordained 
any  such  thing,  nor  designed  it.  There  is  always  a  head  in  the  Church,  and  if  the  Presidency  of  the  Church 
are  removed  by  death  or  other  cause,  then  the  next  head  of  the  Church  is  the  Twelve  Apostles,  until  a 
Presidency  is  again  organized  of  three  presiding  high  priests  who  have  the  right  to  hold  the  office  of  First 
Presidency  over  the  Church."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp.  177-178.) 

Apostolic  succession  was  also  the  Church  order  in  the  meridian  of  time.  The  New  Testament  records, 
however,  are  so  fragmentary  that  we  cannot  trace  the  events  in  detail  which  transpired  in  that  day.  But 
enough  has  been  preserved  to  give  a  reasonably  clear  picture  of  what  took  place.  Our  Lord  called  and 
ordained  the  original  Twelve,  giving  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  to  each  member  of  the  quorum.  (Matt. 
16:19;  18:18;  John  15:16.)  Paul  taught  plainly  that  the  apostles  were  to  continue  in  the  true  Church  until 
the  millennial  era,  that  age  in  which  all  men  will  be  converted  and  in  which  the  necessity  will  no  longer 
exist  for  sending  the  gospel  message  to  the  world.  (Eph.  4:11-16;  Jer.  31:31  -34.) 

Matthias  replaced  Judas  in  the  Council  of  the  Twelve.  (Acts  1:15-16.)  "Paul  was  an  ordained  apostle, 
and  without  question  he  took  the  place  of  one  of  the  other  brethren  in  that  Council."  (Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  3,  p.  153;  1  Tim.  2:7;  2  Tim.  1:11;  Tit.  1:1.)  Barnabas  (Acts  14:14)  and  "James  the  Lord's 
brother"  (Gal.  1:19),  neither  of  whom  were  numbered  among  the  original  Twelve,  are  also  named 
apostles. 

With  the  coming  of  the  great  apostasy,  vacancies  no  longer  were  filled  in  the  Council  of  the  Twelve, 
and  when  the  last  apostle  ceased  to  minister  among  mortals,  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  no  longer  were 
exercised,  and  the  so-called  Christian  Church  was  no  longer  the  Lord's  Church.  Vacancies  were  also  filled 
in  the  Nephite  Twelve  until  the  day  in  which  apostasy  overtook  that  branch  of  the  house  of  Israel.  (4  Ne. 
14.) 

Apparitions 

(Apparitions  ) 
See  GHOSTS. 

Appendages  to  the  Priesthood 

(Appendages  to  the  Priesthood  ) 
See  PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES. 

Archangels 

(Archangels  ) 

See  ANGELS,  GABRIEL,  MICHAEL  THE  ARCHANGEL,  RAPHAEL. 

An  archangel  is  a  chief  angel.  Michael  (Adam)  is  the  only  one  so  designated  in  the  scriptures  proper. 
(D.&C.  29:26;  88:112;  107:54;  128:21;  1  Thess.  4:16;  Jude  9)  And  certainly  he  is  the  chief  of  all  angels, 
the  head  (under  Christ)  of  the  heavenly  hierarchy. 

The  Hebrew  celestial  hierarchy,  however,  is  said  to  consist  of  seven  archangels.  The  names  of  two  of 
these,  Michael  and  Gabriel,  are  found  in  the  Bible  and  in  latter-day  revelation.  (Jude  9;  Luke  1:5-38;  D.  & 
C.  128:21.)  The  name  of  a  third,  Raphael,  is  found  in  the  apocryphal  book  of  Tobias  and  in  the  Doctrine 
and  Covenants.  (Tob.  12:  15;  D.  &  C.  128:21.)  The  names  of  the  other  four  -  Uriel,  Raguel,  Sariel,  and 
Jerahmeel  -  are  found  in  the  so-called  Book  of  Enoch,  a  noncanonical  apocalyptic  work.  (Enoch  21.) 
Apocryphal  sources  give  the  names  of  the  last  three  as  Izidkiel,  Hanael,  and  Kepharel. 

In  reality,  we  know  very  little  about  the  organization  that  exists  among  angelic  beings;  that  a  perfect, 
proper,  and  complex  organization  does  exist  is  obvious,  but  the  positions  held  by  the  various  ministers  in 
that  celestial  hierarchy  have  not  been  revealed  in  our  day. 


37 


Archenemy 

(Archenemy  ) 
See  DEVIL. 

Arguments 

(Arguments  ) 

See  CONTENTION. 

Ark  of  Noah 

(Ark  of  Noah  ) 

See  FLOOD  OF  NOAH. 

Armageddon 

(Armageddon  ) 

See  BATTLE  OF  ARMAGEDDON. 

Armies  of  Heaven 

(Armies  of  Heaven  ) 

See  GOD  OF  BATTLES,  MICHAEL  THE  ARCHANGEL,  WAR,  WAR  IN  HEAVEN. 

Those  who  follow  Christ  and  fight  for  righteousness  in  the  great  battles  of  eternity  are  soldiers  in  the 
armies  of  heaven.  Michael  led  these  forces  in  pre-existence  when  Lucifer  rebelled  and  there  was  war  in 
heaven.  (Rev.  12:7-8;  D.  &  C.  29:36-38.)  Our  Lord  himself  is  described  by  John  as  leading  "the  armies 
which  were  in  heaven"  in  the  great  battle  of  Armageddon.  (Rev.  19:11-21.) 

It  is  Michael  who  "shall  gather  together  his  armies,  even  the  hosts  of  heaven"  so  they  can  fight  "the 
battle  of  the  great  God,"  in  which  Lucifer  and  his  angels  shall  be  cast  out  eternally.  (D.  &  C.  88:1 1 1-1 16.) 
In  a  sense,  those  who  are  fighting  for  righteousness  here  and  now  are  also  soldiers  in  the  armies  of  heaven; 
though,  for  the  moment,  they  are  fighting  a  losing  battle  against  the  forces  of  sin,  eventual  triumph  is 
assured. 

Article  on  Marriage 

(Article  on  Marriage  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  DOCTRINE  AND  COVENANTS,  MANIFESTO,  PLURAL 
MARRIAGE,  SCRIPTURE. 

As  early  as  1832  the  Lord  revealed  to  the  Prophet  the  doctrine  of  celestial  mamage,  including  also  the 
principle  of  plurality  of  wives.  This  was  before  the  restoration  of  the  sealing  keys,  and  so  the  Lord  did  not 
command  either  the  practice  of  eternal  marriage  or  the  practice  of  the  added  order  of  plurality  of  wives  at 
that  time.  Monogamy  and  civil  marriage  remained  and  were,  at  that  time,  the  order  of  the  Church.  The 
revelation  setting  forth  the  higher  law  of  temple  marriage  was  not  recorded;  the  doctrine  was  not  taught 
except  in  private  to  some  of  the  leading  brethi'en  of  the  Church;  and  it  was  not  practiced. 

In  1835,  in  connection  with  the  approval  of  the  first  edition  of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  for 
publication,  and  in  the  absence  of  the  Prophet,  Oliver  Cowdery  wrote  an  article  on  marriage.  The  article, 
dealing  with  civil  and  monogamous  marriage  that  is,  with  the  then  accepted  marriage  discipline  of  the 
Church  -  though  not  particularly  a  wise  and  proper  presentation  of  the  Church's  views  even  on  matters 
pertaining  to  civil  marriage,  was  accepted  by  the  people  and  approved  for  publication  in  the  same  book 
with  the  revelations.  It  was  clearly  understood  by  all  concerned,  however,  that  the  article  on  marriage  was 
not  a  revelation,  that  it  contained  Oliver  Cowdery's  views  and  not  necessarily  those  of  the  Prophet,  and 
that  it  was  merely  a  statement  of  policy  bearing  on  the  system  of  civil  marriage  then  prevailing  in  the 
Church  and  in  the  world. 

When  the  Prophet  returned  and  learned  of  the  action  taken  relative  to  the  publication  of  the  article  on 
marriage,  he  was  greatly  troubled.  However,  knowing  that  up  to  that  date  the  new  and  everlasting 


38 


covenant  of  marriage  had  only  been  revealed  in  principle,  that  there  was  as  yet  no  command  to  practice  it, 
and  that  the  power  and  keys  had  not  been  restored  whereby  mamages  could  be  solemnized  so  they  would 
endure  for  eternity,  he  let  the  action  stand.  The  higher  order  was  to  come  later. 

Then  in  1836  Elijah  came  and  restored  the  sealing  power,  the  power  to  bind  on  earth  and  have  it  sealed 
eternally  in  the  heavens.  (D.  &  C.  110:13-16;  132:45-47.)  At  a  still  later  date,  temple  endowments  and 
other  ordinances  were  revealed  -  all  of  which  are  a  necessary  prelude  to  the  performance  of  an  eternal 
maiTiage,  a  mamage  between  one  man  and  one  woman,  or  between  one  man  and  more  than  one  women, 
as  the  case  may  be.  After  these  things  the  practice  of  celestial  mamage,  including  plurality  of  wives,  was 
commanded.  In  1 843  the  previously  revealed  doctrine  of  celestial  marriage  (including  plurality  of  wives) 
was  recorded  for  the  first  time;  added  truths  were  also  stated  in  the  revelation  as  finally  recorded,  as  for 
instance  a  reference  to  the  fact  that  the  keys  of  sealing  now  had  been  given  and  also  special  instruction  to 
Eimna  Smith  relative  to  plural  marriage.  (D.  &  C.  132:45-47,  51-55.) 

There  was,  of  course,  no  opportunity  to  add  the  revelation  on  mamage  to  a  new  edition  of  the  Doctrine 
and  Covenants  until  after  the  saints  came  west.  Temple  endowments,  celestial  marriage,  and  plural 
marriage  had  all  been  practiced  in  Nauvoo,  but  being  higher,  sacred  ordinances  their  practice  had  not  as 
yet  been  announced  to  the  world.  After  the  saints  came  west  the  restored  order  of  marriage  discipline  was 
taught  publicly,  and  in  due  course  the  revelation  on  marriage  was  published.  Obviously  it  was  good  sense 
to  delete  from  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  the  article  on  marriage  because  it  had  application  to  a  lesser 
order,  an  order  that  prevailed  before  the  flill  law  had  been  restored. 

The  Reorganized  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter  Day  Saints  has  tried  to  make  it  appear  that  the 
article  on  marriage  was  the  only  approved  order  of  the  Church  and  that  the  revelation  on  marriage  was  a 
spurious  one  authored  by  Brigham  Young.  The  facts,  of  course,  destroy  their  specious  claims.  An 
understanding  of  the  historical  sequences  involved  and  of  the  doctrinal  principles  relative  to  the  sealing 
power  make  the  tmth  very  clear.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  195-198.) 

Articles  of  Faith 

(Articles  of  Faith  ) 

See  CREEDS,  FIRST  PRINCIPLES  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  PEARL  OF  GREAT  PRICE,  SCRIPTURE. 

Joseph  Smith  wrote  1 3  brief  statements  which  have  become  known  as  the  Articles  of  Faith,  statements 
which  summarize  some  of  the  basic  doctrines  of  the  Church.  These  Articles  of  Faith  are  scripture  and  are 
published  as  part  of  the  Pearl  of  Great  Price. 

For  brevity,  clearness,  and  forthrightness  of  doctrinal  presentation,  they  are  unexcelled.  When 
compared  with  the  muddied  creeds  formulated  by  the  supposedly  greatest  religious  thinkers  of 
Christendom  -  creeds  bom  amid  the  strife,  bitterness,  and  debates  of  councils  that  stmggled  at  length  over 
every  word  and  comma  -  the  AiUcles  of  Faith,  coming  forth  as  the  spontaneous  and  inspired  writing  of 
one  man,  are  a  marked  evidence  of  the  spirit  of  revelation  that  rested  upon  the  Prophet. 

These  articles,  of  course,  do  not  attempt  to  summarize  all  of  the  basic  doctrines  of  the  gospel.  Indeed, 
one  of  the  articles  itself  specifies  that  God  "will  yet  reveal  many  great  and  important  things"  pertaining  to 
his  kingdom.  (Ninth  Article  of  Faith.)  For  example,  the  Articles  of  Faith  are  silent  on  such  things  as 
celestial  mamage,  salvation  for  the  dead,  temple  work  in  all  its  phases,  the  resurrection,  and  degrees  of 
glory  in  the  eternal  worlds. 

Ascension  Day 

(Ascension  Day  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ASCENSION  OF  CHRIST,  EASTER. 

Since  our  Lord  ascended  in  dramatic  manner  to  his  Father  40  days  after  his  resurrection,  it  has  become 
traditional  among  sectarians  to  celebrate  the  Thursday,  40  days  after  Easter,  as  ascension  day.  But  since 
Easter  is  only  the  traditional  day  of  his  resurrection,  it  follows  that  ascension  day  is  not  the  actual  day  of 
his  formal  return  to  his  Father. 


39 


Ascension  of  Christ 

(Ascension  of  Christ  ) 

See  ASCENSION  DAY,  CHRIST,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Our  Lord,  after  his  resurrection,  ascended  to  his  Father  and  received  the  glory  which  was  his  befijre 
the  world  was.  (John  16:28;  17:5.)  Immediately  following  his  resurrection,  he  said  to  Mary:  'Touch  me 
not:  for  I  am  not  yet  ascended  to  my  Father:  but  go  to  my  brethren,  and  say  unto  them,  I  ascend  unto  my 
Father,  and  your  Father;  and  to  my  God,  and  your  God."  (John  20:17.)  Thereafter  he  appeared  to  the 
disciples  in  the  upper  room  and  said,  "Handle  me,  and  see;  for  a  spirit  hath  not  flesh  and  bones,  as  ye  see 
me  have"  (Luke  24:39),  from  which  it  is  supposed  that  during  the  interval  he  had  ascended  to  his  Father. 

During  the  period  of  40  days  while  he  continued  to  minister  as  a  resurrected  Being  among  his  disciples 
in  Jerusalem  (Acts  1:3),  it  is  presumed  that  he  ascended  to  his  Father  many  times.  But  the  particular 
instance  which  is  commonly  refeiTcd  to  as  the  ascension  of  Christ  is  that  formal  occasion  on  the  mount  of 
Olivet  when  he  took  leave  in  dramatic  form  from  his  disciples.  "While  they  beheld,"  the  record  avers,  "he 
was  taken  up;  and  a  cloud  received  him  out  of  their  sight.  And  while  they  looked  steadfastly  toward 
heaven  as  he  went  up,  behold,  two  men  stood  by  them  in  white  apparel;  Which  also  said.  Ye  men  of 
Galilee,  why  stand  ye  gazing  up  into  heaven?  this  same  Jesus,  which  is  taken  up  from  you  into  heaven, 
shall  so  come  in  like  manner  as  ye  have  seen  him  go  into  heaven."  (Acts  1:9-1 1.) 

It  should  be  noted  particularly  that  he  here  ascended  as  a  tangible  Being,  a  Personage  having  that  body 
of  flesh  and  bones  which  those  who  beheld  him  go  up  had  theretofore  handled  and  felt  and  which  had 
eaten  food  in  their  presence.  (Luke  24:36-43.)  After  this  fonnal  ascension,  our  Lord  ministered  personally 
again  on  earth  both  to  Paul  and  others  in  the  old  world  and  to  chosen  prophets  in  modem  times.  (Acts  9:1- 
9;  22:6-16;  Rev.  1:13-18;  Jos.  Smith  2:16-20;  D.  &  C.  110:1-10.) 

The  Book  of  Mormon  record  says  "that  soon  after  the  ascension  of  Christ  into  heaven  he  did  truly 
manifest  himself  unto"  the  Nephites.  (3  Ne.  10:18;  11:12.)  It  would  appear  that  from  the  manner  in  which 
Book  of  Monnon  prophets  speak  of  the  ascension  (Mosiah  18:2;  Alma  40:20),  that  they  have  reference  to 
his  ascension  immediately  following  his  resurrection  and  not  to  that  formal  occasion  40  days  after  which 
later  became  known  among  Christian  peoples  as  the  ascension.  Viewing  the  time  differences  between  the 
old  and  new  worlds,  there  would  be  no  reason  why  he  should  not  have  ministered  as  a  resuiTccted  Being 
among  the  Nephites  during  the  same  interval  in  which  he  was  continuing  his  resuiTccted  walk  with  his 
followers  in  Jerusalem. 

Ashes 

(Ashes  ) 

See  SACKCLOTH  AND  ASHES. 

Ashtoreth  (Ashtaroth) 

(Ashtoreth  (Ashtaroth)  ) 

See  BAAL  (BAALIM),  FALSE  GODS. 

As  Baal  was  the  supreme  male  deity  of  the  Phoenician  and  Canaanitish  nations,  so  Ashtoreth 
(Ashtaroth)  was  their  supreme  female  deity.  She  was  the  so-called  goddess  of  love  and  fertility,  whose 
licentious  worship  pleased  Israel  in  her  apostate  periods.  (Judges  2:13;  10:6;  1  Sam.  7:3-4;  12:10.) 

Assemblies 

(Assemblies  ) 

See  SOLEMN  ASSEMBLIES. 

Assistant  President  of  the  Church 

(Assistant  President  of  the  Church  ) 

See  APOSTLES,  APOSTOLIC  SUCCESSION,  FIRST  PRESIDENCY,  LAW  OF  WITNESSES, 
PRESIDENT  OF  THE  CHURCH. 


40 


Oliver  Cowdery  was  with  the  Prophet  when  the  priesthood  and  keys  necessary  for  the  full  restoration 
of  the  gospel  and  the  establisliment  of  the  dispensation  of  the  fiilness  of  times  were  confen'ed.  (D.  &  C. 
13;  27:12;  1 10:1 1-16.)  He  held  the  keys  jointly  with  the  Prophet.  At  the  formal  organization  of  the  Church 
the  Prophet  was  sustained  as  the  first  elder  and  Oliver  Cowdery  as  the  second  elder  (D.  &  C.  20:2-3),  that 
is,  they  were  first  and  second  from  the  standpoint  of  pre-eminence,  or  presiding  authority.  Then  as  the 
Church  grew,  and  when  the  fiill  organization  was  revealed,  Oliver  Cowdery  was  made  the  Assistant  (or 
Associate)  President  of  the  Church. 

As  the  Assistant  President,  Oliver  ranked  second  in  authority  to  the  Prophet.  He  stood  ahead  of  the 
Counselors  in  the  First  Presidency  and  ahead  of  the  Council  of  the  Twelve.  In  explaining  the  nature  of  the 
office  of  Assistant  President,  the  Prophet  said:  "The  office  of  Assistant  President  is  to  assist  in  presiding 
over  the  whole  Church,  and  to  officiate  in  the  absence  of  the  President,  according  to  his  rank  and 
appointment  viz.:  President  Cowdery,  first;  President  [Sidney]  Rigdon,  second;  and  President  [Frederick 
G.]  Williams,  third,  as  they  were  generally  called.  The  office  of  this  priesthood  is  also  to  act  as 
spokesman,  taking  Aaron  for  an  example.  The  viitue  of  the  above  priesthood  is  to  hold  the  keys  of  the 
kingdom  of  heaven  or  of  the  Church  militant."  (Manuscript  History  of  the  Church,  Book  A,  Chap.  1; 
Essentials  in  Church  History,  pp.  179-180.)  Thus  if  the  Prophet  had  died,  Oliver  Cowdery  would  have 
been  the  President  of  the  Church. 

After  Oliver  Cowdeiy  fell  from  his  high  status,  Hyrum  Smith  the  Patriarch  was  chosen  by  revelation  to 
succeed  to  the  position  of  Assistant  President  and  to  stand  as  a  joint  witness  with  the  Prophet  of  the  truth 
of  the  restoration.  (D.  &  C.  124:94-96.)  When  these  two  joint  Presidents  of  the  Church  sealed  their 
testimonies  with  their  blood,  the  full  operation  of  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  rested  with  the  Twelve,  and 
Brigham  Young,  the  senior  apostle  became  the  ranking  officer  of  the  Church.  Since  the  kingdom  was  then 
fully  established  and  the  two  witnesses  had  left  a  binding  testimony,  it  was  no  longer  necessary  to 
continue  the  office  of  Assistant  President.  Accordingly  the  office  is  not  found  in  the  Church  today. 
(Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  210-222.) 

Assistants  to  the  Twelve 

(Assistants  to  the  Twelve  ) 

See  GENERAL  AUTHORITIES,  HIGH  PRIESTS,  PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES. 

From  time  to  time  as  the  needs  of  the  ministiy  require  those  holding  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  call 
worthy  and  qualified  brethren  to  serve  in  administrative  positions  in  the  Church.  Assistants  to  the  Twelve, 
with  appointments  to  serve  as  General  Authorities  have  been  so  called.  They  are  high  priests,  not  apostles, 
and  serve  pursuant  to  the  revelation  which  says:  "Other  officers  of  the  church,  who  belong  not  unto  the 
Twelve,  neither  to  the  Seventy,  are  not  under  the  responsibility  to  travel  among  all  nations,  but  are  to 
travel  as  their  circumstances  shall  allow,  notwithstanding  they  may  hold  as  high  and  responsible  offices  in 
the  church."  (D.  &  C.  107:98.) 

Associate  President  of  the  Church 

(Associate  President  of  the  Church  ) 

See  ASSISTANT  PRESIDENT  OF  THE  CHURCH. 

Astrologers 

(Astrologers  ) 
See  ASTROLOGY. 

Astrology 

(Astrology  ) 

See  ASTRONOMY,  DIVINATION,  FORTUNE  TELLING,  SORCERY. 

A  forai  of  divination  and  fortune  telling  akin  to  sorcery,  astrology  is  a  pseudo  science  that  pretends  to 
divulge  the  influence  of  the  stars  upon  human  affairs;  it  is  a  false  science  that  claims  to  foretell  earthly 
events  by  means  of  the  positions  and  aspects  of  these  heavenly  luminaries.  It  is,  of  course,  one  of  Satan's 


41 


substitutes  for  the  trae  science  of  astronomy  and  for  tiie  true  principle  of  receiving  revelation  of  future 
events  from  divine  sources. 

Ancient  uninspired  peoples  were  frequently  deluded  by  the  snares  of  the  astrologers  among  them  (Isa. 
47;  Dan.  1:20;  2:27;  4:7;  5:7),  but  it  is  difficult  to  understand  why  people  in  modem  and  supposedly 
enlightened  and  civilized  nations  should  submit  to  these  same  stargazing  absurdities.  Enlightened  people 
in  and  out  of  the  Church  shun  them  for  the  abominations  they  are. 

Astronomy 

(Astronomy  ) 

See  CREATION,  EARTHS. 

Astronomy  is  the  science  which  treats  of  the  celestial  bodies,  their  creation,  magnitudes,  motions, 
constitution,  and  the  like.  It  is  falsely  supposed  in  the  world  that  this  is  a  modem  science,  that  through  our 
telescopes  and  by  other  means  we  have  discovered  for  the  first  time  some  of  the  great  truths  relative  to  the 
sidereal  heavens  and  the  infinite  number  of  spheres  that  roll  through  them.  In  reality  the  greatest 
astronomers  of  all  time  lived  in  the  early  ages  of  the  earth  and  received  their  knowledge  by  revelation 
from  the  Creator,  Maker,  and  Organizer  of  all  things. 

Moses  saw  many  earths  -  all  created  by  Deity;  all  rolling  in  space  at  his  command;  all  controlled  by  his 
law,  "by  which  they  move  in  their  times  and  their  seasons"  (D.  &  C.  88:7-13,  41-50);  all  inhabited  by  men 
and  women  who  are  redeemed  with  immortality  and  offered  etemal  life  through  the  power  of  the  Father. 
(Moses  1:27-39.)  Enoch  was  equally  aware  of  these  endless  creations  and  their  equally  endless 
inhabitants.  (Moses  7:29-36.)  Perhaps  many  prophets  and  righteous  men  have  known  of  these  things. 

But,  as  far  as  our  records  reveal,  Abraham  stands  pre-eminent  as  the  greatest  astronomer  of  all  the 
ages.  He  saw,  recorded,  and  taught  the  truths  relative  to  the  creation  of  the  earth;  of  the  movements  and 
relationships  of  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars;  and  of  the  positions  and  revolutions  of  the  various  spheres  in  the 
sidereal  heavens.  (Abra.  3;  4;  5;  History  of  the  Church,  vol.  2,  p.  286.)  When  the  Lord  comes  again,  he 
will  reveal  all  things  (D.  &  C.  101 :32-34);  then  the  perfect  knowledge  of  astronomy  will  be  had  again,  and 
the  faithful  will  know  all  things  about  all  the  creations  of  him  who  is  omnipotent. 

Athanasian  Creed 

(Athanasian  Creed  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  APOSTLES  CREED,  CREEDS,  NICENE  CREED. 

Of  all  the  major  creeds,  the  so-called  Athanasian  is  by  far  the  most  incomprehensible  and  difficult  to 
understand.  Of  it  Elder  James  E.  Talmage  says:  "It  would  be  difficult  to  conceive  of  a  greater  number  of 
inconsistencies  and  contradictions  expressed  in  words  as  few."  (Articles  of  Faith,  p.  48.) 

Strangely,  it  is  the  one  creed  which  its  defending  apologists  feel  called  upon  to  praise  for  its  clarity, 
lucidity,  and  plainness.  Their  official  statement  describes  it  as  "a  short,  clear  exposition  of  the  doctrines  of 
the  Trinity  and  the  Incarnation,  with  a  passing  reference  to  several  other  dogmas."  They  promulgate  it  as  a 
"summary  of  Catholic  Faith,"  and  as  a  document  that  "is  approved  by  the  Church  as  expressing  its  mind 
on  the  flmdamental  tniths  with  which  it  deals."  They  eulogize  "the  compactness  and  lucidity  of  its 
statements,"  which  "make  it  highly  prized,"  and  say  that  it  "states  in  a  very  plain  and  precise  way  what  the 
Catholic  Faith  is  conceming  the  important  doctrines  of  the  Trinity  and  the  Incamation."  Authorship  of  the 
creed  is  unknown,  although  Catholic  authorities  lean  to  the  view  that  it  was  written  by  some  less 
prominent  person  sometime  after  the  day  of  Athanasius  (296-373  A.D.). 

Enlightened  persons  can  judge  for  themselves  whether  this  creed  sheds  light  upon  or  blankets  with 
darkness  the  tmths  it  attempts  to  define.  This  is  the  official  Catholic  version  of  the  creed: 

"Whosoever  will  be  saved,  before  all  things  it  is  necessary  that  he  hold  the  Catholic  Faith.  Which  Faith 
except  everyone  do  keep  whole  and  undefiled,  without  doubt  he  shall  perish  everlastingly.  And  the 
Catholic  Faith  is  this,  that  we  worship  one  God  in  Trinity  and  Trinity  in  Unity.  Neither  confounding  the 
Persons,  nor  dividing  the  Substance.  For  there  is  one  Person  of  the  Father,  another  of  the  Son,  and  another 
of  the  Holy  Ghost.  But  the  Godhead  of  the  Father,  of  the  Son  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost  is  all  One,  the  Glory 
Equal,  the  Majesty  Co-Etemal.  Such  as  the  Father  is,  such  is  the  Son,  and  such  is  the  Holy  Ghost.  The 
Father  Uncreate,  the  Son  Uncreate,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  Uncreate.  The  Father  Incomprehensible,  the  Son 
Incomprehensible  and  the  Holy  Ghost  Incomprehensible.  The  Father  Etemal,  the  Son  Etemal,  and  the 


42 


Holy  Ghost  Eternal  and  yet  they  are  not  Three  Eternals  but  One  Eternal.  As  also  there  are  not  Three 
Uncreated,  nor  Three  Incomprehensible  but  One  Uncreated,  and  One  Incomprehensible.  So  likewise  the 
Father  is  Almighty,  the  Son  Almighty,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  Almighty.  And  yet  they  are  not  Three 
Almighties  but  One  Almighty. 

"So  the  Father  is  God,  the  Son  is  God,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  is  God.  And  yet  they  are  not  Three  Gods, 
but  One  God.  So  likewise  the  Father  is  Lord,  the  Son  Lord,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  Lord.  And  yet  not  Three 
Lords  but  One  Lord.  For,  like  as  we  are  compelled  by  the  Christian  verity  to  acknowledge  every  Person  by 
Himself  to  be  God  and  Lord,  so  are  we  forbidden  by  the  Catholic  Religion  to  say,  there  be  Three  Gods  or 
Three  Lords.  The  Father  is  made  of  none,  neither  created,  nor  begotten.  The  Son  is  of  the  Father  alone;  not 
made,  nor  created,  but  begotten.  The  Holy  Ghost  is  of  the  Father,  and  of  the  Son:  neither  made,  nor 
created,  nor  begotten,  but  proceeding. 

"So  there  is  One  Father,  not  Three  Fathers;  one  Son  not  Three  Sons;  One  Holy  Ghost,  not  Three  Holy 
Ghosts.  And  in  this  Trinity  none  is  afore  or  after  Other,  None  is  greater  or  less  than  Another,  but  the  whole 
Three  Persons  are  Co-etemal  together,  and  Co-equal.  So  that  in  all  things,  as  is  aforesaid,  the  Unity  in 
Trinity,  and  the  Trinity  in  Unity  is  to  be  worshipped.  He  therefore  that  will  be  saved,  must  thus  think  of 
the  Trinity. 

"Fuifhermore,  it  is  necessary  to  everlasting  Salvation,  that  he  also  believe  rightly  the  Incarnation  of 
our  Lord  Jesus  Clirist.  For  the  right  Faith  is,  that  we  believe  and  confess,  that  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  the 
Son  of  God,  is  God  and  Man. 

"God,  of  the  substance  of  the  Father,  begotten  before  the  worlds;  and  Man  of  the  substance  of  His 
mother,  bom  into  the  world.  Perfect  God  and  Perfect  Man,  of  a  reasonable  Soul  and  human  Flesh 
subsisting.  Equal  to  the  Father  as  touching  His  Godhead,  and  inferior  to  the  Father  as  touching  His 
Manhood.  Who,  although  He  be  God  and  Man,  yet  He  is  not  two,  but  One  Christ.  One,  not  by  conversion 
of  the  Godhead  into  Flesh,  but  by  taking  of  the  Manhood  into  God.  One  altogether,  not  by  confiision  of 
substance,  but  by  Unity  of  Person.  For  as  the  reasonable  soul  and  flesh  is  one  Man,  so  God  and  Man  is  one 
Christ.  Who  suffered  for  our  salvation,  descended  into  Hell,  rose  again  the  third  day  from  the  dead.  He 
ascended  into  Heaven,  He  sitteth  on  the  right  hand  of  the  Father,  God  Almighty,  from  whence  he  shall 
come  to  judge  the  quick  and  the  dead.  At  whose  coming  all  men  shall  rise  again  with  their  bodies,  and 
shall  give  account  for  their  own  works.  And  they  that  have  done  good  shall  go  into  life  everlasting,  and 
they  that  have  done  evil  into  everlasting  fire.  This  is  the  Catholic  Faith,  which  except  a  man  believe 
faithfiilly  and  firmly,  he  cannot  be  saved."  (Catholic  Encyclopedia,  vol.  2,  pp.  33-34.) 

Atheism 

(Atheism  ) 

See  AGNOSTICISM,  APOSTASY,  DEISM,  GOD,  INFIDELS,  THEISM. 

Atheism  is  the  disbelief  in  or  denial  of  the  existence  of  God.  Such  takes  various  forms,  and  there  are 
many  degrees  of  atheism.  In  the  absolute  sense,  it  is  doubtful  if  there  is  such  a  person  as  an  atheist,  for 
even  though  one  denies  the  traditionally  taught  concept  of  Deity,  yet  he  probably  worships  at  some  other 
shrine  as,  for  instance,  the  shrine  of  false  intellectuality.  At  the  other  extreme,  those  who  profess  belief  in 
the  sectarian  God  are  in  a  position  at  least  akin  to  atheism  for  their  God  is  defined  in  effect  as  an 
immaterial  nothing. 

Reasoning  along  this  line  Orson  Pratt  wrote:  "There  are  two  classes  of  atheists  in  the  world.  One  class 
denies  the  existence  of  God  in  the  most  positive  language;  the  other  denies  his  existence  in  duration  or 
space.  One  says  'There  is  no  God';  the  other  says  'God  is  not  here  or  there,  any  more  than  he  exists  now 
and  then.'  The  infidel  says  'God  does  not  exist  anywhere.'  The  immaterialist  says  'He  exists  nowhere.'  The 
infidel  says.  There  is  no  such  substance  as  God.'  The  immaterialist  says  'There  is  such  a  substance  as  God, 
but  it  is  without  parts.'  The  atheist  says  'There  is  no  such  substance  as  spirit.'  The  immaterialist  says  'A 
spirit,  though  he  lives  and  acts,  occupies  no  room,  and  fills  no  space  in  the  same  way  and  in  the  same 
manner  as  matter,  not  even  so  much  as  does  the  minutest  grain  of  sand.'  The  atheist  does  not  seek  to  hide 
his  infidelity;  but  the  immaterialist,  whose  declared  belief  amounts  to  the  same  thing  as  the  atheist's, 
endeavors  to  hide  his  infidelity  under  the  shallow  covering  of  a  few  words.  The  immaterialist  is  a  religious 
atheist;  he  only  differs  from  the  other  class  of  atheists  by  clothing  an  indivisible  unextended  nothing  with 
the  powers  of  a  God.  One  class  believes  in  no  God;  the  other  believes  that  Nothing  is  god  and  worships  it 
as  such."  (Cited,  Articles  of  Faith,  p.  465.) 


43 


Athletic  Games 

(Athletic  Games  ) 
See  RECREATION. 

Atonement  of  Christ 

(Atonement  of  Christ  ) 

See  ADVOCACY,  ADVOCATE,  BLOOD  ATONEMENT  DOCTRINE,  CHRIST,  ETERNAL  LIFE, 
EXPLA.TION,  EXPIATOR,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  GOSPEL,  GRACE  OF  GOD,  IMMORTALITY, 
INTERCESSION,  MEDIATION,  PROPITIATION,  PROPITIATOR,  RECONCILIATION, 
RECONCILER,  REDEMPTION,  REPENTANCE,  SACRAMENT,  SACRIFICES,  SALVATION, 
SALVATION  BY  GRACE,  SYMBOLISMS. 

Nothing  in  the  entire  plan  of  salvation  compares  in  any  way  in  importance  with  that  most  transcendent 
of  all  events,  the  atoning  sacrifice  of  our  Lord.  It  is  the  most  important  single  thing  that  has  ever  occun'ed 
in  the  entire  history  of  created  things;  it  is  the  rock  foundation  upon  which  the  gospel  and  all  other  things 
rest.  Indeed,  all  "things  which  pertain  to  our  religion  are  only  appendages  to  it,"  the  Prophet  said. 
(Teachings,  p.  121.) 

The  doctrine  of  the  atonement  embraces,  sustains,  supports,  and  gives  life  and  force  to  all  other  gospel 
doctrines.  It  is  the  foundation  upon  which  all  truth  rests,  and  all  things  grow  out  of  it  and  come  because  of 
it.  Indeed,  the  atonement  is  the  gospel.  In  recording  the  Vision,  the  Prophet  wrote:  "And  this  is  the  gospel, 
the  glad  tidings,  which  the  voice  out  of  the  heavens  bore  record  unto  us  -  That  he  came  into  the  world, 
even  Jesus,  to  be  crucified  for  the  world,  and  to  bear  the  sins  of  the  world,  and  to  sanctify  the  world,  and 
to  cleanse  it  from  all  unrighteousness;  That  through  him  all  might  be  saved  whom  the  Father  had  put  into 
his  power  and  made  by  him."  (D.  &  C.  76:40-42.)  To  the  Nephites  the  resurrected  Lord  spoke  similarly: 
"Behold  I  have  given  unto  you  my  gospel,  and  this  is  the  gospel  which  I  have  given  unto  you  -  that  I  came 
into  the  world  to  do  the  will  of  my  Father,  because  my  Father  sent  me.  And  my  Father  sent  me  that  I  might 
be  lifted  up  upon  the  cross."  (3  Ne.  27:13-14.) 

Salvation  comes  because  of  the  atonement.  Without  it  the  whole  plan  of  salvation  would  be  frustrated 
and  the  whole  purpose  behind  the  creating  and  populating  of  the  earth  would  come  to  naught.  With  it  the 
eternal  purposes  of  the  Father  will  roll  forth,  the  purpose  of  creation  be  preserved,  the  plan  of  salvation 
made  efficacious,  and  men  will  be  assured  of  a  hope  of  the  highest  exaltation  hereafter.  (Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  l,pp.  121-138.) 

"Redemption  cometh  in  and  through  the  Holy  Messiah,"  Lehi  taught,  "for  he  is  full  of  grace  and  truth. 
Behold  he  offereth  himself  a  sacrifice  for  sin,  to  answer  the  ends  of  the  law,  unto  all  those  who  have  a 
broken  heart  and  a  contrite  spirit;  and  unto  none  else  can  the  ends  of  the  law  be  answered.  Wherefore,  how 
great  the  importance  to  make  these  things  known  unto  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth,  that  they  may  know  that 
there  is  no  flesh  that  can  dwell  in  the  presence  of  God,  save  it  be  through  the  merits,  and  mercy,  and  grace 
of  the  Holy  Messiah,  who  layeth  down  his  life  according  to  the  flesh,  and  taketh  it  again  by  the  power  of 
the  Spirit,  that  he  may  bring  to  pass  the  resurrection  of  the  dead,  being  the  first  that  should  rise. 
Wherefore,  he  is  the  firstfruits  unto  God,  inasmuch  as  he  shall  make  intercession  for  all  the  children  of 
men;  and  they  that  believe  in  him  shall  be  saved."  (2  Ne.  2:6-9.) 

One  of  the  greatest  seraions  of  all  the  ages,  preached  by  an  angel  from  heaven  on  the  subject  of  the 
atonement,  includes  these  words:  "As  in  Adam,  or  by  nature,  they  fall,  even  so  the  blood  of  Christ  atoneth 
for  their  sins.  And  moreover,  I  say  unto  you,  that  there  shall  be  no  other  name  given  nor  any  other  way  nor 
means  whereby  salvation  can  come  unto  the  children  of  men,  only  in  and  through  the  name  of  Christ,  the 
Lord  Omnipotent.  For  behold  he  judgeth,  and  his  judgment  is  just;  .  .  .  salvation  was,  and  is,  and  is  to 
come,  in  and  through  the  atoning  blood  of  Christ,  the  Lord  Omnipotent.  For  the  natural  man  is  an  enemy 
to  God,  and  has  been  from  the  fall  of  Adam,  and  will  be,  forever  and  ever,  unless  he  yields  to  the  enticings 
of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  putteth  off  the  natural  man  and  becometh  a  saint  through  the  atonement  of  Christ 
the  Lord,  and  becometh  as  a  child,  submissive,  meek,  humble,  patient,  full  of  love,  willing  to  submit  to  all 
things  which  the  Lord  seeth  fit  to  inflict  upon  him,  even  as  a  child  doth  submit  to  his  Father."  (Mosiah 
3:16-19.) 

A  knowledge  of  two  great  truths  is  essential  to  an  understanding  of  the  doctrine  of  the  atonement:  1. 
The  fall  of  Adam;  and  2.  The  divine  Sonship  of  our  Lord. 


44 


Adam's  fall  brought  spiritual  and  temporal  death  into  the  world.  Spiritual  death  is  to  be  cast  out  of  the 
presence  of  the  Lord  (2  Ne.  9:6)  and  to  die  as  peilaining  to  things  of  righteousness,  or  in  other  words 
things  of  the  Spirit.  (Hela.  14:15-18.)  Temporal  death  or  natural  death  is  the  separation  of  body  and  spirit, 
the  body  going  back  to  the  dust  from  which  it  was  created  and  the  spirit  to  a  world  of  waiting  spirits  to 
await  the  day  of  the  resurrection. 

To  atone  is  to  ransom,  reconcile,  expiate,  redeem,  reclaim,  absolve,  propitiate,  make  amends,  pay  the 
penalty.  Thus  the  atonement  of  Christ  is  designed  to  ransom  men  from  the  effects  of  the  fall  of  Adam  in 
that  both  spiritual  and  temporal  death  are  conquered;  their  lasting  effect  is  nullified.  The  spiritual  death  of 
the  fall  is  replaced  by  the  spiritual  life  of  the  atonement,  in  that  all  who  believe  and  obey  the  gospel  law 
gain  spiritual  or  eternal  life  -  life  in  the  presence  of  God  where  those  who  enjoy  it  are  alive  to  things  of 
righteousness  or  things  of  the  Spirit.  The  temporal  death  of  the  fall  is  replaced  by  the  state  of  immortality 
which  comes  because  of  the  atonement  and  resun'ection  of  our  Lord.  The  body  and  spirit  which  separated, 
incident  to  what  men  call  the  natural  death,  are  reunited  in  immortality,  in  an  inseparable  connection  that 
never  again  will  permit  the  mortal  body  to  see  conniption.  (Alma  11:37-45;  12:16  18.)  Immortality  comes 
as  a  free  gift,  by  the  grace  of  God  alone,  without  works  of  righteousness.  Eternal  life  is  the  reward  for 
"obedience  to  the  laws  and  ordinances  of  the  Gospel."  (Third  Article  of  Faith.) 

"Adam  fell  that  men  might  be;  and  men  are,  that  they  might  have  joy,"  Lehi  says.  "And  the  Messiah 
Cometh  in  the  fulness  of  time,  that  he  may  redeem  the  children  of  men  from  the  fall."  (2  Ne.  2:25-26.) 
"The  atonement,"  King  Benjamin  explains,  "was  prepared  from  the  foundation  of  the  world  for  all 
mankind,  which  ever  were  since  the  fall  of  Adam,  or  who  are,  or  who  ever  shall  be,  even  unto  the  end  of 
the  world."  (Mosiah  4:7.) 

And  Moroni  taught  that  God  "created  Adam,  and  by  Adam  came  the  fall  of  man.  And  because  of  the 
fall  of  man  came  Jesus  Christ,  even  the  Father  and  the  Son;  and  because  of  Jesus  Christ  came  the 
redemption  of  man.  And  because  of  the  redemption  of  man,  which  came  by  Jesus  Christ,  they  are  brought 
back  into  the  presence  of  the  Lord;  yea,  this  is  wherein  all  men  are  redeemed,  because  the  death  of  Christ 
bringeth  to  pass  the  resurrection,  which  bringeth  to  pass  a  redemption  from  an  endless  sleep,  from  which 
sleep  all  men  shall  be  awakened  by  the  power  of  God  when  the  trump  shall  sound;  and  they  shall  come 
forth,  both  small  and  great,  and  all  shall  stand  before  his  bar,  being  redeemed  and  loosed  from  this  eternal 
band  of  death,  which  death  is  a  temporal  death.  And  then  cometh  the  judgment  of  the  Holy  One  upon 
them;  and  then  cometh  the  time  that  he  that  is  filthy  shall  be  filthy  still;  and  he  that  is  righteous  shall  be 
righteous  still;  he  that  is  happy  shall  be  happy  still;  and  he  that  is  unhappy  shall  be  unhappy  still."  (Monn. 
9:12-14.) 

And  thus  the  Lord  says  that  because  of  the  atonement,  and  following  the  "natural  death,"  man  is 
"raised  in  immortality  unto  eternal  life,  even  as  many  as  would  believe;  And  they  that  believe  not  unto 
eternal  danmation;  for  they  cannot  be  redeemed  from  their  spiritual  fall,  because  they  repent  not."  (D.  & 
C.  29:43-44.) 

If  there  had  been  no  atonement  of  Christ  (there  having  been  a  fall  of  Adam!),  then  the  whole  plan  and 
purpose  connected  with  the  creation  of  man  would  have  come  to  naught.  If  there  had  been  no  atonement, 
temporal  death  would  have  remained  forever,  and  there  never  would  have  been  a  resuiTection.  The  body 
would  have  remained  forever  in  the  grave,  and  the  spirit  would  have  stayed  in  a  spirit  prison  to  all  eternity. 
If  there  had  been  no  atonement,  there  never  would  have  been  spiritual  or  eternal  life  for  any  persons. 
Neither  mortals  nor  spirits  could  have  been  cleansed  from  sin,  and  all  the  spirit  hosts  of  heaven  would 
have  wound  up  as  devils,  angels  to  a  devil,  that  is,  as  sons  of  perdition. 

Jacob,  brother  to  righteous  Nephi,  has  left  us  these  inspired  words:  "For  as  death  hath  passed  upon  all 
men,  to  fiilfil  the  merciful  plan  of  the  great  Creator,  there  must  needs  be  a  power  of  resun'ection,  and  the 
resurrection  must  needs  come  unto  man  by  reason  of  the  fall;  and  the  fall  came  by  reason  of  transgression; 
and  because  man  became  fallen  they  were  cut  off  from  the  presence  of  the  Lord.  Wherefore  it  must  needs 
be  an  infinite  atonement  save  it  should  be  an  infinite  atonement  this  corruption  could  not  put  on 
incomiption.  Wherefore,  the  first  judgment  which  came  upon  man  must  needs  have  remained  to  an 
endless  duration.  And  if  so,  this  flesh  must  have  laid  down  to  rot  and  to  crumble  to  its  mother  earth,  to  rise 
no  more.  O  the  wisdom  of  God,  his  mercy  and  grace!  For  behold,  if  the  flesh  should  rise  no  more  our 
spirits  must  become  subject  to  that  angel  who  fell  from  before  the  presence  of  the  Eternal  God,  and 
became  the  devil,  to  rise  no  more.  And  our  spirits  must  have  become  like  unto  him,  and  we  become  devils, 
angels  to  a  devil,  to  be  shut  out  from  the  presence  of  our  God,  and  to  remain  with  the  father  of  lies,  in 
misery,  like  unto  himself"  (2  Ne.  9:6-9;  D.  &  C.  29:39-41.) 


45 


Children  and  others  who  have  not  arrived  at  the  years  of  accountability  are  automatically  saved  in  the 
celestial  kingdom  by  virtue  of  the  atonement.  "Little  children  are  whole,  for  they  are  not  capable  of 
committing  sin,"  the  Lord  says,  "wherefore  the  curse  of  Adam  is  taken  from  them  in  me,  that  it  hath  no 
power  over  them."  (Moro.  8:8;  D.  &  C.  29:46-50;  Mosiah  15:25;  Teachings,  p.  107.)  The  curse  of  Adam 
includes  both  temporal  and  spiritual  death,  and  accordingly  neither  of  these  is  binding  upon  children  and 
those  who  have  "no  understanding"  (D.  &  C.  29:50),  that  is,  those  who  are  not  accountable.  All  such  will 
be  raised  in  immortality  and  unto  eternal  life. 

Christ  is  the  only  person  ever  to  be  bom  in  the  world  who  had  power  to  bring  to  pass  the  resurrection 
of  himself  or  anyone  else  and  to  atone  for  the  sins  of  any  living  being.  This  is  because  he  had  life  in 
himself;  he  had  the  power  of  immortality  by  divine  inheritance.  The  atonement  came  by  the  power  of  God 
and  not  of  man,  and  to  understand  it  one  must  believe  that  our  Lord  was  literally  the  Son  of  God  (an 
immortal  Personage)  and  of  Mary  (a  mortal  woman).  From  his  mother  he  inlierited  moilality,  the  power  to 
lay  down  his  life,  to  die,  to  perniit  body  and  spirit  to  separate.  From  his  Father  he  inherited  the  power  of 
immoilality,  the  power  to  keep  body  and  spirit  together,  or  voluntarily  having  pennitted  them  to  separate, 
the  power  to  unite  them  again  in  the  resurrected  state. 

This  power  he  exercised,  becoming  the  firstfruits  of  them  that  slept,  and  in  a  way  incomprehensible  to 
mortal  man,  he  had  the  power  to  pass  the  effects  of  this  resurrection  on  to  all  living  creatures.  "I  lay  down 
my  life,  that  I  might  take  it  again,"  he  said.  "No  man  taketh  it  from  me,  but  I  lay  it  down  of  myself  I  have 
power  to  lay  it  down,  and  I  have  power  to  take  it  again.  This  commandment  have  I  received  of  my 
Father."  (John  10:17-18.) 

Amulek  bore  this  testimony:  "I  do  know  that  Christ  shall  come  among  the  children  of  men,  to  take 
upon  him  the  transgressions  of  his  people,  and  that  he  shall  atone  for  the  sins  of  the  world;  for  the  Lord 
God  hath  spoken  it.  For  it  is  expedient  that  an  atonement  should  be  made;  for  according  to  the  great  plan 
of  the  Eternal  God  there  must  be  an  atonement  made,  or  else  all  mankind  must  unavoidably  perish;  yea,  all 
are  hardened;  yea,  all  are  fallen  and  are  lost,  and  must  perish  except  it  be  through  the  atonement  which  it 
is  expedient  should  be  made.  For  it  is  expedient  that  there  should  be  a  great  and  last  sacrifice;  yea,  not  a 
sacrifice  of  man,  neither  of  beast,  neither  of  any  manner  of  fowl;  for  it  shall  not  be  a  human  sacrifice;  but 
it  must  be  an  infinite  and  eternal  sacrifice.  Now  there  is  not  any  man  that  can  sacrifice  his  own  blood 
which  will  stone  for  the  sins  of  another.  .  .  .  Therefore  there  can  be  nothing  which  is  short  of  an  infinite 
atonement  which  will  suffice  for  the  sins  of  the  world."  (Alma  34:8-12.) 

When  the  prophets  speak  of  an  infinite  atonement,  they  mean  just  that.  Its  effects  cover  all  men,  the 
earth  itself  and  all  forms  of  life  thereon,  and  reach  out  into  the  endless  expanses  of  eternity.  "The  word 
atonement,"  it  is  written  in  the  Compendium,  "signifies  deliverance,  through  the  offering  of  a  ransom, 
from  the  penalty  of  a  broken  law.  The  sense  is  expressed  in  Job  33:24:  'Deliver  him  from  going  down  to 
the  pit:  I  have  found  a  ransom.'  As  effected  by  Jesus  Clirist,  it  signifies  the  deliverance,  through  his  death 
and  resurrection,  of  the  earth  and  everything  pertaining  to  it,  from  the  power  which  death  has  obtained 
over  them  through  the  transgression  of  Adam.  Redemption  from  death,  through  the  sufferings  of  Christ,  is 
for  all  men,  both  the  righteous  and  the  wicked;  for  this  earth,  and  for  all  things  created  upon  it." 
(Compendium  pp.  8-9.) 

Because  of  the  atonement  and  by  obedience  to  gospel  law  men  have  power  to  become  the  sons  of  God 
in  that  they  are  spiritually  begotten  of  God  and  adopted  as  members  of  his  family.  They  become  the  sons 
of  God  and  joint-heirs  with  Christ  of  the  fulness  of  the  Father's  kingdom.  (D.  &  C.  39:1-6;  76:54-60;  Rom. 
8:14-17;  Gal.  3:1-7;  1  John  3:1-4;  Rev.  21:7.)  Now  our  Lord's  jurisdiction  and  power  extend  far  beyond 
the  limits  of  this  one  small  earth  on  which  we  dwell.  He  is,  under  the  Father,  the  Creator  of  worlds  without 
number.  (Moses  1:33.)  And  through  the  power  of  his  atonement  the  inliabitants  of  these  worlds,  the 
revelation  says,  "are  begotten  sons  and  daughters  unto  God"  (D.  &  C.  76:24),  which  means  that  the 
atonement  of  Christ,  being  literally  and  truly  infinite,  applies  to  an  infinite  number  of  earths. 

Those  who  have  ears  to  hear,  find  this  doctrine  taught  in  the  following  scripture:  "And  we  beheld  the 
glory  of  the  Son,  on  the  right  hand  of  the  Father,  and  received  of  his  fulness,"  the  Prophet  says  in 
recording  the  Vision,  "And  saw  the  holy  angels,  and  them  who  are  sanctified  before  his  throne, 
worshiping  God,  and  the  Lamb,  who  worship  him  forever  and  ever.  And  now,  after  the  many  testimonies 
which  have  been  given  of  him,  this  is  the  testimony,  last  of  all,  which  we  give  of  him:  That  he  lives!  For 
we  saw  him,  even  on  the  right  hand  of  God;  and  we  heard  the  voice  bearing  record  that  he  is  the  Only 
Begotten  of  the  Father  -  That  by  him,  and  through  him,  and  of  him,  the  worlds  are  and  were  created,  and 
the  inhabitants  thereof  are  begotten  sons  and  daughters  unto  God."  (D.  &  C.  76:20-24.) 


46 


In  addition  to  tlie  plain  meaning  of  this  passage,  we  have  an  explanation  of  it  given  by  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith.  He  paraphrased,  in  poetical  rhyme,  the  entire  record  of  the  Vision,  and  his  words  covering 
this  portion  were: 

"I  beheld  round  the  throne  holy 
angels  and  hosts. 

And  sanctified  beings  from  worlds 
that  have  been. 

In  holiness  worshipping  God  and  the 
Lamb, 

For  ever  and  ever.  Amen  and 
amen. 

"And  now  after  all  of  the  proofs 
made  of  him. 

By  witnesses  truly,  by  whom  he 
was  known. 

This  is  mine,  last  of  all,  that  he 
lives;  yea,  he  lives! 
And  sits  on  the  right  hand  of  God 
on  his  throne. 
"And  I  heard  a  great  voice  bearing 
record  from  heav'n. 
He's  the  Saviour  and  Only  Begotten 
of  God, 

By  him,  of  him,  and  through  him, 
the  worlds  were  all  made. 
Even  all  that  careen  in  the  heavens 
so  broad. 
"Whose  inhabitants,  too,  from  the 
first  to  the  last, 

Are  sav'd  by  the  very  same  Saviour 
of  ours; 

And  of  course,  are  begotten  Gods 
daughters  and  sons 
By  the  very  same  truths  and  the 
very  same  powers" 
(Millennial  Star,  vol.  4,  pp.  49-55.) 

Attributes  of  God 

(Attributes  of  God  ) 
See  FAITH. 

Austere  Man 

(Austere  Man  ) 

See  CHRIST,  JUDGE  OF  ALL  THE  EARTH,  JUSTICE. 

In  the  parable  of  the  pounds,  the  slothful  servant  who  did  not  put  his  money  to  usury  justified  himself 
because  he  feared  the  Lord  who  was  an  austere  man.  In  answer  the  Lord  -  who  is  Christ,  the  Judge  of  all 
the  earth  -  agreed  that  he  was  an  Austere  Man,  a  man  who  would  mete  out  justice  to  all  men  and  impose 
severe  penalties  for  sins  of  omission  as  well  as  those  of  commission.  (Luke  19: 12-27.) 

Authorities 

(Authorities  ) 

See  GENERAL  AUTHORITIES. 


47 


Authority  in  the  Ministry 

(Authority  in  the  Ministry  ) 
See  PRIESTHOOD. 

Authorized  Version  of  the  Bible 

(Authorized  Version  of  the  Bible  ) 

See  KING  JAMES  VERSION  OF  THE  BIBLE. 

Author  of  Salvation 

(Author  of  Salvation  ) 

See  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CHRIST,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION,  SALVATION. 

Christ  is  the  Author  of  Salvation.  This  means  that  he  made  salvation  available  to  all  men  in  that  he 
worked  out  the  infinite  and  eternal  atonement.  Paul's  statement  that  Christ  is  "the  author  of  eternal 
salvation  unto  all  them  that  obey  him"  (Heb.  5:9),  as  the  marginal  reading  shows,  means  that  he  is  the 
"cause"  thereof;  that  is,  salvation  is  possible  because  of  his  atoning  sacrifice;  without  this  sacrifice  there 
would  be  no  salvation.  Paul's  other  statement  that  Christ  is  "the  author  and  finisher  of  our  faith"  (Heb. 
12:2),  also  according  to  the  marginal  reading,  means  that  he  is  the  "leader"  in  the  cause  of  salvation. 

Christ  is  not  the  Author  of  Salvation  in  the  sense  that  he  created  the  plan  of  salvation,  nor  in  the  sense 
that  he  supposedly  presented  a  plan  of  his  own  in  the  councils  in  heaven,  which  plan  the  Father 
supposedly  adopted  in  preference  to  a  less  desirable  one  fomiulated  by  Lucifer.  Rather  the  Father  is  the 
Author  of  the  plan  of  salvation,  a  plan  which  began  to  operate  long  before  Christ  was  ever  chosen  to  be 
the  Redeemer. 

Thus  when  the  Father  presented  his  own  plan  in  the  pre-existent  council,  he  asked  for  volunteers  from 
whom  he  could  choose  a  Redeemer  to  be  bom  into  mortality  as  the  Son  of  God.  Lucifer  offered  to  become 
the  Son  of  God  on  condition  that  the  teiTns  of  the  Father's  plan  were  modified  to  deny  men  their  agency 
and  to  heap  inordinate  reward  upon  the  one  working  out  the  redemption.  Clirist,  on  the  other  hand, 
accepted  the  Father's  plan  in  full,  saying,  "Father,  thy  will  be  done,  and  the  glory  be  thine  forever."  Our 
Lord  was  then  foreordained  to  a  mission  which  in  due  course  he  fulfilled,  which  mission  enabled  him  to 
make  salvation  available  to  all  men.  (Moses  4:1-4;  Abra.  3:22-28.) 

Auxiliary  Organizations 

(Auxiliary  Organizations  ) 

See  CHURCH  ORGANIZATION,  GENERAL  AUXILIARY  OFFICERS,  MUTUAL 
IMPROVEMENT  ASSOCIATIONS,  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIMARY  ASSOCIATION,  RELIEF  SOCIETY, 
SUNDAY  SCHOOL. 

There  are  in  the  Church  the  following  auxiliary  organizations:  Relief  Society,  Sunday  School, 
Primary,  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement  Association,  and  Young  Women's  Mutual  Improvement 
Association.  These  units  of  church  government  are  aids  and  helps  to  the  priesthood.  (1  Cor.  12:28.)  They 
serve  in  a  subsidiary,  subordinate,  subservient,  and  ancillary  position  to  the  priesthood;  their  purposes  are 
to  supplement  the  work  being  done  by  the  priesthood  quorums.  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp.  383-400.) 

Auxiliaiy  organizations  are  created  to  meet  particular  needs  and  problems  that  exist  from  time  to  time. 
Much  of  their  work  is  temporary  in  that  it  ceases  when  the  particular  need  ceases,  or  it  will  be  absorbed  in 
due  course  by  the  priesthood  organizations.  "We  expect  to  see  the  day,  if  we  live  long  enough  (and  if 
some  of  us  do  not  live  long  enough  to  see  it,  there  are  others  who  will),"  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  said, 
"when  every  council  of  the  priesthood  in  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  will  understand 
its  duty;  will  assume  its  own  responsibility,  will  magnify  its  calling,  and  fill  its  place  in  the  Church,  to  the 
uttermost,  according  to  the  intelligence  and  ability  possessed  by  it.  When  that  day  shall  come,  there  will 
not  be  so  much  necessity  for  work  that  is  now  being  done  by  the  auxiliary  organizations,  because  it  will  be 
done  by  the  regular  quorums  of  the  priesthood.  The  Lord  designed  and  comprehended  it  from  the 
beginning,  and  he  has  made  provision  in  the  Church  whereby  every  need  may  be  met  and  satisfied  through 
the  regular  organizations  of  the  priesthood.  It  has  truly  been  said  that  the  Church  is  perfectly  organized. 


48 


The  only  trouble  is  that  these  organizations  are  not  fully  alive  to  the  obligations  that  rest  upon  them.  When 
they  become  thoroughly  awakened  to  the  requirements  made  of  them,  they  will  fiilfil  their  duties  more 
faithflilly,  and  the  work  of  the  Lord  will  be  all  the  stronger  and  more  powerful  and  influential  in  the 
world."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp.  159-160.) 


(B  ) 

Baal  (Baalim) 

(Baal  (Baalim)  ) 

See  ASHTORETH  (ASHTAROTH),  BEELZEBUB,  FALSE  GODS. 

Numerous  Old  Testament  references  recite  apostate  Israel's  worship  of  Baal  and  Baalim  (plural  of 
Baal).  It  was  the  priest  of  Baal,  for  instance,  with  whom  Elijah  had  his  dramatic  contest  in  the  days  of 
Ahab  and  Jezebel.  (1  Kings  18.)  Baal  was  the  supreme  male  deity  of  the  Phoenician  and  Canaanitish 
nation.  It  is  likely  that  there  were,  in  practice,  many  Baals  or  gods  of  particular  places,  the  worship  of 
whom  was  licentious  in  nature,  Baalzebub  (the  same  name  as  Beelzebub  or  Satan)  was  the  name  of  the 
god  of  one  particular  group.  (2  Kings  1:3.) 

Babel 

(Babel  ) 

See  JAREDITES. 


49 


Babe  of  Bethlehem 

(Babe  of  Bethlehem  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CHRIST  CHILD. 

It  is  common  among  Christian  people  to  refer  to  the  Infant  Jesus  as  the  Babe  of  Bethlehem,  an 
appellation  applied  because  of  his  birth  in  Bethlehem.  (Micah  5:2;  Matt.  2:1-10;  Luke  2:1-20.) 

Babies 

(Babies  ) 

See  STILLBORN  CHILDREN. 

Babylon 

(Babylon  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST,  WORLD. 

Anciently  Babylon  was  the  chief  and  capital  city  of  the  Babylonian  empire.  Founded  by  Nimrod  and 
built  astride  the  Euphrates,  it  is  claimed  to  have  been  one  of  the  largest  and  most  magnificent  cities  of  all 
time.  The  name  is  the  Greek  form  of  Babel  and  means  confusion.  The  city  was  taken  by  Cyrus  and  again 
by  Alexander  the  Great  and  has  now  become  a  desolate  heap  as  prophesied  by  Isaiah  and  Jeremiah.  (Isa. 
13:19-22;  Jer.  51.) 

As  the  seat  of  world  empire,  Babylon  was  the  persistent  persecutor  and  enemy  of  the  Lord's  people.  It 
was  to  escape  the  imminent  destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  Nebuchadnezzar's  Babylonian  hordes  that  Lehi 
and  his  family  were  led  to  the  new  world.  To  the  Lord's  people  anciently,  Babylon  was  known  as  the 
center  of  iniquity,  carnality,  and  worldliness.  Everything  connected  with  it  was  in  opposition  to  all 
righteousness  and  had  the  effect  of  leading  men  downward  to  the  destruction  of  their  souls. 

It  was  natural,  therefore,  for  the  apostles  and  inspired  men  of  New  Testament  times  to  apply  the  name 
Babylon  to  the  forces  organized  to  spread  confusion  and  darkness  in  the  realm  of  spiritual  things.  (Rev. 
17;  18;  D.  &  C.  29:21;  Ezek.  38;  39.)  In  a  general  sense,  the  wickedness  of  the  world  generally  is 
Babylon.  (D.  &  C.  1:16;  35:11;  64:24;  133:14.) 

As  Babylon  of  old  fell  to  her  utter  destruction  and  ruin,  so  the  great  and  abominable  church  together 
with  all  wickedness  shall  be  utterly  destroyed  when  the  Lord  comes.  Before  that  great  day  the  servants  of 
the  Lord  are  calling,  "Go  ye  out  from  Babylon"  (D.  &  C.  133:5,  7),  for  the  time  is  not  far  distant  when 
"BABYLON  THE  GREAT,  THE  MOTHER  OF  HARLOTS  AND  ABOMMATIONS  OF  THE  EARTH" 
(Rev.  17:5)  shall  receive  her  foreordained  doom,  and  an  angel  shall  proclaim  the  fateful  judgment: 
"Babylon  is  fallen,  is  fallen,  that  great  city,  because  she  made  all  nations  drink  of  the  wine  of  the  wrath  of 
her  fornication."  (Rev.  14:8.) 

Backbiting 

(Backbiting  ) 
See  GOSSIPING. 

To  backbite  is  to  slander  one  who  is  not  present.  It  is  a  wicked,  evil  practice,  hated  of  God  and  fostered 
by  Satan.  (Ps.  15:3;  Rom.  1:30;  2  Cor.  12:20.)  It  is  the  express  appointment  of  the  teachers  in  the  Aaronic 
Priesthood  -  as  part  of  their  mission  to  do  home  teaching  -  to  see  that  there  is  no  backbiting  in  the  Church. 
(D.  &  C.  20:54.) 

Backsliding  Israel 

(Backsliding  Israel  ) 
See  APOSTASY. 


50 


Baptism 

(Baptism  ) 

See  ACCOUNTABILITY,  BAPTISMAL  FONTS,  BAPTISM  FOR  THE  DEAD,  BAPTISM  OF 
FIRE,  BORN  AGAIN,  CHRIST,  CLINIC  BAPTISMS,  FAITH,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST,  HOLY 
GHOST,  INFANT  BAPTISM,  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST,  ORIGINAL  SEsI  THEORY,  PLAN  OF 
SALVATION,  REDEMPTION,  REPENTANCE,  SACRAMENT,  SALVATION,  SALVATION  OF 
CHILDREN,  YEARS  OF  ACCOUNTABILITY. 

Baptism  by  iimnersion  under  the  hands  of  a  legal  administrator,  one  empowered  to  bind  on  earth  and 
seal  in  heaven,  is  the  initiatory  ordinance  into  the  Church  on  earth  and  the  celestial  kingdom  in  the  world 
to  come.  (D.  &  C.  20:68-74;  2  Ne.  9:23-24.)  It  is  of  two  kinds:  I.  Baptism  in  water  by  the  power  of  the 
lesser  or  Aaronic  Priesthood;  and  2.  Baptism  of  the  Spirit  by  the  power  of  the  greater  or  Melchizedek 
Priesthood.  (Mark  1:1-8;  Luke  3:16;  Acts  19:1-6;  D.  &  C.  20:38-60;  Articles  of  Faith,  pp.  120-170.)  The 
gospel  is  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  by  means  of  which  God,  on  his  own  teims,  offers  salvation  to 
man.  Baptism  is  the  foraially  appointed  means  and  ordinance  which  the  Lord  has  provided  so  that  man 
can  signify  his  personal  acceptance  of  all  of  the  terms  and  conditions  of  the  eternal  gospel  covenant.  Thus 
in  baptism,  which  as  part  of  the  gospel  is  itself  a  new  and  an  everlasting  covenant  (D.  &  C.  22),  man 
covenants  to  abide  by  all  of  the  laws  and  requirements  of  the  whole  gospel. 

As  summarized  by  Alma  at  the  waters  of  Mormon,  the  contractual  obligations  assumed  by  men  as  part 
of  the  covenant  of  baptism  are:  1.  "To  come  into  the  fold  of  God,"  that  is,  to  join  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ,  the  Church  which  is  God's  kingdom  on  earth;  2.  "To  be  called  his  people,"  meaning  to  "Take  upon 
you  the  name  of  Christ"  (D.  &  C.  18:17-25);  3.  "To  bear  one  another's  burdens,  that  they  may  be  light";  4 
"To  mourn  with  those  that  mourn";  5.  To  "comfort  those  that  stand  in  need  of  comfort";  6.  "To  stand  as 
witnesses  of  God  at  all  times  and  in  all  things,  and  in  all  places  that  ye  may  be  in,  even  until  death";  and  7. 
To  agree  to  serve  God  and  keep  his  commandments. 

The  Lord,  as  his  part  of  the  bargain,  covenants  that  if  men  will  do  these  things,  then  he  will:  1.  "Pour 
out  his  Spirit  more  abundantly  upon"  them,  that  is,  they  will  receive  the  baptism  of  fire  and  the 
companionship  of  the  Holy  Ghost;  and  2.  They  shall  "be  redeemed  of  God,  .  .  .  numbered  with  those  of  the 
first  resurt'ection,"  and  "have  eternal  life."  (Mosiah  18:7-10.) 

Baptism  serves  four  puiposes:  1.  It  is  for  the  remission  of  sins.  (D.  &  C.  13;  19:31;  20:37;  33:11; 
49:13;  68:27;  84:27,  64,  74;  107:20.)  2.  It  admits  the  repentant  person  to  membership  in  the  Church  and 
kingdom  of  God  on  earth.  (D.  &  C.  20:37,  71-74.)  3.  It  is  the  gate  to  the  celestial  kingdom  of  heaven,  that 
is,  it  starts  a  person  out  on  the  straight  and  narrow  path  which  leads  to  eternal  life.  (2  Ne.  9:23-24;  31:13- 
21.)  4.  It  is  the  means  whereby  the  door  to  personal  sanctification  is  opened.  "Repent,  all  ye  ends  of  the 
earth,  and  come  unto  me  and  be  baptized  in  my  name,"  the  resuiTected  Lord  proclaimed  to  the  Nephites, 
"that  ye  may  be  sanctified  by  the  reception  of  the  Holy  Ghost  that  ye  may  stand  spotless  before  me  at  the 
last  day."  (3  Ne.  27:20.) 

When  the  Church  and  kingdom  is  fully  organized  and  operative,  one  baptism  suffices  for  any  one 
person.  There  is  no  need  for  and  no  ordinance  of  rebaptism  in  the  Church.  Excommunicated  persons  must 
of  course  be  baptized  a  second  time  if  they  are  to  be  restored  to  fellowship  in  the  kingdom.  If  there  were 
no  record  or  proof  that  a  person  had  been  baptized,  it  would  be  necessary  to  perfonn  the  ordinance  over 
again.  Joseph  Smith  and  Oliver  Cowdery  were,  of  course,  baptized  for  the  remission  of  sins  on  May  15, 
1829  (Jos.  Smith  2:66-75),  and  were  baptized  again  for  admission  to  the  Church  on  April  6,  1830.  (History 
of  the  Church,  vol.  1,  pp.  75-78.)  Their  first  baptism  could  not  admit  them  to  membership  in  an 
organization  which  did  not  exist  at  the  time  the  ordinance  was  performed.  A  similar  situation  once 
prevailed  among  the  Nephites.  (3  Ne.  7:18-26;  19:7-15.)  Many  of  the  saints  in  this  dispensation  were 
baptized  a  second  time  after  they  anived  in  the  Salt  Lake  Valley.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  332- 
337.) 

Some  different  reasons  exist  as  to  the  need  for  baptism  in  the  case  of  our  Lord,  he  being  without  sin 
and  in  need  of  no  repentance.  His  expression  to  John  was,  "Suffer  it  to  be  so  now:  for  thus  it  becometh  us 
to  fulfil  all  righteousness."  (Matt.  3:15.)  Nephi  explains  that  Clirist  did  fiilfil  all  righteousness  in  being 
baptized  in  that:  1.  He  humbled  himself  before  the  Father;  2.  He  covenanted  to  be  obedient  and  keep  the 
Father's  commandment;  3.  He  had  to  be  baptized  to  gain  admission  to  the  celestial  kingdom;  and  4.  He  set 
an  example  for  all  men  to  follow.  (2  Ne.  31:4-11.)  Our  Lord's  baptism  "showeth  unto  the  children  of  men 
the  straightness  of  the  path,  and  the  naiTowness  of  the  gate,  by  which  they  should  enter,  he  having  set  the 


51 


example  before  them."  (2  Ne.  31:9.)  If  even  the  King  of  the  kingdom  could  not  return  to  his  high  state  of 
pre-existent  exaltation  without  complying  with  his  own  eternal  law  for  admission  to  that  kingdom,  how 
can  any  man  expect  a  celestial  inheritance  without  an  authorized  and  approved  baptism?  Indeed,  so 
unvarying  is  the  eternal  law  which  states,  "Except  a  man  be  bom  of  water  and  of  the  Spirit,  he  cannot 
enter  into  the  kingdom  of  God"  (John  3:5),  that  this  holy  baptismal  ordinance  must  be  performed 
vicariously  for  accountable  persons  who  departed  this  life  unbaptized  but  who  would  have  complied  with 
the  law  had  the  privilege  been  afforded  them.  Hence  we  have  the  doctrine  of  baptism  for  the  dead.  (1  Cor. 
15:29.) 

As  an  everlasting  covenant,  baptism  began  on  this  earth  with  Adam  (Moses  6:64-67)  and  has 
continued  ever  since  whenever  the  Lord  has  had  a  people  on  earth.  (D.  &  C.  20:23-28;  84:26-28.)  It  was 
not  a  new  rite  introduced  by  John  the  Baptist  and  adopted  by  Christ  and  his  followers.  The  Jews  were 
baptizing  their  proselytes  long  before  John,  as  is  well  attested  from  secular  sources.  The  Inspired  Version 
of  the  Bible,  the  BookofMoses  being  a  part  thereof  contains  ample  evidence  of  the  practice  of  baptism  in 
Old  Testament  times.  The  part  of  the  Book  of  Monnon  of  the  pre-Christian  Era  contains  some  of  the  best 
information  we  have  relative  to  this  eternal  law. 

As  with  other  doctrines  and  ordinances,  apostate  substitutes  of  the  real  thing  are  found  both  among 
pagans  and  supposed  Cliristians.  Perverted  fornis  of  baptism  were  common  among  the  mystery  religions 
of  the  old  world.  (Milton  R.  Hunter,  Gospel  Through  the  Ages,  pp.  192-226.)  Some  of  the  churches  of 
modem  Christendom  deny  the  necessity  of  baptism  and  talk  in  temis  of  salvation  coming  by  the  mere  act 
of  confessing  Christ  with  one's  lips.  Others,  not  comprehending  the  mercies  of  Christ  and  the  power  of  his 
atonement,  enlarge  the  doctrine  to  include  children  who  have  not  arrived  at  the  years  of  accountability. 

Tme  water  baptisms  are  performed  by  legal  administrators  who  immerse  the  candidate  in  water.  The 
symbolic  representation  thus  adhered  to  bears  record  of  the  death,  burial,  and  resun'ection  of  Clirist.  (Rom. 
6:1-12.)  Baptism  is  also  symbolical  of  a  new  birth,  with  the  same  elements  -  water,  blood,  and  spirit  - 
being  present  as  are  found  in  the  first  birth.  (Moses  6:59-60)  These  elements  were  also  present  in  the 
circumstances  surrounding  the  atoning  sacrifice  of  our  Lord.  (John  19:28-37;  1  John  5:5-12.)  Thus 
through  this  ordinance  attention  is  also  focused  on  that  most  transcendent  of  all  events.  It  goes  without 
saying  that  sprinkling  or  pouring,  where  supposed  baptisms  are  concemed,  do  not  conforai  to  the  Lord's 
law. 

Baptismal  Fonts 

(Baptismal  Fonts  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  BAPTISM  FOR  THE  DEAD. 

Any  appropriate  body  of  water  of  sufficient  size  -  be  it  stream,  lake,  ocean,  or  artificial  body  -  may 
properly  be  used  for  baptismal  purposes.  Baptisms  in  a  bath  tub  are  not  proper;  there  must  be  ample  room 
for  both  parties  to  go  down  into  the  water.  Many  Latter-day  Saint  church  buildings  have  especially  built 
baptismal  fonts.  Artistic  paintings  and  archaeological  discoveries  both  in  the  Americas  and  in  the  old 
world  show  such  fonts  as  having  been  in  use  in  ancient  times  also.  (Milton  R.  Hunter,  Archaeology  and 
the  Book  of  Momion,  vol.  I,  pp.  89-92.) 

In  our  day,  baptisms  for  the  dead  can  be  performed  only  in  temples.  (D.  &  C.  124:28-35.)  Fonts  for 
such  purposes  should  be  constmcted  only  in  the  basements  or  lower  portions  of  such  buildings.  (D.  &  C. 
128:12-13.) 

Baptism  for  the  Dead 

(Baptism  for  the  Dead  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION,  SALVATION,  SALVATION  FOR  THE  DEAD,  SECOND 
CHANCE  THEORY,  SPIRIT  PRISON,  SPIRIT  WORLD,  TEMPLE  ORDINANCES,  TEMPLES, 
VICARIOUS  ORDINANCES. 

Based  on  the  etemal  principle  of  vicarious  service,  the  Lord  has  ordained  baptism  for  the  dead  as  the 
means  whereby  all  his  worthy  children  of  all  ages  can  become  heirs  of  salvation  in  his  kingdom.  Baptism 
is  the  gate  to  the  celestial  kingdom,  and  except  a  man  be  bom  again  of  water  and  of  the  Spirit  he  cannot 
gain  an  inheritance  in  that  heavenly  world.  (John  3:3-5.)  Obviously,  during  the  frequent  periods  of 
apostate  darkness  when  the  gospel  light  does  not  shine,  and  also  in  those  geographical  areas  where  legal 


52 


administrators  are  not  found,  liosts  of  people  live  and  die  without  ever  entering  in  at  the  gate  of  baptism  so 
as  to  be  on  the  path  leading  to  eternal  life.  For  them  a  just  God  has  ordained  baptism  for  the  dead,  a 
vicarious-proxy  labor.  (D.  &  C.  124:28-36;  127;  128;  1  Cor.  15:29.) 

Baptisms  for  the  dead  were  not  performed  in  pre-meridian  dispensations.  But  since  our  Lord  preached 
to  the  spirits  in  prison,  organizing  his  kingdom  among  them,  these  and  other  vicarious  temple  ordinances 
have  been  perforaied.  The  dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  times  is  the  great  era  of  vicarious  ordinance  work, 
a  work  which  will  continue  during  the  millennial  era  until  it  has  been  performed  for  every  living  soul 
entitled  to  receive  it.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  100-196.) 

Baptism  of  Fire 

(Baptism  of  Fire  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  BORN  AGAIN,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST,  HOLY  GHOST, 
SANCTIFICATION,  SANCTIFIER. 

To  gain  salvation  every  accountable  person  must  receive  two  baptisms.  They  are  baptism  of  water  and 
of  the  Spirit.  (John  3:3-5.)  The  baptism  of  the  Spirit  is  called  the  baptism  of  fire  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 
(Matt.  3:11;  Luke  3: 16;  2  Ne.  31:13-14;  3  Ne.  11:35;  12:1-2;  Morm.  7:10  D.  &C.  20:41;  33:11;  39:6.)  By 
the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  -  who  is  the  Sanctifier  (3  Ne.  27: 1 9-2 1 )  -  dross  iniquity,  carnality,  sensuality, 
and  every  evil  thing  is  burned  out  of  the  repentant  soul  as  if  by  fire;  the  cleansed  person  becomes  literally 
a  new  creature  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  (Mosiah  27:24-26.)  He  is  born  again. 

The  baptism  of  fire  is  not  something  in  addition  to  the  receipt  of  the  Holy  Ghost;  rather,  it  is  the  actual 
enjoyment  of  the  gift  which  is  offered  by  the  laying  on  of  hands  at  the  time  of  baptism.  "Remission  of 
sins,"  the  Lord  says,  comes  "by  baptism  and  by  fire,  yea,  even  the  Holy  Ghost."  (D.  &  C.  19:31;  2  Ne. 
31:17.)  Those  who  receive  the  baptism  of  fire  are  'filled  as  if  with  fire"  (Hela.  5:45.) 

There  have  been,  however,  exceptional  and  miraculous  instances  when  literal  fire  has  attended  the 
baptism  of  the  Spirit.  After  the  baptism  of  the  Nephite  disciples,  "they  were  filled  with  the  Holy  Ghost  and 
with  fire.  And  behold,  they  were  encircled  about  as  if  it  were  by  fire;  and  it  came  down  from  heaven,  and 
the  multitude  did  witness  it,  and  did  bear  record."  (3  Ne.  19: 13-14.)  Similar  manifestations  occurred  on  the 
day  of  Pentecost  (Acts  2:1-4)  and  among  a  gi'oup  of  Lamanite  converts.  (Hela.  5;  3  Ne.  9:20.) 

Baptist 

(Baptist  ) 

See  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST. 

Bastards 

(Bastards  ) 

See  SONS  OF  GOD. 

Since  a  bastard  is  an  illegitimate  child,  one  bom  out  of  wedlock,  Paul  aptly  and  pointedly  uses  the 
term  to  describe  those  who  are  not  sons  of  God,  who  have  not  been  adopted  into  the  family  of  God  as 
joint-heirs  with  Clirist.  (Heb.  12:5-8.)  According  to  his  tenninology  there  are  sons  on  the  one  hand  and 
bastards  on  the  other.  The  sons  inherit  the  fulness  of  the  Father's  kingdom;  the  bastards  -  never  having 
been  bom  of  God  -  are  cast  out  of  the  etemal  family  as  though  they  were  illegitimate;  they  become 
"servants,  to  minister  for  those  who  are  worthy  of  a  far  more,  and  an  exceeding,  and  an  etemal  weight  of 
glory."  (D.  &C.  132:16.) 

Battle  of  Armageddon 

(Battle  of  Annageddon  ) 

See  GOG  AND  MAGOG,  MILLENNIUM,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST,  SUPPER  OF  THE 
GREAT  GOD,  WAR. 

Some  60  air  miles  north  of  Jemsalem  lies  the  ancient  city  of  Megiddo  (now  called  Tell  el-Mutesellim). 
In  its  north-central  Palestinian  location,  Megiddo  overlooks  the  great  plain  of  Esdraelon,  an  area  of  some 


53 


20  by  14  miles  in  which  many  great  battles  took  place  anciently.  Megiddo  is  the  older  Hebrew  form  of 
Armageddon  or  Har-Magedon  meaning  the  Mount  or  Hill  of  Megiddo,  or  the  Hill  of  Battles;  it  is  "the 
valley  of  Megiddon"  mentioned  in  Zechariah.  (Zech.  12:1 1.) 

At  the  very  moment  of  the  Second  Coming  of  our  Lord,  "all  nations"  shall  be  gathered  "against 
Jerusalem  to  battle"  (Zech.  11;  12;  13;  14),  and  the  battle  of  Armageddon  (obviously  covering  the  entire 
area  from  Jerusalem  to  Megiddo,  and  perhaps  more)  will  be  in  progress.  As  John  expressed  it,  "the  kings 
of  the  earth  and  of  the  whole  world"  will  be  gathered  "to  the  battle  of  that  great  day  of  God  Almighty,  into 
a  place  called  in  the  Hebrew  tongue  Armageddon."  Then  Christ  will  "come  as  a  thief,"  meaning 
unexpectedly  and  the  dramatic  upheavals  promised  to  accompany  his  return  will  take  place.  (Rev.  16:14- 
21.)  It  is  incident  to  this  battle  of  Armageddon  that  the  Supper  of  the  Great  God  shall  take  place  (Rev. 
19:1 1-18),  and  it  is  the  same  battle  described  by  Ezekiel  as  the  war  with  Gog  and  Magog.  (Ezek.  38;  39; 
Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  p.  45) 

Battle  of  the  Great  God 

(Battle  of  the  Great  God  ) 

See  GOD  OF  BATTLES,  GOG  AND  MAGOG,  MICHAEL  THE  ARCHANGEL,  WAR. 

After  the  millennium  Satan  "shall  be  loosed  for  a  little  season,  that  he  may  gather  together  his  amies. 
And  Michael,  the  seventh  angel,  even  the  archangel,  shall  gather  together  his  armies,  even  the  hosts  of 
heaven.  And  the  devil  shall  gather  together  his  armies;  even  the  hosts  of  hell,  and  shall  come  up  to  battle 
against  Michael  and  his  amies.  And  then  cometh  the  battle  of  the  great  God;  and  the  devil  and  his  amies 
shall  be  cast  away  into  their  own  place,  that  they  shall  not  have  power  over  the  saints  any  more  at  all."  (D. 
&  C.  88:1 1 1-115.)  This  final  great  battle,  in  which  evil  spirits,  mortal  men,  and  resurrected  personages  all 
participate,  will  be  the  end  of  war  as  far  as  this  earth  is  concerned.  Then  the  earth  shall  be  celestialized  and 
become  the  abode  of  the  righteous  forever.  (D.  &  C.  88:16-3 1,  1 16.) 

Bearing  False  Witness 

(Bearing  False  Witness  ) 

See  GOSSIPING,  LAW  OF  WITNESSES,  LIARS,  TEN  COMMANDMENTS. 

1.  "Thou  shalt  not  bear  false  witness  against  thy  neighbour."  (Ex.  20:16.)  "Thou  shall  not  raise  a  false 
report:  put  not  thine  hand  with  the  wicked  to  be  an  unrighteous  witness."  (Ex.  23:1.)  Witnesses  who 
wilfully  testify  falsely  are  liars  and  perjurers  and  will  be  rewarded  accordingly.  Many  false  witnesses 
came  forth  to  testify  against  Jesus  when  the  Jews  sought  his  life.  (Mark  14:53-65.)  Gossiping  and  the 
spreading  of  false  and  idle  rumors  about  a  person  is  a  form  of  bearing  false  witness. 

2.  To  testify  falsely  about  the  truths  of  salvation,  or  to  claim  truth  and  verity  for  a  false  system  of 
salvation,  is  also  to  bear  false  witness.  According  to  the  Lord's  system,  almost  all  things  are  established  in 
the  mouths  of  witnesses.  Apostles  and  seventies,  for  instance,  are  given  the  special  calling  of  standing  as 
especial  witnesses  of  the  name  of  Christ.  Every  member  of  the  Church  is  obligated  to  be  a  witness  of  the 
restoration.  Those,  however,  who  teach  false  doctrines  are  bearing  false  witness;  and  those  who  claim, 
falsely,  that  salvation  is  found  in  some  system  other  than  the  very  one  ordained  by  Deity  are  bearing 
record  of  that  which  is  not  true  -  and  along  with  all  false  witnesses  will  be  rewarded  according  to  their 
deeds. 

Beelzebub 

(Beelzebub  ) 

See  BAAL  (BAALIM),  DEVIL. 

This  name  for  Satan  signifies  his  position  as  the  prince  or  chief  of  the  devils.  It  is  the  same  name 
(Baalzebub)  as  was  given  to  an  ancient  heathen  god.  (2  Kings  1:3.)  In  their  rebellion  against  light,  the 
ancient  Jews  applied  the  name  Beelzebub  to  Christ  (Matt.  10:25),  and  also  said  that  he  cast  out  devils  by 
the  power  of  Beelzebub.  (Matt.  12:22-30.) 


54 


Beggars 

(Beggars  ) 

See  ALMSGIVING,  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  POOR. 

Kindness  and  help  toward  bears  is  a  basic  principle  of  pure  religion.  It  frequently  happens  that 
temporal  prosperity  has  no  relationship  to  righteousness  or  the  lack  of  it.  Wars,  disasters,  calamities, 
prolonged  illness,  or  any  of  a  number  of  circumstances  beyond  human  control,  might  turn  the  most 
affluent  persons  into  beggars. 

In  the  Lord's  view,  men  are  judged  by  what  they  are  and  not  what  they  have.  Blind  Bartimaeus,  who 
begged  on  the  Jericho  road,  and  the  beggar  at  the  pool  of  Siloam  both  had  faith  to  receive  their  sight. 
(Mark  10:46-52;  John  9.)  Upon  his  death  the  beggar  Lazarus  was  carried  by  the  angels  to  the  paradise  of 
Abraham's  bosom.  (Luke  16:19-31.)  And  it  was  a  beggar,  lame  from  his  mother's  womb,  who  obeyed 
Peter's  God-given  command:  "In  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Nazareth  rise  up  and  walk."  (Acts  3;  4.)  Poor 
people  have  ever  been  the  recipients  of  special  prophetic  solicitude,  and  the  law  made  special  provision 
for  their  poverty  and  destitute  circumstances.  (Lev.  19:10;  25:25;  Ps.  69:33.) 

King  Benjamin  spoke  feelingly  to  his  people  of  their  responsibility  to  love  and  serve  God  and  their 
fellow  men,  saying  that  if  they  did,  then,  "Ye  yourselves  will  succor  those  that  stand  in  need  of  your 
succor;  ye  will  administer  of  your  substance  unto  him  that  standeth  in  need;  and  ye  will  not  suffer  that  the 
beggar  putteth  up  his  petition  to  you  in  vain,  and  turn  him  out  to  perish.  Perhaps  thou  shall  say:  The  man 
has  brought  upon  himself  his  misery;  therefore  I  will  stay  my  hand,  and  will  not  give  unto  him  of  my  food, 
nor  impart  unto  him  of  my  substance  that  he  may  not  suffer,  for  his  punishments  are  just  -  But  I  say  unto 
you,  O  man,  whosoever  doeth  this  the  same  hath  great  cause  to  repent;  and  except  he  repenteth  of  that 
which  he  hath  done  he  perisheth  forever,  and  hath  no  interest  in  the  kingdom  of  God.  For  behold,  are  we 
not  all  beggars?  Do  we  not  all  depend  upon  the  same  Being,  even  God,  for  all  the  substance  which  we 
have,  for  both  food  and  raiment,  and  for  gold,  and  for  silver,  and  for  all  the  riches  which  we  have  of  every 
kind?  And  behold,  even  at  this  time,  ye  have  been  calling  on  his  name,  and  begging  for  a  remission  of 
your  sins.  And  has  he  suffered  that  ye  have  begged  in  vain?"  (Mosiah  4: 16-20.) 

Beginning 

(Beginning  ) 

See  BEGINNING  AND  END,  CREATION,  PRE-EXISTENCE. 

There  is  no  such  thing  as  an  ultimate  beginning,  a  time  prior  to  which  there  was  nothing,  any  more 
than  there  ever  can  be  an  ending,  a  time  past  which  there  will  be  nothing.  "The  elements  are  eternal."  (D. 
&  C.  93:33.)  Spirit  element  (that  is,  "the  intelligence  of  spirits")  always  existed.  "Is  it  logical  to  say  that 
the  intelligence  of  spirits  is  immortal,  and  yet  that  it  had  a  beginning?"  the  Prophet  asked.  "The 
intelligence  of  spirits  had  no  beginning,  neither  will  it  have  an  end.  That  is  good  logic.  That  which  has  a 
beginning  may  have  an  end."  (Teachings,  pp.  353-354.) 

Such  scriptural  assertions  as,  "I  was  in  the  beginning  with  the  Father,  and  am  the  Firstborn;  ...  Ye 
were  also  in  the  beginning  with  the  Father"  (D.  &  C.  93:21-23),  simply  mean  that  all  the  spirit  offspring  of 
the  Father  were  with  him  in  pre-existence.  Spirit  entities  as  such,  in  their  organized  foim  as  the  offspring 
of  Deity,  have  not  existed  as  long  as  God  has,  for  he  is  their  Father,  and  he  begat  them  as  spirits. 

Thus  there  are  two  principles:  1.  That  "man  was  also  in  the  beginning  with  God,"  meaning  that  the 
spirits  of  men  were  created,  begotten,  and  organized,  that  they  came  into  being  as  spirits  at  the  time  of 
their  spirit  birth;  and  2.  That  "intelligence,  or  the  light  of  truth,  was  not  created  or  made,  neither  indeed 
can  be"  (D.  &  C.  93:29),  meaning  that  spirit  element,  "the  intelligence  of  spirits,"  the  substance  from 
which  they  were  created  as  entities,  has  always  existed  and  is  as  eternal  as  God  himself.  This  is  the  connect 
meaning  and  purport  of  the  scriptures  and  of  the  Prophet's  explanation  of  the  immortal  spirit,  as  found  in 
the  King  Follett  Sernion.  (Teachings,  pp.  352-354.) 

Similarly,  the  expression,  "In  the  beginning  God  created  the  heaven  and  the  earth"  (Gen.  1:1),  means 
there  was  a  time  of  commencement  as  far  as  the  earth  in  its  present  organized  or  created  form  is 
concerned.  But  the  elements  from  which  the  creation  took  place  are  eternal  and  therefore  had  no 
beginning. 


55 


Beginning  and  End 

(Beginning  and  End  ) 

See  ALPHA  AND  OMEGA,  CHRIST,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY,  EVERLASTING  TO 
EVERLASTING,  FIRST  AND  LAST. 

Christ  is  the  Beginning  and  the  End.  (D.  &  C.  35:1;  38:1;  45:7;  54:1;  61:1;  84:120;  Rev.  1:8-17;  21:6; 
22:13.)  These  are  English  words  having  substantially  the  same  meaning  as  the  Greek  Alpha  and  Omega. 
The  thought  conveyed  is  one  of  timelessness,  of  a  being  who  is  the  Beginning  and  the  End  because  his 
"course  is  one  eternal  round,  the  same  today  as  yesterday  and  forever."  (D.  &  C.  35:1.)  He  was  God  "in 
the  beginning"  (John  1:1-3);  he  is  God  now;  he  will  be  God  in  the  "end,"  that  is  to  all  eternity.  The 
beginning  is  the  pre-existent  eternity  that  went  before;  the  end  is  the  immortal  eternity  that  is  to  come. 

Bel 

(Bel  ) 

See  BAAL  (BAALIM),  FALSE  GODS. 

Bel  was  the  chief  god  of  Babylon  probably  the  sun  god  of  both  the  Assyrians  and  the  Babylonians.  He 
was  essentially  identical  with  the  Phoenician  and  Canaanitish  god  Baal,  also  called  Belus.  The  Lord 
promised  to  confound  and  punish  Bel  (Jer.  50:2;  51:44)  "for  I  am  God,  and  there  is  none  else.  (Isa.  45:22; 
46:1-2.) 

Belial 

(Belial  ) 

See  DEVIL,  FALSE  GODS,  SONS  OF  BELIAL. 

Belial  is  one  of  the  names  of  Satan  and  has  particular  reference  to  the  fact  that  he  is  the  personification 
of  evil  and  lawlessness.  The  literal  meaning  of  the  tenn  is  worthlessness  with  an  especial  connotation  of 
recklessness  and  lawlessness.  Paul  made  use  of  this  name  of  Satan  in  this  persuasive  language:  "What 
fellowship  hath  righteousness  with  unrighteousness?  and  what  communion  hath  light  with  darkness?  And 
what  concord  hath  Christ  with  Belial?  or  what  part  hath  he  that  believeth  with  an  infidel?  And  what 
agreement  hath  the  temple  of  God  with  idols?"  (2  Cor.  6:14-18.) 

Belief 

(Belief  ) 

See  BELIEVERS,  CHRIST,  FAITH,  GOD,  MIRACLES,  OBEDIENCE,  REPENTANCE, 
SALVATION,  TESTIMONY,  TRUTH. 

1.  In  nearly  every  instance,  the  scriptures  use  belief  as  a  synonym  for  faith.  The  two  temis  are 
interchangeable  they  mean  the  same  thing,  are  gained  in  the  same  way,  and  the  same  effects  flow  from 
them.  The  prophet  adopted  this  usage  in  the  Lectures  on  Faith;  and  accordingly,  no  one  has  faith  in  Christ 
who  does  not  believe  that  he  is  the  Son  of  God,  nor  does  a  person  believe  in  Christ  in  the  fiill  sense 
without  having  faith  in  him.  Faith  is  belief,  and  belief  is  faith.  To  illustrate:  Two  blind  men  besought  Jesus 
to  restore  their  sight.  "Believe  ye  that  1  am  able  to  do  this?"  he  asked;  and  deceiving  an  affirmative,  "Yea, 
Lord,"  in  reply,  "Then  touched  he  their  eyes,  saying.  According  to  your  faith  be  it  unto  you.  And  their  eyes 
were  opened."  (Matt.  9:27-31:  Rom.  10:13-17.) 

Belief  in  Christ  is  essential  to  salvation.  (John  12:34-50;  17:21;  Rom.  9:33;  10:8-9;  Heb.  10:39;  D.  & 
C.  20:29;  29:43-44;  84:74;  Moses  6:52.)  The  gifts  of  the  Spirit  come  because  of  belief  (Mark  16:16-18;  D. 
&  C.  58:64;  68:8-12;  84:64-74);  miracles  are  wrought  and  the  dead  are  raised  because  of  it  (Matt.  8:13; 
Mark  5:35-43;  John  11:1 1-46);  and  "all  things  are  possible  to  him  that  believeth."  (Mark  9:23-24.  "He  that 
believeth  on  me,"  the  Lord  said,  "the  works  that  I  do  shall  he  do  also;  and  greater  works  than  these  shall  he 
do;  14:12.)  In  this  connection  it  is  important  to  note  the  explanation  the  prophet  that  "the  greater  work 
which  those  that  believed  on  his  name  were  to  do  were  to  be  done  in  eternity,  where  he  was  going  and 
where  they  should  behold  his  glory."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  p.  66.) 


56 


"Repent  all  ye  ends  of  the  earth,  and  come  unto  me,"  Christ  said  in  summarizing  the  plan  of  salvation, 
"and  believe  in  my  gospel,  and  be  baptized  in  my  name;  for  he  that  believeth  and  is  baptized  shall  be 
saved;  but  he  that  believeth  not  shall  be  damned;  and  signs  shall  follow  them  that  believe  in  my  name." 
(Ether  4: 18.) 

Belief  in  the  various  truths  must  be  accepted  if  salvation  is  to  be  won,  cannot  be  parceled  out  in  such  a 
way  as  to  accept  one  essential  truth  and  reject  another.  All  phases  of  the  doctrines  of  salvation  are  so 
intertwined  with  each  other  that  it  is  not  possible  to  believe  one  pai1  without  also  believing  all  parts  of 
which  knowledge  has  been  gained.  Thus  no  one  can  believe  in  Christ  without  believing  in  his  Father  also. 
(Matt.  11:27;  John  5:23;  6:44;  12:44-46;  14:1,  6.)  And  no  one  can  accept  Christ  without  accepting  the 
prophets  who  testify  of  him.  "He  that  believeth  not  my  words  believeth  not  my  disciples,"  the  Lord  said. 
"But  he  that  believeth  these  things  which  I  have  spoken,  him  will  I  visit  with  the  manifestations  of  my 
Spirit,  and  he  shall  know  and  bear  record.  ...  He  that  will  not  believe  my  words  will  not  believe  me  -  that 
I  am;  and  he  that  will  not  believe  me  will  not  believe  the  Father  who  sent  me."  (Ether  4:10-12.) 

"Had  ye  believed  Moses,"  he  also  said,  "ye  would  have  believed  me:  for  he  wrote  of  me.  But  if  ye 
believe  not  his  writings,  how  shall  ye  believe  my  words?"  (John  5:46-47.)  "Believe  in  Christ  and  deny  him 
not,"  Nephi  said,  "for  by  denying  him  ye  also  deny  the  prophets  and  the  law."  (2  Ne.  25:28.)  To  prosper, 
the  saints  must  both  "believe  in  the  Lord"  and  also  "believe  his  prophets."  (2  Chron.  20:20;  John  15:1-11.) 

No  one  in  our  day  who  has  an  understanding  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  can  believe  in  Clirist  unless  he 
also  believes  the  Book  of  Mormon.  Speaking  of  that  record,  Nephi  says:  "If  ye  shall  believe  in  Christ  ye 
will  believe  in  these  words,  for  they  are  the  words  of  Christ."  (2  Ne.  33:10.)  Similarly,  people  who  have  an 
understanding  of  both  the  Book  of  Mormon  and  the  Bible  caimot  believe  the  one  without  believing  the 
other  also.  In  speaking  of  the  Bible  and  Book  of  Mormon,  the  Prophet  Mormon  said,  "If  ye  believe  that  ye 
will  believe  this  also."  (Morm.  7:8-9.) 

The  same  principle  applies  to  the  acceptance  of  Joseph  Smith  as  a  Prophet.  President  Brigham  Young 
taught:  "There  is  not  that  being  that  ever  had  the  privilege  of  hearing  the  way  of  life  and  salvation  set 
before  him  as  it  is  written  in  the  New  Testament,  and  in  the  Book  of  Monnon,  and  in  the  book  of  Doctrine 
and  Covenants,  by  a  Latter-day  Saint,  that  can  say  that  Jesus  lives,  that  his  gospel  is  true,  and  at  the  same 
time  say  that  Joseph  Smith  was  not  a  Prophet  of  God.  That  is  strong  testimony,  but  it  is  true.  No  man  can 
say  that  this  book  [laying  his  hand  on  the  Bible]  is  tme,  is  the  word  of  the  Lord,  is  the  way,  is  the 
guideboard  in  the  path,  and  a  charter  by  which  we  may  learn  the  will  of  God;  and  at  the  same  time  say, 
that  the  Book  of  Monnon  is  untrue;  if  he  has  had  the  privilege  of  reading  it,  or  of  hearing  it  read,  and 
learning  its  doctrines.  There  is  not  that  person  on  the  face  of  the  earth  who  has  had  the  privilege  of 
learning  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ  from  these  two  books,  that  can  say  that  one  is  true,  and  the  other  is 
false.  No  Latter-day  Saint,  no  man  or  woman,  can  say  the  Book  of  Mormon  is  true,  and  at  the  same  time 
say  that  the  Bible  is  untrue.  If  one  be  true,  both  are;  and  if  one  be  false,  both  are  false.  If  Jesus  lives,  and  is 
the  Savior  of  the  world,  Joseph  Smith  is  a  Prophet  of  God,  and  lives  in  the  bosom  of  his  father  Abraham. 
Though  they  have  killed  his  body,  yet  he  lives  and  beholds  the  face  of  his  Father  in  Heaven;  and  his 
garments  are  pure  as  the  angels  that  surround  the  throne  of  God;  and  no  man  on  the  earth  can  say  that 
Jesus  lives,  and  deny,  at  the  same  time,  my  assertion  about  the  Prophet  Joseph.  This  is  my  testimony,  and 
it  is  strong."  (Discourses,  new  ed.,  p.  459.) 

2.  In  a  few  scriptural  instances,  belief  is  used  to  signify  mental  assent  to  a  proposition  whether  the 
matter  assented  to  is  true  or  false.  This  usage  gives  belief  no  similarity  whatever  to  faith.  This  kind  of 
belief  may  or  may  not  be  predicated  on  truth,  and  salvation  does  not  result  from  it.  Thus  the  devils 
"believe,  and  tremble"  (Jas.  2:19),  for  they  know  who  Christ  is  and  await  with  awfiil  foreboding  their 
destined  fate.  And  thus  also  an  apostate  world  has  turned  to  "strong  delusion,"  as  for  instance  by  accepting 
the  false  doctrines  of  the  day,  causing  them  to  "believe  a  lie:  That  they  all  might  be  damned  who  believed 
not  the  truth,  but  had  pleasure  in  unrighteousness."  (2  Thess.  2:11-12.) 

Beliefs 

(Beliefs  ) 

See  DOCTRINE. 


57 


Believers 

(Believers  ) 

See  BELIEF,  BELIEVING  BLOOD,  BRETHREN,  CHRISTIANS,  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST 
OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  DISCIPLES,  HEATHENS,  MORMONS,  PROPHETS,  SAINTS, 
TESTIMONY,  TRUTH. 

1 .  Those  who  believe  in  Christ,  who  accept  his  doctrines,  and  who  cleave  unto  the  disciples  whom  he 
sends  to  declare  those  doctrines  and  to  administer  the  ordinances  of  salvation  are  called  believers.  All 
others  are  unbelievers  or  nonbelievers.  Believers  have  views  founded  on  truth;  acceptance  of  apostate 
doctrines,  of  false  scientific  theories,  or  of  error  in  any  field,  makes  a  person  a  nonbeliever.  Believers 
accept  the  fulness  of  the  gospel  and  reject  all  theories  and  views  inharmonious  with  it;  they  are  the  saints 
of  God,  members  of  the  sheepfold  of  Christ. 

There  are,  of  course,  many  devout  people  in  all  churches  who  believe  in  Christ  and  seek  to  do  his  will, 
insofar  as  their  knowledge  of  him  pennits  them  so  to  do.  But  until  they  receive  the  tmth  and  light  revealed 
in  latter-days  and  until  they  gain  the  personal  revelation  which  follows  enjoyment  of  the  gift  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  their  belief  and  understanding  cannot  be  perfected. 

Thus,  in  the  full  sense,  the  faithful  members  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  are  the 
only  true  believers  in  the  world  today,  just  as  the  apostolic  converts  of  the  early  Christian  Era  were  the 
only  true  believers  in  that  day.  (D.  &  C.  74:5.)  Similarly,  the  Nephites  in  their  day  (4  Ne.  36)  and  the 
saints  in  the  various  dispensations  have  been  the  true  believers.  Men  are  saved  by  belief,  damned  by 
unbelief  (D.  &  C.  68:9;  84:74;  1 12:29),  or  in  other  words  believers  are  saved,  unbelievers  are  dainned. 

2.  As  used  by  so-called  Christian  people  generally,  the  term  believers  means  those  who  accept  what 
the  world  considers  Christianity  to  be  without  reference  to  the  truth  or  falsity  of  the  divergent  doctrines 
and  views  espoused.  In  a  like  sense,  one  could  speak  of  believers  in  Mohammedanism,  or  in  evolution,  or 
in  communism,  or  in  any  philosophy  which  is  or  serees  as  a  religion  to  the  person  accepting  it. 

Believing  Blood 

(Believing  Blood  ) 

See  ADOPTION,  BELIEF,  FAITH,  FOREORDINATION,  ISRAEL,  PRE-EXISTENCE. 

This  is  a  figurative  expression  commonly  used  to  designate  the  aptitude  and  inclination  of  certain 
persons  to  accept  and  believe  the  principles  of  revealed  religion.  In  general  the  Lord  sends  to  earth  in  the 
lineage  of  Jacob  those  spirits  who  in  pre-existence  developed  an  especial  talent  for  spirituality  and  for 
recognizing  truth.  Those  bom  in  this  lineage,  having  the  blood  of  Israel  in  their  veins  and  finding  it  easy  to 
accept  the  gospel,  are  said  to  have  believing  blood. 

Since  much  of  Israel  has  been  scattered  among  the  Gentile  nations,  it  follows  that  millions  of  people 
have  mixed  blood,  blood  that  is  part  Israel  and  part  Gentile.  The  more  of  the  blood  of  Israel  that  an 
individual  has,  the  easier  it  is  for  him  to  believe  the  message  of  salvation  as  taught  by  the  authorized 
agents  of  the  Lord.  This  principle  is  the  one  our  Lord  had  in  mind  when  he  said  to  certain  Jews:  "I  am  the 
good  shepherd,  and  know  my  sheep,  and  am  known  of  mine.  But  ye  believe  not,  because  ye  are  not  of  my 
sheep,  as  I  said  unto  you.  My  sheep  hear  my  voice,  and  I  know  them,  and  they  follow  me."  (John  10:14, 
26-27.] 

Beloved 

(Beloved  ) 

See  BELOVED  SON. 

Beloved  Son 

(Beloved  Son  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ONLY  BEGOTTEN  SON,  SON,  SON  OF  GOD. 

"This  is  My  Beloved  Son.  Hear  Him!"  (Jos.  Smith  2:17.)  These  are  the  words  by  which  the  Father 
introduces  the  Son  and  commands  men  to  hearken  to  his  teachings.  (Matt.  3:17;  17:5;  Mark  1:11;  Luke 


58 


3:22;  D.  &  C.  93:15;  2  Ne.  31:11;  3  Ne.  11:7;  21:20.)  Christ  is  the  Beloved  Son,  which  signifies  his 
favored,  preferential,  Chosen,  and  Beloved  status  (Moses  4:2),  and  also  his  divine  Sonship. 

Benediction 

(Benediction  ) 
See  PRAYER. 

Bereavement 

(Bereavement  ) 
See  MOURNING. 

Betrothal 

(Betrothal  ) 
See  ESPOUSAL. 

Betting 

(Betting  ) 

See  GAMBLING. 

Bible 

(Bible  ) 

See  APOCALYPSE,  APOCRYPHA,  BOOK  OF  MORMON,  CANON  OF  SCRIPTURE,  DOCTRINE 
AND  COVENANTS,  EPISTLES,  GOSPELS,  INSPIRED  VERSION  OF  THE  BIBLE,  LOST 
SCRIPTURE,  MORMON  BIBLE,  NEW  TESTAMENT,  OLD  TESTAMENT,  PEARL  OF  GREAT 
PRICE,  SCRIPTURE,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  STANDARD  WORKS,  STICK  OF  EPHRAIM. 

That  portion  of  the  writings  of  inspired  men  in  the  old  world  which,  in  the  providences  of  the 
Almighty,  has  been  handed  down  from  age  to  age  until  modern  times  is  called  the  Bible.  These  writings  in 
their  original  foim  were  perfect  scripture;  they  were  the  mind  and  will  of  the  Lord,  his  voice  to  his  chosen 
people  and  to  all  who  would  hear  it.  (D.  &  C.  68:4.)  That  they  have  not  come  down  to  us  in  their  perfect 
form  is  well  known  in  the  Church  and  by  all  reputable  scholars.  Only  a  few  fanatics  among  the  sects  of 
Christendom  close  their  eyes  to  reality  and  profess  to  believe  in  what  they  call  verbal  revelation,  that  is, 
that  every  word  and  syllable  in  some  version  or  other  of  the  Bible  is  the  exact  word  spoken  by  Deity. 

"1  believe  the  Bible  as  it  read  when  it  came  from  the  pen  of  the  original  writers,"  the  Prophet  said. 
"Ignorant  translators,  careless  transcribers,  or  designing  and  coniipt  priests  have  committed  many  errors." 
(Teachings,  p.  327;  Eighth  Article  of  Faith.)  Nephi  recorded  that  the  Bible,  in  its  original  form,  "contained 
the  plainness  of  the  gospel  of  the  Lord."  After  it  had  passed  through  the  hands  of  "a  great  and  abominable 
church,  which  is  most  abominable  above  all  other  churches,"  however,  he  saw  that  "many  plain  and 
precious  things  "were  deleted,  in  consequence  of  which  error  and  falsehood  poured  into  the  various 
churches.  (1  Ne.  13.) 

Yet  with  it  all,  the  Bible  is  a  book  of  books.  It  has  enlightened  and  influenced  the  Christian  world 
generally  as  no  other  book  has  ever  done.  Such  measure  of  truth  as  was  preserved  in  its  pages  (as  soon  as 
this  truth  became  known  to  people  generally)  was  instrumental  in  bringing  to  pass  the  Renaissance  and  of 
laying  the  foundation  for  the  restoration  of  the  gospel.  When  the  Bible  is  read  under  the  guidance  of  the 
Spirit,  and  in  harmony  with  the  many  latter-day  revelations  which  interpret  and  make  plain  its  more 
mysterious  parts,  it  becomes  one  of  the  most  priceless  volumes  known  to  man.  "He  who  reads  it  oftenest 
will  like  it  best,  and  he  who  is  acquainted  with  it,  will  know  the  Hand  [of  the  Lord]  wherever  he  can  see 
it,"  the  Prophet  taught.  (Teachings,  p.  56.) 

In  its  present  forni,  the  Bible  is  divided  into  Old  and  New  Testaments  and  has  a  total  of  66  books 
within  its  covers.  These  books  contain  doctrinal,  historical,  prophetic,  and  poetic  materials  of  transcendent 
worth.  Members  of  the  Church  are  commanded  to  teach  the  principles  of  the  gospel  "which  are  in  the 
Bible."  (D.  &C.  42:12.) 


59 


One  of  the  great  heresies  of  modem  Christendom  is  the  unfounded  assumption  that  the  Bible  contains 
all  of  the  inspired  teachings  now  extant  among  men.  Foreseeing  that  Satan  would  darken  the  minds  of  men 
in  this  way,  and  knowing  that  other  scripture  would  come  forth  in  the  last  days,  Nephi  prophesied  that 
unbelieving  Christians  would  reject  the  new  revelation  with  the  cry:  "A  Bible!  A  Bible!  We  have  got  a 
Bible,  and  there  cannot  be  any  more  Bible." 

And  then  he  recorded  this  answering  proclamation  from  the  Lord:  "Thou  fool,  that  shall  say:  A  Bible, 
we  have  got  a  Bible  and  we  need  no  more  Bible.  Have  ye  obtained  a  Bible  save  it  were  by  the  Jews? 
Know  ye  not  that  there  are  more  nations  than  one?  Know  ye  not  that  I,  the  Lord  your  God,  have  created  all 
men,  and  that  I  remember  those  who  are  upon  the  isles  of  the  sea;  and  that  I  rule  in  the  heavens  above  and 
in  the  earth  beneath;  and  I  bring  forth  my  word  unto  the  children  of  men,  yea,  even  Upon  all  the  nations  of 
the  earth?  Wherefore  murmur  ye  because  that  ye  shall  receive  more  of  my  word?"  (2  Ne.  29.) 

Bible  Versions 

(Bible  Versions  ) 

See  KING  JAMES  VERSION  OF  THE  BIBLE. 

Bigamy 

(Bigamy  ) 

See  SEX  IMMORALITY. 

Bigotry 

(Bigotry  ) 

See  TOLERANCE. 

Bigotry  -  that  is,  blind,  obstinate,  intolerant,  and  unreasoning  adherence  to  a  particular  view  -  has  no 
place  among  the  true  saints.  They  have  the  truth;  their  doctrines  will  bear  investigation;  there  is  no  reason 
to  close  the  mind  against  light  and  inquiry  where  any  principle  of  the  gospel  is  concerned. 

Bill  of  Divorcement 

(Bill  of  Divorcement  ) 
See  DIVORCE. 

Bill  of  Rights 

(Bill  of  Rights  ) 

See  CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES,  FREEDOM,  INALIENABLE  RIGHTS, 
LIBERTY. 

The  first  10  amendments  to  the  constitution  of  the  United  States  are  called  the  bill  of  rights.  Their 
purpose  is  to  protect  men  in  their  inalienable  rights  (such  as  life  and  liberty)  by  guaranteeing  civil  rights 
(such  as  trial  by  jury).  Federal  guarantees  of  freedom  of  speech,  of  worship,  and  of  the  press  are  found  in 
the  bill  of  rights.  Obviously  the  establishment  and  spread  of  the  gospel  is  facilitated  by  such  legal 
guarantees. 

Binding 

(Binding  ) 
See  SEALINGS. 

Birds 

(Birds  ) 

See  ANIMALS. 


60 


Birth 


(Birth  ) 

See  BEGINNING,  BIRTH  CONTROL,  BIRTHDAYS,  BIRTHRIGHT,  BORN  AGAIN,  SPIRIT 
CHILDREN,  STILLBORN  CHILDREN. 

All  men  were  first  bom  in  pre-existence  as  the  literal  spirit  offspring  of  God  our  Heavenly  Father.  This 
birth  constituted  the  beginning  of  the  human  ego  as  a  conscious  identity.  By  the  ordained  procreative 
process  our  exalted  and  immortal  Father  begat  his  spirit  progeny  in  pre-existence.  "All  men  and  women 
are  in  the  similitude  of  the  universal  Father  and  Mother,  and  are  literally  the  sons  and  daughters  of  Deity," 
President  Joseph  F.  Smith  and  his  associates  in  the  First  Presidency  declared.  (Improvement  Era,  vol.  13, 
pp.  75-81.) 

True,  as  Joseph  Smith  taught,  man  "is  a  self-existent  being,"  for  "the  intelligence  of  spirits  is 
immortal,"  and  "had  no  beginning."  (Teachings,  pp.  352-354.)  That  is  to  say  the  bodies  of  Deity's  spirit 
children  were  created  from  the  existing  spirit  element  just  as  the  spirit  bodies  of  the  progeny  of  future 
exalted  beings  will  be  organized  from  the  same  substance.  Abraham  referred  to  the  spirit  children  of  our 
Father  as  "the  intelligences  that  were  organized  before  the  world  was."  (Abra.  3:22.) 

Christ,  destined  to  be  the  Only  Begotten  Son  in  mortality,  was  the  first  spirit  offspring  in  pre- 
existence.  He  "is  the  Firstborn  among  all  the  sons  of  God  -  the  first  begotten  in  the  spirit,  and  the  Only 
Begotten  in  the  flesh.  He  is  our  elder  brother."  (Improvement  Era,  vol.  13,  pp.  75-81.)  "I  was  in  the 
beginning  with  the  Father,  and  am  the  Firstborn;  ...  Ye  were  also  in  the  beginning  with  the  Father,"  he 
has  revealed.  (D.  &  C.  93:21-23.) 

When  the  spirit  children  of  the  Father  pass  from  his  presence  into  this  mortal  sphere,  a  mortal  birth 
results.  Again  by  the  ordained  procreative  process  a  body  is  provided,  but  this  time  it  is  made  from  the 
dust  of  this  earth,  that  is,  from  the  natural  elements  which  appertain  to  this  temporal  sphere.  Three  things 
are  necessary  to  effect  every  mortal  birth.  They  are:  water,  blood,  and  spirit  -  the  same  elements  found  in 
every  rebirth  into  the  fellowship  of  God's  kingdom.  (Moses  6:59.) 

Since  Adam,  all  who  have  been  bom  into  the  world  have  come  as  the  offspring  of  mortal  parents, 
excepting  only  the  Lord  Jesus.  He  came  into  the  world  as  the  Son  of  a  mortal  mother  and  an  Immortal 
Father,  thus  inheriting  the  power  both  to  lay  down  his  life  and  to  take  it  again  in  immortality.  (John  10:10- 
18.) 

Birth  into  this  life  is  a  great  blessing  in  that  it  furthers  the  etemal  advancement  of  the  obedient.  Those 
who  fight  the  tmth  and  come  out  in  open  rebellion  against  God,  however,  would  have  remained  better  off 
had  they  never  been  bom.  (D.  &  C.  76:32.)  Their  punishment  will  be  so  severe  that  the  privilege  of 
progression  offered  through  mortal  birth  becomes  a  curse  unto  them. 

"And  wo  be  unto  him  that  will  not  hearken  unto  the  words  of  Jesus,  and  also  to  them  whom  he  hath 
chosen  and  sent  among  them;  for  whoso  receiveth  not  the  words  of  Jesus  and  the  words  of  those  whom  he 
hath  sent  receiveth  not  him;  and  therefore  he  will  not  receive  them  at  the  last  day;  And  it  would  be  better 
for  them  if  they  had  not  been  bom.  For  do  ye  suppose  that  ye  can  get  rid  of  the  justice  of  an  offended  God, 
who  hath  been  trampled  under  feet  of  men,  that  thereby  salvation  might  come?"  (3  Ne.  28:34-35)  These, 
also,  would  have  been  better  off  to  have  remained  in  pre-existence,  never  chancing  the  probation  of 
mortality. 

Birth  Control 

(Birth  Control  ) 

See  BIRTH,  SPIRIT  CHILDREN. 

In  the  begiiming  the  Lord  commanded  man  to  be  fraitful  and  multiply  and  fill  the  earth  with  posterity, 
thus  providing  bodies  for  the  hosts  of  pre-existent  spirits.  (Gen.  1:28.)  "Marriage  is  ordained  of  God  .  .  . 
that  the  earth  might  answer  the  end  of  its  creation;  And  that  it  might  be  filled  with  the  measure  of  man, 
according  to  his  creation  before  the  world  was  made."  (D.  &  C.  49:15-17.) 

President  Brigham  Young  stated  the  position  of  the  Church  relative  to  birth  control  in  these  words: 
"There  are  multitudes  of  pure  and  holy  spirits  waiting  to  take  tabernacles,  now  what  is  our  duty?  To 
prepare  tabemacles  for  them;  to  take  a  course  that  will  not  tend  to  drive  those  spirits  into  the  families  of 
the  wicked,  where  they  will  be  trained  in  wickedness,  debauchery,  and  every  species  of  crime.  It  is  the 


61 


duty  of  every  righteous  man  and  woman  to  prepare  tabernacles  for  all  the  spirits  they  can."  (Discourses, 
new  ed.,  p.  197.) 

President  Joseph  F.  Smith  has  said  in  relation  to  this  question:  "Those  who  have  taken  upon 
themselves  the  responsibility  of  wedded  life  should  see  to  it  that  they  do  not  abuse  the  course  of  nature; 
that  they  do  not  destroy  the  principle  of  life  within  them,  nor  violate  any  of  the  commandments  of  God. 
The  command  which  he  gave  in  the  beginning  to  multiply  and  replenish  the  earth  is  still  in  force  upon  the 
children  of  men.  Possibly  no  greater  sin  could  be  committed  by  the  people  who  have  embraced  this  gospel 
then  to  prevent  or  to  destroy  life  in  the  manner  indicated.  We  are  bom  into  the  world  that  we  may  have 
life,  and  we  live  that  we  may  have  a  fulness  of  joy,  and  if  we  will  obtain  a  fulness  of  joy,  we  must  obey 
the  law  of  our  creation  and  the  law  by  which  we  may  obtain  the  consummation  of  our  righteous  hopes  and 
desires  -  life  eternal."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp.  276-277.) 

Also:  "I  regret,  I  think  it  is  a  crying  evil,  that  there  should  exist  a  sentiment  or  a  feeling  among  any 
members  of  the  Church  to  curtail  the  birth  of  their  children.  I  think  that  is  a  crime  wherever  it  occurs, 
where  husband  and  wife  are  in  possession  of  health  and  vigor  and  are  free  from  impurities  that  would  be 
entailed  upon  their  posterity.  I  believe  that  where  people  undertake  to  curtail  or  prevent  the  birth  of  their 
children  that  they  are  going  to  reap  disappointment  by  and  by.  I  have  no  hesitancy  in  saying  that  I  believe 
this  is  one  of  the  greatest  crimes  of  the  world  today,  this  evil  practice."  (Rel.  Soc.  Mag.,  vol.  4,  p.  318.) 

Today  the  cry  is  heard  in  some  quarters  that  these  statements  calling  upon  parents  to  provide  bodies 
for  the  spirit  hosts  of  heaven  are  outmoded.  Massive  birth  control  programs  are  being  sponsored  on  a 
national  and  international  scale.  Fears  are  expressed  that  the  earth  cannot  support  the  number  of  people 
that  unrestricted  births  will  bring.  But  God's  decree  and  the  counsel  of  the  prophets  remain  unchanged. 
The  real  need  is  not  to  limit  the  number  of  earth's  inhabitants,  but  to  learn  how  to  care  for  the  increasing 
hosts  which  the  Lord  designs  should  inhabit  this  globe  before  the  last  allocated  spirit  has  been  sent  here  to 
gain  a  mortal  body.  Amid  all  the  cries  and  pressure  of  the  world,  the  position  of  the  true  Church  remains 
fixed.  God  has  commanded  his  children  to  multiply  and  fill  the  earth,  and  the  earth  is  far  from  full. 

Birthdays 

(Birthdays  ) 

See  BIRTH,  FAMILY  REUNIONS. 

The  custom  of  having  special  celebrations  on  the  anniversaries  of  one's  birth  appears  to  have 
originated  in  most  ancient  times.  Biblical  reference  is  made  to  the  birthday  celebrations  of  the  Egyptian 
Pharaoh  who  honored  Joseph  (Gen.  40:20)  and  of  King  Herod  (Matt.  14:6),  who  ordered  the  beheading  of 
John  the  Baptist. 

Quite  likely  the  custom  of  commemorating  birthdays  started  with  divine  approval  in  the  days  of 
Adam.  At  least  Adam  and  all  the  ancient  prophets,  knowing  the  importance  of  man's  stepping  from  pre- 
existence  into  mortality,  might  well  have  taken  occasion  to  cement  family  solidarity  and  renewed  desires 
for  righteousness  in  connection  with  birthdays.  Family  reunions  -  which  ofttimes  serve  the  same  purpose 
and  also  are  a  means  of  encouraging  genealogical  research  -  are  frequently  and  appropriately  held  on  the 
birthday  anniversaries  of  a  prominent  member  of  the  family. 

Importance  of  accurate  knowledge  of  the  time  of  one's  birth  is  seen  in  the  command  that  the  saints  are 
to  have  their  children  baptized  when  eight  years  of  age.  (D.  &  C.  68:25.)  It  is  the  practice  of  the  Church, 
also,  to  ordain  worthy  young  men  to  certain  offices  in  the  priesthood  at  specified  ages.  Similarly,  in 
ancient  times,  the  divine  order  was  to  name  and  perfomi  the  rite  of  circumcision  on  the  8th  day  after  birth. 
(Gen.  17:11;  Luke  2:21.) 

Birthright 

(Birthright  ) 

See  BIRTH,  FOREORDINATION,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  PRIESTHOOD. 

It  appears  that  anciently  under  the  Patriarchal  Order  certain  special  blessings,  rights,  powers,  and 
privileges  -  collectively  called  the  birthright  -  passed  from  the  father  to  his  firstborn  son.  (Gen.  43:33.)  In 
later  ages  special  blessings  and  prerogatives  have  been  poured  out  upon  all  the  worthy  descendants  of 
some  who  gained  special  blessings  and  birthrights  anciently.  (3  Ne.  20:25-27.)  Justification  for  this  system 


62 


in  large  part,  lies  in  the  pre-existent  preparation  and  training  of  those  bom  in  the  lines  destined  to  inherit 
preferential  endowments. 

Clirist,  the  Firstborn  among  all  the  spirit  offspring  of  the  Father  attained  the  eminence  of  godhood 
while  yet  in  pre-existence  and  was  there  foreordained  as  the  Savior  and  Redeemer  of  mankind.  Adam, 
Abraham,  Moses,  Joseph  Smith,  and  all  the  prophets  numbered  among  the  noble  and  great  in  the  pre- 
existent  eternities,  were  also  foreordained  and  sent  to  earth  in  the  lineage  and  at  the  times  when  their 
talents  and  abilities  were  most  needed  in  the  flirtherance  of  the  plans  of  the  Almighty.  Indeed,  as  taught  by 
Moses,  the  whole  house  of  Israel  was  so  chosen  and  so  sent  to  earth.  (Deut.  32:7-8.) 

From  Adam  to  Noah  the  presiding  representative  of  the  Lord  on  earth  held  the  joint  office  of  patriarch 
and  high  priest  -  a  calling  conferred  successively  from  father  to  son.  Similar  rights  were  held  by  Abraham, 
Isaac,  Jacob  and  others  of  the  patriarchs  in  their  respective  days.  Abraham  was  promised  that  from  his  day 
on  all  who  would  receive  the  gospel  would  be  accounted  his  seed  and  that  his  descendants  after  him  would 
have  right,  by  lineage,  to  the  same  priesthood  he  had  gained.  (Abra.  2:6-11.)  Certain  righteous  persons 
were  thus  destined  to  receive  the  priesthood  because  they  were  "lawful  heirs  according  to  the  flesh."  (D.  & 
C.  86:8-10.)  It  was  their  birthright  Special  birthright  blessings  and  priesthood  pre-eminence  have  remained 
in  the  lineage  of  Jacob.  Reuben,  his  firstborn,  lost  the  birthright  because  of  iniquity,  and  it  passed  to 
Joseph  (1  Chron.  5:1-2)  and  through  him  to  Ephr'aim.  "I  am  a  father  to  Israel,"  the  Lord  said,  "and 
Ephraim  is  my  firstborn."  (Jer.  31:9.)  This  preferential  status  enjoyed  by  Ephraim  among  his  fellow  tribes 
in  Israel  has  continued  to  our  day.  Predominantly  Ephraim,  among  all  the  tribes  of  Israel,  has  so  far  been 
gathered  into  the  fold  of  the  true  Shepherd.  When  the  lost  tribes  return,  they  shall  come  to  the  children  of 
Ephraim  to  receive  their  crowns  of  glory.  (D.  &  C.  133:26-34.) 

From  Aaron  to  the  coming  of  John  the  Baptist,  the  high  priests  in  Israel  served  in  their  presiding 
offices  (of  the  Aaronic  order)  because  they  were  descendants  of  Aaron.  The  office  of  Presiding  Bishop  in 
the  Church  today  is  of  comparable  hereditary  nature,  although  the  Lord  has  not  so  far  designated  the 
lineage  in  which  the  right  to  such  office  rests.  (D.  &  C.  68:14-24.)  The  right  to  hold  the  Levitical 
Priesthood  anciently  was  limited  to  the  sons  of  Levi,  who  thus  gained  their  priesthood  prerogatives  by 
birth.  In  the  meridian  of  time  our  Lord  altered  this  system  and  spread  this  Aaronic  order  of  authority 
among  worthy  male  members  of  the  Church  generally.  (1  Tim.  3:1-13.) 

The  office  of  Patriarch  to  the  Church  is  also  a  hereditary  office.  It  is  confen'cd  upon  "the  oldest  man  of 
the  blood  of  Joseph  or  of  the  seed  of  Abraham"  (Teachings,  p.  151),  that  is,  the  oldest  man  of  the  exact 
patriarchal  lineage  in  Israel.  Joseph  Smith,  Sr.,  father  of  the  Prophet,  was  the  first  to  hold  this  office  in 
latter-day  Israel,  with  Hymm,  his  oldest  living  son,  gaining  the  birthright  upon  his  father's  death. 
(Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  162-169.) 

Lineage  alone  does  not  guarantee  the  receipt  of  whatever  birthright  privileges  may  be  involved  in 
particular  cases.  Worthiness,  ability,  and  other  requisites  are  also  involved.  Jacob  prevailed  over  his  older 
brother  Esau  because  "Esau  despised  his  birthright."  (Gen.  25:24-34;  27;  Rom.  9:10-12.)  The  Lord  placed 
Ephraim  (the  younger)  before  Manasseh  to  fulfil  his  own  purposes  (Gen.  48);  and  Nephi,  junior  in  point  of 
birth  to  Laman  and  Lemuel,  was  made  a  ruler  and  a  teacher  over  them,  a  circumstance  that  became  the 
cause  of  much  contention  for  many  generations.  (1  Ne.  2:22;  16:37-38;  18:10;  2  Ne.  5:3;  19;  Mosiah 
10:11-17.) 

Civil  and  governmental  prerogatives  have  also  been  determined  down  through  the  ages  on  the 
birthright  principle.  Many  of  the  kings  of  Israel  and  of  Judah  rose  to  their  positions  of  temporal  eminence 
by  inheritance  from  their  fathers.  King  Mosiah,  on  this  continent,  prevailed  upon  his  people  to  adopt  a 
system  of  rule  by  judges  to  avoid  the  evils  of  this  system  of  civil  mle.  (Mosiah  29.)  Monarchies  and 
empires  in  general  have  had  laws  of  succession  patterned  after  the  ancient  patriarchal  system,  and 
problems  of  property  rights  in  feudal  and  caste  systems  have  often  been  regulated  in  accordance  with  laws 
of  primogeniture. 

Bishop 

(Bishop  ) 

See  CHRIST,  GOOD  SHEPHERD,  OVERSEERS. 

Christ  is  "the  Shepherd  and  Bishop"  of  the  souls  of  the  saints,  by  which  is  meant  that  he  is  the 
Overseer  who  has  led  the  saints  to  salvation  through  his  atoning  sacrifice.  (1  Pet.  2:21-25.) 


63 


Bishopric 

(Bishopric  ) 

See  BISHOPS,  OVERSEERS,  PRESIDING  BISHOP,  PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES. 

1.  Any  office  or  position  of  major  responsibility  in  the  Church,  any  office  of  overseership  under  the 
supervision  of  which  important  church  business  is  administered  is  a  bishopric.  Thus  the  church  affairs 
administered  by  a  bishop  are  his  bishopric.  Thus,  also,  members  of  the  Council  of  the  Twelve  -  who  hold 
the  keys  of  the  kingdom  and  are  empowered  to  regulate  all  the  affairs  of  the  Church  -  serve  in  their 
bishopric.  (D.  &  C.  114;  Acts  1:20.) 

2.  A  ward  bishopric,  a  quorum  of  three  high  priests  consists  of  a  bishop  and  two  counselors.  They  are 
set  apart  to  preside  over  and  direct  the  affairs  of  the  kingdom  in  a  particular  ward.  (D.  &  C.  107:74)  They 
are  "to  feed  the  church  of  God."  (Acts  20:28.)  Ward  clerks  are  not  members  of  bishoprics.  In  the  absence 
of  a  literal  descendant  of  Aaron,  the  presiding  Bishopric  consists  of  three  high  priests  of  the  Melchizedek 
priesthood.  (D.  &  C.  68:14-24;  107:13-17,  68-76.) 

Bishops 

(Bishops  ) 

See  AARONIC  PRIESTHOOD,  BISHOP,  BISHOPS  COURT,  BISHOPS  STOREHOUSES, 
BRANCH  PRESIDENTS,  JUDGES  IN  ISRAEL,  OVERSEERS,  PASTORS,  PRESIDING  BISHOP, 
SHEPHERDS. 

One  of  the  ordained  offices  in  the  Aaronic  priesthood  is  that  of  bishop.  (D.  &  C.  20:67.)  Those  so 
ordained  and  set  apart  to  serve  either  in  the  Presiding  Bishopric  or  as  ward  bishops  are  called  to  preside 
over  the  Aaronic  priesthood.  A  ward  bishop  is  the  president  of  the  Aaronic  priesthood  in  his  ward  and  is 
also  the  president  of  the  priests  quorum.  (D.  &  C.  107:87-88.)  The  office  of  a  bishop  is  also  an  appendage 
"belonging  unto  the  high  priesthood."  (D.  &  C.  84:29.) 

In  his  Aaronic  priesthood  capacity  a  bishop  deals  primarily  with  temporal  concerns  (D.  &  C.  107:68); 
as  the  presiding  high  priest  in  his  ward,  however,  he  presides  over  all  ward  affairs  and  members.  A  bishop 
is  a  common  judge  in  Israel  (D.  &  C.  107:74);  it  is  his  right  to  have  the  gift  of  discernment,  the  power  to 
discern  all  other  spiritual  gifts,  "lest  there  shall  be  any  among  you  professing  and  yet  be  not  God."  (D.  & 
C.  46:27.) 

"A  bishop  must  be  blameless,  as  the  steward  of  God;  not  selfwilled,  not  soon  angry,  not  given  to  wine, 
no  striker,  not  given  to  filthy  lucre;  But  a  lover  of  hospitality,  a  lover  of  good  men,  sober,  just,  holy, 
temperate;  Holding  fast  the  faithful  word  as  he  hath  been  taught,  that  he  may  be  able  by  sound  doctrine 
both  to  exhort  and  to  convince  the  gainsayers."  (Tit.  1:7-9;  I  Tim.  3:1-7.) 

Bishops  Court 

(Bishops  Court  ) 

See  BISHOPS,  CHURCH  COURTS,  DISFELLOWSHIPMENT,  ELDERS  COURT, 
EXCOMMUNICATION,  JUDGES  IN  ISRAEL. 

As  common  judges  in  Israel,  bishops  sit  in  judgment  on  their  ward  members.  (D.  &  C.  42:78-93; 
64:40;  102:2;  107:71-75.)  Not  only  do  they  discern  the  personal  righteousness  of  their  ward  members  - 
calling  them  to  positions  of  responsibility,  approving  them  for  temple  recommends,  priesthood 
ordinations,  and  the  like  -  but  when  iniquity  arises  they  are  bound  to  hear  confessions  and  to  call  in 
question  the  fellowship  and  membership  of  such  members.  When  a  formal  bishops  court  is  held,  the 
bishop  is  the  judge,  with  his  counselors  concurring  in  the  judgment  unless  some  iniquity  is  manifest  in  it. 

Bishops  Storehouses 

(Bishops  Storehouses  ) 

See  BISHOPS,  CONSECRATION,  UNITED  ORDER,  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN. 


64 


To  help  bishops  discharge  their  obligation  to  care  for  the  temporal  needs  of  the  poor  the  Lord  has 
directed  the  building,  stocking,  maintenance,  and  use  of  bishops  storehouses.  (D.  &  C.  42:30-36;  51:9-20; 
58:24,  37;  70;  72:9-16;  78:3-7;  82:15-24;  83;  90:22-23;  101:96.)  These  are  operated  as  part  of  the  Church 
Welfare  Plan. 

Black  Magic 

(Black  Magic  ) 
See  MAGIC. 

Blasphemy 

(Blasphemy  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHRIST,  PROFANITY,  REVERENCE,  UNPARDONABLE  SIN. 

Blasphemy  consists  in  either  or  both  of  the  following:  1 .  Speaking  irreverently,  evilly,  abusively,  or 
scurrilously  against  God  or  sacred  things;  or  2.  Speaking  profanely  or  falsely  about  Deity. 

Among  a  great  host  of  impious  and  sacrilegious  speaking  that  constitute  blasphemy  are  such  things  as: 
Taking  the  name  of  God  in  vain;  evil-speaking  about  the  Lord's  anointed;  belittling  sacred  temple 
ordinances,  or  patriarchal  blessings,  or  sacramental  administrations;  claiming  unwarranted  divine 
authority;  and  promulgating  with  profane  piety  a  false  system  of  salvation. 

Accordingly  blasphemy  is  a  sign  of  apostasy  (2  Tim.  3:2);  and  the  great  apostate  church  which  is  not 
the  Lord's  Church  is  described  as  reveling  in  blasphemy.  (Rev.  13:1-8.)  When  our  Lord  performed 
healings  (Matt.  9:3)  and  announced  himself  as  the  Son  of  God,  he  was  accused  by  the  Jews  of  blasphemy 
(Matt.  26:63-65;  Mark  14:61-64;  John  10:22-38)  -  a  charge  that  would  have  been  true,  if  his  witness  had 
not  been  true  and  his  power  divine. 

In  ancient  Israel  blasphemy  against  the  name  of  the  Lord  was  an  offense  punishable  with  death  by 
stoning.  (Lev.  24:16.)  Blasphemy  against  the  Holy  Ghost  -  which  is  falsely  denying  Christ  after  receiving 
a  perfect  revelation  of  him  from  the  Holy  Ghost  -  is  the  unpardonable  sin.  (Matt.  12:3 1-32;  Mark  3:28-29; 
D.  &C.  132:27.) 

Blasphemy  Against  the  Holy  Ghost 

(Blasphemy  Against  the  Holy  Ghost  ) 
See  UNPARDONABLE  SIN. 

Blessing  of  Children 

(Blessing  of  Children  ) 

See  ORDINANCES,  SALVATION  OF  CHILDREN. 

"Every  member  of  the  church  of  Christ  having  children  is  to  bring  them  unto  the  elders  before  the 
church,  who  are  to  lay  their  hands  upon  them  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  bless  them  in  his  name."  (D. 
&  C.  20:70.)  Ordinarily  this  command  is  complied  with  through  the  ordinance  of  blessing  of  children, 
although  it  might  also  be  complied  with  in  connection  with  confirmation  and  bestowal  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 
It  is  the  practice  of  the  Church  to  perform  the  ordinance  of  the  blessing  of  children  in  fast  meetings  a  few 
weeks  after  the  birth  of  the  child.  At  that  time  the  child  is  formally  and  officially  given  a  name,  and  the 
proper  church  records  are  made  so  that  the  necessary  genealogical  data  will  be  preserved. 

The  blessing  of  children  is  not  an  ordinance  of  salvation;  children  are  saved  through  the  atoning 
sacrifice  of  Clirist  without  ordinances.  This  was  fully  understood  by  the  ancient  apostles,  for  when  the 
people  brought  "little  children"  to  Jesus,  "that  he  should  put  his  hands  on  them  and  pray,  .  .  .  the  disciples 
rebuked  them,  saying.  There  is  no  need,  for  Jesus  hath  said.  Such  shall  be  saved.  But  Jesus  said.  Suffer 
little  children  to  come  unto  me,  and  forbid  them  not,  for  of  such  is  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  And  he  laid 
hands  on  them"  (hispired  Version,  Matt.  19:13-15.) 

Blessing  on  the  Food 

(Blessing  on  the  Food  ) 
See  PRAYER. 


65 


(Blindness  ) 
See  DEAFNESS. 


Blindness 


Block  Teachers 

(Block  Teachers  ) 

See  HOME  TEACHERS. 

Blood 

(Blood  ) 

See  FLESH  AND  BLOOD. 

Blood  Atonement  Doctrine 

(Blood  Atonement  Doctrine  ) 

See  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CALLING  AND  ELECTION  SURE,  CHRIST,  FLESH  AND 
BLOOD. 

From  the  days  of  Joseph  Smith  to  the  present,  wicked  and  evilly-disposed  persons  have  fabricated 
false  and  slanderous  stories  to  the  effect  that  the  Church,  in  the  early  days  of  this  dispensation,  engaged  in 
a  practice  of  blood  atonement  whereunder  the  blood  of  apostates  and  others  was  shed  by  the  Church  as  an 
atonement  for  their  sins.  These  claims  are  false  and  were  known  by  their  originators  to  be  false.  There  is 
not  one  historical  instance  of  so-called  blood  atonement  in  this  dispensation,  nor  has  there  been  one  event 
or  occun'ence  whatever,  of  any  nature,  from  which  the  slightest  inference  arises  that  any  such  practice 
either  existed  or  was  taught. 

There  are,  however,  in  the  sermons  of  some  of  the  early  church  leaders  some  statements  about  the  true 
doctrine  of  blood  atonement  and  of  its  practice  in  past  dispensations,  for  instance,  in  the  days  of  Moses. 
By  taking  one  sentence  on  one  page  and  another  from  a  succeeding  page  and  even  by  taking  a  part  of  a 
sentence  on  one  page  and  a  part  of  another  found  several  pages  away  -  all  wholly  torn  from  context  - 
dishonest  persons  have  attempted  to  make  it  appear  that  Brigham  Young  and  others  taught  things  just  the 
opposite  of  what  they  really  believed  and  taught. 

Raising  the  curtain  of  truth  on  this  false  and  slanderous  bluster  of  enemies  of  the  Church  who  have 
thus  wilfiilly  chosen  to  fight  the  truth  with  outright  lies  of  the  basest  sort,  the  true  doctrine  of  blood 
atonement  is  simply  this: 

1 .  Jesus  Christ  worked  out  the  infinite  and  eternal  atonement  by  the  shedding  of  his  own  blood.  He 
came  into  the  world  for  the  purpose  of  dying  on  the  cross  for  the  sins  of  the  world.  By  virtue  of  that 
atoning  sacrifice  immortality  came  as  a  free  gift  to  all  men,  and  all  who  would  believe  and  obey  his  laws 
would  in  addition  be  cleansed  from  sin  through  his  blood.  (Mosiah  3:16-19;  3  Ne.  27:19-21;  1  John  1:7; 
Rev.  5:9-10.) 

2.  But  under  certain  circumstances  there  are  some  serious  sins  for  which  the  cleansing  of  Christ  does 
not  operate,  and  the  law  of  God  is  that  men  must  then  have  their  own  blood  shed  to  atone  for  their  sins. 
Murder,  for  instance,  is  one  of  these  sins;  hence  we  find  the  Lord  commanding  capital  punishment.  Thus, 
also,  if  a  person  has  so  progressed  in  righteousness  that  his  calling  and  election  has  been  made  sure,  if  he 
has  come  to  that  position  where  he  knows  "by  revelation  and  the  spirit  of  prophecy,  tlii'ough  the  power  of 
the  Holy  Priesthood"  that  he  is  sealed  up  unto  eternal  life  (D.  &  C.  131:5),  then  if  he  gains  forgiveness  for 
certain  grievous  sins,  he  must  "be  destroyed  in  the  flesh,"  and  "delivered  unto  the  buffetings  of  Satan  unto 
the  day  of  redemption,  saith  the  Lord  God."  (D.  &  C.  132: 19-27.) 

President  Joseph  Fielding  Smith  has  written:  "Man  may  commit  ceilain  grievous  sins  -  according  to 
his  light  and  knowledge  -  that  will  place  him  beyond  the  reach  of  the  atoning  blood  of  Christ.  If  then  he 
would  be  saved,  he  must  make  sacrifice  of  his  Own  life  to  atone  -  so  far  as  in  his  power  lies  -  for  that  sin, 
for  the  blood  of  Christ  alone  under  certain  circumstances  will  not  avail.  .  .  .  Joseph  Smith  taught  that  there 
were  certain  sins  so  grievous  that  man  may  commit,  that  they  will  place  the  transgressors  beyond  the 
power  of  the  atonement  of  Christ.  If  these  offenses  are  committed,  then  the  blood  of  Clirist  will  not 


66 


cleanse  them  from  their  sins  even  though  they  repent.  Therefore  their  only  hope  is  to  have  their  own  blood 
shed  to  atone,  as  far  as  possible,  in  their  behalf  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  133-138.)  This 
docfrine  can  only  be  practiced  in  its  frilness  in  a  day  when  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  laws  are 
administered  in  the  same  hands.  It  was,  for  instance,  practiced  in  the  days  of  Moses,  but  it  was  not  and 
could  not  be  practiced  in  this  dispensation,  except  that  persons  who  understood  its  provisions  could  and 
did  use  their  influence  to  get  a  form  of  capital  punishment  written  into  the  laws  of  the  various  states  of  the 
union  so  that  the  blood  of  murderers  could  be  shed. 

Blood  of  Israel 

(Blood  of  Israel  ) 

See  BELIEVING  BLOOD. 

Boasting 

(Boasting  ) 

See  PRIDE,  REJOICING,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  VAINGLORY,  VANITY. 

Boasting  is  of  two  kinds:  either  righteous,  or  unrighteous;  either  in  the  arm  of  flesh,  or  in  the  Lord  and 
his  gracious  goodness  and  power.  "He  that  glorieth,  let  him  glory  in  the  Lord,"  Paul  said  in  summing  up  a 
sermon  on  boasting,  "For  not  he  that  commendeth  himself  is  approved,  but  whom  the  Lord  commendeth." 
(2  Cor.  10:7-18;  Ps.  44:8.)  Ammon  spoke  similarly:  "I  do  not  boast  in  my  own  strength,  nor  in  my  own 
wisdom;  but  behold,  my  joy  is  frill,  yea,  my  heart  is  brim  with  joy,  and  I  will  rejoice  in  my  God.  Yea,  I 
know  that  I  am  nothing;  as  to  my  strength  I  am  weak;  therefore  I  will  not  boast  of  myself  but  I  will  boast 
of  my  God,  for  in  his  strength  I  can  do  all  things.  Therefore,  let  us  glory,  yea,  we  will  glory  in  the  Lord; 
yea,  we  will  rejoice  for  our  joy  is  frill;  yea,  we  will  praise  our  God  forever.  Behold,  who  can  glory  too 
much  in  the  Lord?"  (Alma  26:8-16,  35.) 

Boasting  in  the  ami  of  flesh,  one  of  the  commonest  of  all  sins  among  worldly  people,  is  a  gross  evil;  it 
is  a  sin  bom  of  pride,  a  sin  that  creates  a  frame  of  mind  which  keeps  men  from  turning  to  the  Lord  and 
accepting  his  saving  grace.  When  a  man  engages  in  self  exultation  because  of  his  riches,  his  political 
power,  his  worldly  learning,  his  physical  prowess,  his  business  acumen,  or  even  his  works  of 
righteousness,  he  is  not  in  tune  with  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord.  Salvation  itself  comes  by  the  grace  of  God, 
"Not  of  works,"  that  is  not  of  the  performances  and  outward  display  of  the  law,  "lest  any  man  should 
boast."  (Eph.  2:4-22;  Rom.  3:27.)  As  King  Benjamin  asked,  after  explaining  the  goodness  of  God  and  the 
comparative  nothingness  of  men,  "Of  what  have  ye  to  boast?"  (Mosiah  2:  17-26.) 

Even  when  the  righteous  glory  in  the  Lord,  certain  very  definite  restrictions  attend  their  godly 
boasting.  The  elders  are  to  proclaim  against  evil  spirits,  but  "Not  with  railing  accusation,  that  ye  be  not 
overcome,  neither  with  boasting  nor  rejoicing,  lest  you  be  seized  therewith."  (D.  &  C.  50:32-33.)  Spiritual 
gifts  are  poured  out  abundantly  upon  the  true  saints.  "But  a  commandment  I  give  unto  them,"  the  Lord 
says,  "that  they  shall  not  boast  themselves  of  these  things,  neither  speak  them  before  the  world;  for  these 
things  are  given  unto  you  for  your  profit  and  for  salvation."  (D.  &  C.  84:73.)  "Talk  not  of  judgments, 
neither  boast  of  faith  nor  of  mighty  works."  (D.  &  C.  105:24.) 

Bondage 

(Bondage  ) 

See  ABRAHAM'S  CHILDREN,  AGENCY,  APOSTASY,  CASTE  SYSTEM,  FREEDOM, 
INALIENABLE  RIGHTS,  LIBERTY. 

Bondage  and  captivity  of  every  sort  are  of  the  devil;  the  gospel  is  "the  perfect  law  of  liberty"  (Jas. 
1:25);  it  is  the  truth  that  makes  men  free.  (John  8:32.)  The  saints  should  free  themselves  from  the  bondage 
of  debt.  (D.  &  C.  19:35;  104:83-84.)  In  a  perfect  Christian  society  there  would  be  no  serfdom  or  slavery, 
for  "it  is  not  right  that  any  man  should  be  in  bondage  one  to  another."  Bondage  curtails  free  agency,  thus 
interfering  with  a  man's  power  to  work  out  his  salvation.  (D.  &  C.  101:78-79.) 

There  is  no  bondage  like  the  bondage  of  sin  and  no  darkness  like  the  darkness  of  rebellion  against  the 
truth.  (John  8:31-46;  Gal.  5:1.)  "And  the  whole  world  lieth  in  sin,  and  groaneth  under  darkness  and  under 


67 


the  bondage  of  sin.  And  by  this  you  may  know  they  are  under  the  bondage  of  sin,  because  they  come  not 
unto  me.  For  whoso  cometh  not  unto  me  is  under  the  bondage  of  sin."  (D.  &  C.  84:49-51.) 

Bond-Servants 

(Bond-Servants  ) 
See  SLAVERY. 

Book  of  Abraham 

(Book  of  Abraham  ) 

See  PEARL  OF  GREAT  PRICE. 

Book  of  Commandments 

(Book  of  Commandments  ) 

See  DOCTRINE  AND  COVENANTS,  REVELATION,  SCRIPTURE,  STANDARD  WORKS. 

As  early  as  the  summer  of  1 830,  the  Prophet  began  to  copy  and  prepare  the  revelations  he  had  received 
for  eventual  publication.  At  a  conference  held  in  Hiram,  Ohio,  on  November  1  st  and  2nd,  1831,  it  was 
decided  the  revelations  should  be  compiled  and  published  under  the  title.  Book  of  Commandments.  The 
Lord  gave  approval  to  the  project  by  revealing  a  preface  for  the  book.  (D.  &  C.  1 .) 

It  was  at  this  conference  that  some  of  the  elders  questioned  the  language  in  the  revelations,  causing  the 
Lord  to  give  the  revealed  tests  whereby  the  divinity  of  the  revelations  might  be  known.  "Seek  ye  out  of  the 
Book  of  Commandments,  even  the  least  that  is  among  them,"  the  Lord  said,  "and  appoint  him  that  is  the 
most  wise  among  you;  Or,  if  there  be  any  among  you  that  shall  make  one  like  unto  it,  then  ye  are  justified 
in  saying  that  ye  do  not  know  that  they  are  true;  But  if  ye  caimot  make  one  like  unto  it,  ye  are  under 
condemnation  if  ye  do  not  bear  record  that  they  are  true.  For  ye  know  that  there  is  no  unrighteousness  in 
them,  and  that  which  is  righteous  cometh  down  from  above,  from  the  Father  of  lights."  (D.  &  C.  67:6-9.) 
William  E.  McLellin  attempted  to  write  a  revelation  equal  to  the  least  of  those  the  Lord  had  given  and 
failed  miserably. 

By  July  20,  1833,  most  of  the  Book  of  Commandments  had  been  set  in  type  under  the  direction  of  W. 
W.  Phelps.  On  that  date  the  printing  plant  in  Independence,  Missouri,  was  destroyed  by  a  mob,  and  only  a 
few  copies  of  the  forms  of  the  unfinished  book  were  salvaged.  Only  a  score  or  so  copies  are  known  to  be 
in  existence  now.  The  last  statement  in  the  publication  is,  "The  rebellious  are  not  of  the  blood  of 
Ephraim,"  thus  ending  the  book  in  the  middle  of  verse  36  of  section  64  of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  as 
presently  published. 

Thereafter  a  committee  headed  by  the  Prophet  was  appointed  to  continue  the  work  necessary  to  get  the 
revelations  published.  Their  labors  were  completed,  and  they  reported  to  a  general  assembly  of  the 
Church,  at  Kiilland,  Ohio,  August  17,  1835.  The  revelations  so  compiled  and  approved,  and  some  other 
matters,  were  published  under  the  title  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  192- 
198.) 

Between  the  time  of  the  publication  of  the  Book  of  Commandments  in  1833  and  the  Doctrine  and 
Covenants  in  1835,  the  Prophet,  as  moved  upon  by  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord,  inseiled  some  additional 
revealed  truths  in  the  revelations  and  in  an  instance  or  two  clarified  the  existing  language.  This  procedure 
of  course,  was  in  perfect  hannony  with  the  two  principles:  1.  That  revelations  are  necessarily  given  to  men 
"after  the  manner  of  their  language"  (D.  &  C.  1:24);  and  2.  That  the  Lord  always  reveals  line  upon  line, 
precept  upon  precept,  here  a  little  and  there  a  little,  adding  more  light  and  Imowledge  as  rapidly  as  that 
already  received  is  known  and  practiced.  (D.  &  C.  98:12;  128:21.)  The  various  revelations  were  divided 
into  chapters  in  the  Book  of  Commandments  and  into  sections  in  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  and  some 
personal  revelations  were  not  carried  over  into  the  latter  publication  but  are  to  be  found  in  the  History  of 
the  Church.  Divisions  into  verses  and  punctuation  was,  of  course,  changed  as  between  the  two 
publications. 


68 


Book  of  Enoch 

(Book  of  Enoch  ) 

See  LOST  SCRIPTURE,  REVELATION,  SCRIPTURE. 

One  of  the  things  yet  to  come  forth  in  the  last  days  is  the  Book  of  Enoch.  This  record  contains  the 
prophecies  made  by  Adam  at  Adam-ondi-Ahman  when  he  "predicted  whatsoever  should  befall  his 
posterity  unto  the  latest  generation"  (D.  &  C.  107:56-57.)  From  the  account  in  the  Book  of  Moses  we 
know  that  Enoch  performed  one  of  the  greatest  and  most  spectacular  works  of  any  prophet.  (Moses  6;  7.) 
How  much  the  Book  of  Enoch  contains  relative  to  his  ministry  and  teachings  we  can  only  speculate.  It 
appears  from  Paul's  writings  that  he  had  information  about  Enoch  which  is  not  contained  in  the  Old 
Testament  as  we  have  that  document.  (Heb.  1 1:5.)  Jude  recorded  in  his  epistle  a  prophecy  made  by  Enoch, 
thus  indicating  that  some  of  Enoch's  writings  may  have  been  extant  in  New  Testament  times.  (Jude  14:15.) 

Book  of  Joseph 

(Book  of  Joseph  ) 

See  BRASS  PLATES,  LOST  SCRIPTURE,  PEARL  OF  GREAT  PRICE,  REVELATION, 
SCRIPTURE. 

Two  papyrus  rolls  were  acquired  by  the  Prophet  in  connection  with  the  Egyptian  mummies  purchased 
from  Michael  H.  Chandler.  One  roll  was  translated  and  is  now  published  as  the  Book  of  Abraham. 
Translation  of  the  other  roll,  which  contained  the  writings  of  Joseph  who  was  sold  into  Egypt,  apparently 
was  never  completed.  Enough  was  known  of  this  Book  of  Joseph,  however,  for  Oliver  Cowdery  to  write 
that  it  contained  doctrine  relative  to  the  creation,  the  fall  of  man,  the  nature  of  the  Godhead,  and  the  final 
judgment  (Milton  R.  Hunter  Pearl  of  Great  Price  Commentary,  pp.  1  -40.) 

Nephi  says  that  there  were  not  many  prophecies  greater  than  those  which  Joseph  wrote;  that  many  of 
them  concerned  the  Nephites  and  Lamanites;  and  that  "they  are  written  upon  the  plates  of  brass."  (2  Ne. 
4:1-3.)  Some  of  these  prophecies  are  quoted  in  the  Book  of  Mormon  (2  Ne.  3;  25:21;  Alma  46:24);  some 
were  restored  by  the  Prophet  in  the  Inspired  Version  of  the  Bible.  (Inspired  Version,  Gen.  50:24-38.) 

As  to  the  papyrus  rolls  which  the  Prophet  had,  after  his  death  they  fell  into  the  hands  of  apostates  and 
enemies  of  the  Church.  As  far  as  is  known  they  were  destroyed  in  the  great  Chicago  fire  in  1 87 1 .  But  the 
day  shall  come  when  the  Book  of  Joseph  shall  be  restored  and  its  contents  shall  be  known  again.  This  we 
know  because  the  Brass  Plates  themselves  are  yet  to  be  translated  and  sent  forth  "unto  every  nation, 
kindred  tongue,  and  people."  (Alma  37:3-5.) 

Book  of  Life 

(Book  of  Life  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  REMEMBRANCE,  BOOK  OF  THE  LAW  OF  GOD,  CELESTLA.L  BODIES, 
ETERNAL  LIFE,  JUDGMENT  DAY,  OBEDIENCE,  RECORDING  ANGELS,  TELESTLAL  BODIES, 
TERRESTRIAL  BODIES. 

1 .  In  a  real  though  figurative  sense,  the  book  of  life  is  the  record  of  the  acts  of  men  as  such  record  is 
written  in  their  own  bodies.  It  is  the  record  engraven  on  the  very  bones,  sinews,  and  flesh  of  the  mortal 
body.  That  is,  every  thought,  word,  and  deed  has  an  affect  on  the  human  body;  all  these  leave  their  marks, 
marks  which  can  be  read  by  Him  who  is  Eternal  as  easily  as  the  words  in  a  book  can  be  read. 

By  obedience  to  telestial  law  men  obtain  telestial  bodies;  terrestrial  law  leads  to  terrestrial  bodies;  and 
confomiity  to  celestial  law  -  because  this  law  includes  the  sanctifying  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  -  results  in 
the  creation  of  a  body  which  is  clean,  pure,  and  spotless,  a  celestial  body.  (D.  &  C.  88:16-32.)  When  the 
book  of  life  is  opened  in  the  day  of  judgment  (Rev.  20: 12-15),  men's  bodies  will  show  what  law  they  have 
lived.  The  Great  Judge  will  then  read  the  record  of  the  book  of  their  lives;  the  account  of  their  obedience 
or  disobedience  will  be  written  in  their  bodies. 

2.  In  a  literal  sense,  the  book  of  life,  or  Lamb's  book  of  Life,  is  the  record  kept  in  heaven  which 
contains  the  names  of  the  faithful  and  an  account  of  their  righteous  covenants  and  deeds.  (D.  &  C.  128:6- 
7;  Ps.  69:28;  Rev.  3:5;  21:27.)  The  book  of  life  is  the  book  containing  the  names  of  those  who  shall  inherit 
eternal  life;  it  is  the  book  of  eternal  life.  (Dan.  12:1-4;  Heb.  12:23;  D.  &  C.  76:68;  132:19.)  It  is  "the  book 


69 


of  the  names  of  the  sanctified,  even  them  of  the  celestial  world."  (D.  &  C.  88:2.)  Names  of  faithful  saints 
are  recorded  in  the  book  of  life  while  they  are  yet  in  mortality.  (Luke  10:20;  Philip.  4:3;  Teachings,  p.  9.) 
But  those  names  are  blotted  out  in  the  event  of  wickedness.  (Rev.  13:8;  17:8;  22:19.) 

Book  of  Mormon 

(Book  of  Mormon  ) 

See  AMERICAN  INDIANS,  BIBLE,  BRASS  PLATES,  CUMORAH,  DOCTREME  AND 
COVENANTS,  GOLD  PLATES,  GOSPEL,  JAREDITES,  JEWS,  JOSEPH  SMITH  THE  PROPHET, 
LAMANITE  CURSE,  LOST  SCRIPTURE,  MAHONRI  MORIANCUMER,  MORMON  BIBLE, 
MORMONISM,  MORMONS,  MORONI,  MULEKITES,  NEPHITES  AND  LAMANITES,  PEARL  OF 
GREAT  PRICE,  QUETZALCOATL,  SCRIPTURE,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  STANDARD  WORKS, 
STICK  OF  EPHRAIM,  TESTIMONY,  THREE  NEPHITES,  URIM  AND  THUMMIM,  WITNESSES  OF 
THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON. 

That  holy  document  known  as  the  Book  of  Mormon  is  a  volume  of  sacred  scripture  which  was  known 
anciently  and  has  been  revealed  anew  in  modem  times.  It  contains  the  fulness  of  the  everlasting  gospel  (D. 
&  C.  20:9;  42:12;  135:3)  and  an  abridged  account  of  God's  dealings  with  the  ancient  inhabitants  of  the 
American  continents  from  about  2247  B.C.  to  421  A.D. 

The  original  records,  which  were  compiled  and  abridged  to  forni  the  Book  of  Moimon  as  presently 
constituted,  were  written  on  metallic  plates  by  prophets  who  were  commanded  to  keep  records  of  God's 
dealings  with  them  and  their  peoples.  These  records  preserved  a  true  knowledge  of  God,  of  the  mission 
and  ministry  of  his  Son,  and  of  the  doctrines  and  ordinances  of  salvation.  Incidental  to  these  gospel  truths 
much  infonnation  was  also  preserved  relative  to  the  history  and  the  social,  economic,  cultural, 
educational,  governmental,  and  other  conditions  that  existed  among  Book  of  Mornion  peoples. 

During  the  latter  part  of  the  4th  century  A.D.,  Mormon,  a  prophet-general,  made  a  compilation  and 
abridgment  of  the  records  of  the  people  of  Lehi,  a  Jew  who  led  a  colony  of  his  family  and  friends  from 
Jerusalem  to  their  American  promised  land  in  600  B.C.  Mormon's  son  Moroni  added  a  few  words  of  his 
own  to  the  record  and  also  abridged,  in  very  brief  form,  the  records  of  a  nation  of  Jaredites  who  had 
migrated  to  America  at  the  time  of  the  confiision  of  tongues  when  the  tower  of  Babel  was  built.  The 
records  of  these  two  great  peoples,  preserved  on  the  Gold  Plates,  were  translated  by  Joseph  Smith  and  are 
known  as  the  Book  of  Monnon.  The  main  part  of  the  work  deals  with  the  period  from  600  B.C.  to  421 
A.D.  during  which  the  Nephite,  Lamanite,  and  Mulekite  civilizations  flourished. 

Moroni,  the  last  prophet  to  possess  the  ancient  and  sacred  writings,  hid  them  up  in  the  hill  Cumorah. 
Then  in  modem  times,  in  fulfilment  of  John's  apocalyptic  prophecy  (Rev.  14:6-7),  Moroni,  now 
resun'ected,  delivered  the  plates  to  Joseph  Smith.  Miraculously,  by  means  of  the  Urim  and  Thummim  in 
not  to  exceed  two  months  translating  time,  the  Prophet  put  the  ancient  record  into  English.  Since  then  it 
has  been  translated  and  published  in  scores  of  other  languages.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  209- 
226.) 

Purposes  of  the  Book  of  Momion  are:  1.  To  bear  record  of  Christ,  certifying  in  plainness  and  with 
clarity  of  his  Divine  Sonship  and  mission  proving  iiTefutably  that  he  is  the  Redeemer  and  Savior;  2.  To 
teach  the  doctrines  of  the  gospel  in  such  a  pure  and  perfect  way  that  the  plan  of  salvation  will  be  clearly 
revealed;  and  3.  To  stand  as  a  witness  to  all  the  world  that  Joseph  Smith  was  the  Lord's  anointed  through 
whom  the  foundation  was  laid  for  the  great  latter-day  work  of  restoration. 

Almost  all  of  the  doctrines  of  the  gospel  are  taught  in  the  Book  of  Mormon  with  much  greater  clarity 
and  perfection  than  those  same  doctrines  are  revealed  in  the  Bible.  Anyone  who  will  place  in  parallel 
columns  the  teachings  of  these  two  great  books  on  such  subjects  as  the  atonement,  plan  of  salvation, 
gathering  of  Israel,  baptism,  gifts  of  the  Spirit,  miracles,  revelation,  faith,  charity,  (or  any  of  a  hundred 
other  subjects),  will  find  conclusive  proof  of  the  superiority  of  Book  of  Mormon  teachings. 

On  November  28,  1841,  following  a  meeting  with  the  Twelve  Apostles,  the  Prophet  wrote  in  his 
joumal  "I  told  the  brethren  that  the  Book  of  Mormon  was  the  most  correct  of  any  book  on  earth,  and  the 
keystone  of  our  religion,  and  a  man  would  get  nearer  to  God  by  abiding  by  its  precepts,  than  by  any  other 
book."  (History  of  the  Church,  vol.  4,  p.  461.)  On  another  occasion  he  said:  "Take  away  the  Book  of 
Mormon  and  the  revelations,  and  where  is  our  religion?  We  have  none."  (Teachings,  p.  71.) 

We  "believe  the  Book  of  Mormon  to  be  the  word  of  God."  (Eighth  Article  of  Faith.)  The  book  is  tme 
and  was  translated  coiTectly.  By  revelation  the  Lord  said  of  Joseph  Smith:  "He  has  translated  the  book. 


70 


even  that  part  which  I  have  commanded  him,  and  as  your  Lord  and  your  God  liveth  it  is  true."  (D.  &  C. 
17:6.)  "We  have  seen  the  plates,"  the  three  witnesses  testified,  "and  we  also  know  that  they  have  been 
translated  by  the  gift  and  power  of  God  for  his  voice  hath  declared  it  unto  us;  wherefore  we  know  of  a 
surety  that  the  work  is  true."  (Testimony  of  Three  Witnesses,  Book  of  Mormon.) 

There  are  numerous  Biblical  and  other  ancient  prophecies  foretelling  the  coming  forth  of  and  various 
things  pertaining  to,  the  Book  of  Mormon.  (Moses  7:59-62;  Ps.  85:11;  Isa.  29:  45:8;  Ezek.  37:15-28;  John 
10:16;  Rev.  14:6-7;  2  Ne.  3;  Inspired  Version,  Gen.  50:24-38.)  Since  its  publication  many  archaeological 
discoveries  have  been  made,  pailicularly  in  Central  and  South  America,  which  bear  out  some  known  facts 
relative  to  ancient  Book  of  Monnon  civilizations.  (Milton  R.  Hunter,  Archaeology  and  the  Book  of 
Mormon.) 

But  the  great  and  conclusive  evidence  of  the  divinity  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  is  the  testimony  of  the 
Spirit  to  the  honest  truth  seeker.  Moroni  promised:  "When  ye  shall  receive  these  things,  1  would  exhort 
you  that  ye  would  ask  God,  the  Eternal  Father,  in  the  name  of  Christ,  if  these  things  are  not  true;  and  if  ye 
shall  ask  with  a  sincere  heart,  with  real  intent,  having  faith  in  Christ,  he  will  manifest  the  truth  of  it  unto 
you,  by  the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost."  (Moro.  10:4.) 

Book  of  Moses 

(Book  of  Moses  ) 

See  PEARL  OF  GREAT  PRICE. 

Book  of  Remembrance 

(Book  of  Remembrance  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  LIFE,  BOOK  OF  THE  LAW  OF  GOD,  GENEALOGICAL  RESEARCH,  RECORD 
KEEPING. 

Adam  kept  a  written  account  of  his  faithfiil  descendants  in  which  he  recorded  their  faith  and  works, 
their  righteousness  and  devotion,  their  revelations  and  visions,  and  their  adherence  to  the  revealed  plan  of 
salvation.  To  signify  the  importance  of  honoring  our  worthy  ancestors  and  of  hearkening  to  the  great 
truths  revealed  to  them,  Adam  called  his  record  a  book  of  remembrance.  It  was  prepared  "according  to  the 
pattern  given  by  the  finger  of  God."  (Moses  6:4-6,  46.) 

Similar  records  have  been  kept  by  the  saints  in  all  ages.  (Mai.  3:16-17;  3  Ne.  24:15-16.)  Many  of  our 
present  scripture  have  come  down  to  us  because  they  were  first  written  by  prophets  who  were  following 
Adam's  pattern  of  keeping  a  book  of  remembrance.  The  Church  keeps  similar  records  today  (D.  &  C.  85) 
and  urges  its  members  to  keep  their  own  personal  and  family  books  of  remembrance. 

Book  of  Revelation 

(Book  of  Revelation  ) 
See  APOCALYPSE. 

Book  of  the  Law  of  God 

(Book  of  the  Law  of  God  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  LIFE,  BOOK  OF  REMEMBRANCE,  CHURCH  HISTORIAN  AND  RECORDER, 
GENEALOGICAL  RESEARCH,  RECORD  KEEPING. 

Those  records  kept  by  the  Church  showing  the  names,  genealogies,  and  faith  and  works  of  those  to  be 
remembered  by  the  Lord  in  the  day  when  eternal  inheritances  are  bestowed  upon  the  obedient  are,  taken 
collectively  called  the  book  of  the  law  of  God.  Such  records  contain  both  the  law  of  God  and  the  names  of 
those  who  keep  that  law.  They  are  in  effect  a  church  book  of  remembrance.  (D.  &  C.  85.) 

Book  of  the  Names  of  the  Sanctified 

(Book  of  the  Names  of  the  Sanctified  ) 
See  BOOK  OF  LIFE. 


71 


Born  Again 

(Bom  Again  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  BAPTISM  OF  FIRE,  BIRTH,  CONVERSION,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST, 
GIFTS  OF  THE  SPIRIT,  HOLY  GHOST,  HOLY  SPIRIT  OF  PROMISE,  SONS  OF  GOD,  SPIRITUAL 
DEATH,  SPIRITUAL  LIFE. 

To  gain  salvation  in  the  celestial  kingdom  men  must  be  bom  again  (Alma  7: 14);  bom  of  water  and  of 
the  Spirit  (John  3:1-13);  bom  of  God,  so  that  they  are  changed  from  their  "camal  and  fallen  state,  to  a  state 
of  righteousness"  becoming  new  creatures  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  (Mosiah  27:24-29.)  They  must  become 
newbom  babes  in  Christ  (1  Pet.  2:2);  they  must  be  "spiritually  begotten"  of  God,  be  bom  of  Christ,  thus 
becoming  his  sons  and  daughters.  (Mosiah  5:7.) 

The  first  birth  takes  place  when  spirits  pass  from  their  pre-existent  first  estate  into  mortality;  the 
second  birth  or  birth  "into  the  kingdom  of  heaven"  takes  places  when  mortal  men  are  bom  again  and 
become  alive  to  the  things  of  the  Spirit  and  of  righteousness.  The  elements  of  water,  blood,  and  Spirit  are 
present  in  both  births.  (Moses  6:59-60.)  The  second  birth  begins  when  men  are  baptized  in  water  by  a 
legal  administrator;  it  is  completed  when  they  actually  receive  the  companionship  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
becoming  new  creatures  by  the  cleansing  power  of  that  member  of  the  Godhead. 

Mere  compliance  with  the  fonnality  of  the  ordinance  of  baptism  does  not  mean  that  a  person  has  been 
bom  again.  No  one  can  be  bom  again  without  baptism,  but  the  immersion  in  water  and  the  laying  on  of 
hands  to  confer  the  Holy  Ghost  do  not  of  themselves  guarantee  that  a  person  has  been  or  will  be  bom 
again.  The  new  birth  takes  place  only  for  those  who  actually  enjoy  the  gift  or  companionship  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  only  for  those  who  are  fully  converted,  who  have  given  themselves  without  restraint  to  the  Lord. 
Thus  Alma  addressed  himself  to  his  "brethren  of  the  church,"  and  pointedly  asked  them  if  they  had 
"spiritually  been  bom  of  God,"  received  the  Lord's  image  in  their  countenances,  and  had  the  "mighty 
change"  in  their  hearts  which  always  attends  the  birth  of  the  Spirit.  (Alma  5 : 14,3 1 .) 

Those  members  of  the  Church  who  have  actually  been  bom  again  are  in  a  blessed  and  favored  state. 
They  have  attained  their  position,  not  merely  by  joining  the  Church,  but  tlirough  faith  (1  John  5:1), 
righteousness  (1  John  2:29),  love  (1  John  4:7),  and  overcoming  the  world.  (1  John  5:4.)  "Whosoever  is 
bom  of  God  doth  not  continue  in  sin;  for  the  Spirit  of  God  remaineth  in  him;  and  he  cannot  continue  to 
sin,  because  he  is  bom  of  God  having  received  that  holy  Spirit  of  promise."  (Inspired  Version,  1  John  3:9.) 

Born  in  Sin 

(Bom  in  Sin  ) 

See  CONCEIVED  IN  SIN. 

Bottomless  Pit 

(Bottomless  Pit  ) 

See  ANGEL  OF  THE  BOTTOMLESS  PIT,  HADES,  HELL,  PIT,  SHEOL,  SPIRIT  PRISON. 

In  an  attempt  to  convey  in  imperfect,  mortal  language  the  infinite  intensity  of  the  sufferings  of  those 
cast  into  the  pit  (that  is,  into  hell),  John  spoke  not  simply  of  the  pit,  but  of  the  bottomless  pit.  (Rev.  9: 1-2, 
11;  11:7;  17:8;  20:1-3.)  The  bottomless  pit  is  the  depths  of  hell.  It  is  not  a  literal  pit  without  a  bottom,  for 
such  is  a  contradiction  in  tenns.  But  it  is  a  pit  or  prison  where  the  inhabitants  suffer,  as  mortals  view 
suffering,  to  an  infinite,  unlimited,  or  bottomless  extent.  Referring  to  finite  inability  to  comprehend  the 
vastness  of  the  suffering  of  those  reaping  the  fall  measure  of  this  status,  the  revelation  says:  "The  end,  the 
width,  the  height,  the  depth,  and  the  misery  thereof,  they  understand  not,  neither  any  man  except  those 
who  are  ordained  unto  this  condemnation."  (D.  &  C.  76:48.) 

Bowing  Down 

(Bowing  Down  ) 
See  OBEISANCE. 


72 


(Bragging  ) 
See  BOASTING. 


Bragging 


Branch 

(Branch  ) 

See  CHRIST,  GOD  OF  ISRAEL,  HOLY  ONE  OF  ISRAEL,  KING  OF  ISRAEL,  ROOT  OF  DAVID, 
STEM  OF  JESSE. 

Christ  is  the  Branch,  a  name  applied  in  ancient  Israel  to  point  attention  to  the  great  truth  that  the 
promised  Messiah  would  come  in  the  lineage  of  Israel  and  of  David,  that  he  would  be  a  branch  or  part  of 
that  illustrious  line.  Through  Jeremiah  the  Lord  said:  "Behold,  the  days  come,  saith  the  Lord,  that  I  will 
raise  unto  David  a  righteous  Branch,  and  a  King  shall  reign  and  prosper,  and  shall  execute  judgment  and 
justice  in  the  eai1h.  In  his  days  Judah  shall  be  saved,  and  Israel  shall  dwell  safely:  and  this  is  his  name 
whereby  he  shall  be  called,  THE  LORD  OUR  RIGHTEOUSNESS"  (Jer.  23:5-6;  33:15-17;  Isa.  11:1-5; 
Zech.  3:8-10;  6:12-15.) 

Branches 

(Branches  ) 

See  BRANCH  PRESIDENTS,  CHURCH  ORGANIZATION,  DISTRICTS,  MISSIONS,  STAKES, 
TRUE  VINE,  WARDS. 

In  the  stakes,  congregations  of  saints  which  are  not  large  and  stable  enough  to  form  wards  are 
organized  into  branches,  presided  over  by  a  branch  president.  The  larger  and  more  powerful  branches, 
those  with  considerable  stability  and  local  leadership,  are  called  independent  branches.  They  operate  as 
nearly  like  a  regular  ward  as  their  circumstances  permit.  Dependent  branches  are  usually  smaller  and  less 
endowed  with  local  leadership;  they  receive  help  in  their  programs  from  some  other  ward  or  branch,  upon 
which  they  are  dependent. 

All  the  congregations  of  saints,  no  matter  how  strong  and  stable,  which  are  located  within  the  districts 
of  missions  are  called  branches.  Several  branches  comprise  a  district.  When  one  or  more  mission  districts 
are  chosen  as  an  area  in  which  to  form  a  stake,  the  main  branches  involved  become  wards,  while  the  lesser 
branches  remain  as  either  independent  or  dependent  branches. 

Branch  Presidency 

(Branch  Presidency  ) 

See  BRANCH  PRESIDENTS. 

Branch  Presidents 

(Branch  Presidents  ) 

See  BISHOPS,  BRANCHES. 

Presiding  officers  in  branches  are  branch  presidents.  They  hold  the  keys  of  their  ministry,  are  assisted 
by  two  counselors  (thus  forming  a  branch  presidency),  and  are  comparable  to  bishops  in  their  sphere  of 
service. 

Branch  Teachers 

(Branch  Teachers  ) 
See  HOME  TEACHERS. 


73 


Branch  Teaching 

(Branch  Teaching  ) 
See  HOME  TEACHERS. 

Brass  Plates 

(Brass  Plates  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  MORMON,  GOLD  PLATES,  LOST  SCRIPTURE,  OLD  TESTAMENT. 

When  the  Lord  led  Lehi  and  his  colony  out  from  Jerusalem,  they  were  required  to  take  with  them  the 
Brass  Plates  of  which  Laban  had  been  the  custodian.  These  plates  -  which  Nephi  acquired  through  his 
faith,  works,  and  zeal  (1  Ne.  3;  4)  -  were  a  volume  of  sacred  scripture.  They  contained  a  record  of  God's 
dealings  with  men  from  the  beginning  down  to  that  day.  They  were  "the  record  of  the  Jews"  (1  Ne.  3:3.),  a 
record  of  many  of  the  prophecies  from  the  beginning  down  to  and  including  part  of  those  spoken  by 
Jeremiah.  On  them  was  the  law  of  Moses,  the  five  books  of  Moses,  and  the  genealogy  of  the  Nephite 
forbears.  (1  Ne.  3:3,  20;  4:15-16;  5:1 1-14.) 

There  was  more  on  them  than  there  is  in  the  Old  Testament  as  we  now  have  it.  (1  Ne.  13:23.)  The 
prophecies  of  Zenock,  Neum,  Zenos,  Joseph  the  son  of  Jacob,  and  probably  many  other  prophets  were 
preserved  by  them,  and  many  of  these  writings  foretold  matters  pertaining  to  the  Nephites.  (1  Ne.  19:10, 
21;  2  Ne.  4:2,  15;3Ne.  10:17.) 

The  value  of  the  Brass  Plates  to  the  Nephites  cannot  be  overestimated.  By  means  of  them  they  were 
able  to  preserve  the  language  (1  Ne.  3:19),  most  of  the  civilization,  and  the  religious  knowledge  of  the 
people  from  whence  they  came.  (1  Ne.  22:30.)  By  way  of  contrast,  the  Mulekites,  who  were  led  out  of 
Jerusalem  some  1 1  years  after  Lehi's  departure,  and  who  had  no  record  equivalent  to  the  Brass  Plates, 
soon  dwindled  in  apostasy  and  unbelief  and  lost  their  language,  civilization,  and  religion.  (Omni  14-18.) 

From  prophet  to  prophet  and  generation  to  generation  the  Brass  Plates  were  handed  down  and 
preserved  by  the  Nephites.  (Mosiah  1:16;  28:20;  3  Ne.  1:2.)  At  some  fiiture  date  the  Lord  has  promised  to 
bring  them  forth,  undimmed  by  time  and  retaining  their  original  brightness,  and  the  scriptural  accounts 
recorded  on  them  are  to  "go  forth  unto  every  nation,  kindred,  tongue,  and  people."  (Alma  37:3-5;  1  Ne. 
5:18-19.) 

Brazen  Sea 

(Brazen  Sea  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  BAPTISMAL  FONTS,  TEMPLES. 

In  Solomon's  Temple  a  large  molten  sea  of  brass  was  placed  on  the  backs  of  12  brazen  oxen,  these 
oxen  being  symbolical  of  the  12  tribes  of  Israel.  (1  Kings  7:23-26,44;  2  Kings  16:17;  25:13;  1  Chron. 
18:8.)  This  brazen  sea  was  used  for  perfomiing  baptisms  for  the  living.  There  were  no  baptisms  for  the 
dead  until  after  the  resurrection  of  Christ. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  all  direct  and  plain  references  to  baptism  have  been  deleted  from  the  Old 
Testament  (1  Ne.  13)  and  that  the  word  baptize  is  of  Greek  origin.  Some  equivalent  word,  such  as  wash, 
would  have  been  used  by  the  Hebrew  peoples.  In  describing  the  molten  sea  the  Old  Testament  record  says, 
"The  sea  was  for  the  priests  to  wash  in."  (2  Chron.  4:2-6.)  This  is  tantamount  to  saying  that  the  priests 
performed  baptisms  in  it. 

In  this  temple  building  dispensation  the  Brethren  have  been  led  by  the  spirit  of  inspiration  to  pattern 
the  baptismal  fonts  placed  in  temples  after  the  one  in  Solomon's  Temple. 

Brazen  Serpent 

(Brazen  Serpent  ) 

See  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CHRIST,  ORDINANCES,  SYMBOLISMS. 

To  typify  Christ  and  point  attention  to  the  salvation  which  would  come  because  he  would  be  lifted  up 
on  the  cross,  Moses  (as  commanded  by  the  Lord)  made  a  brazen  serpent  and  lifted  it  up  on  a  pole.  Then 
those  of  the  children  of  Israel  who  were  bitten  by  poisonous  serpents  were  healed  by  looking  upon  the 


74 


serpent,  while  those  who  refused  to  look  died  of  the  poisonous  bites.  (Num.  21:4-9.)  This  performance 
was  a  ceremony  in  Israel  which  was  intended  to  show  the  people  that  by  looking  to  Christ  they  would  be 
saved  with  eternal  life,  but  by  reflising  to  look  to  him  they  would  die  spiritually  (John  3:14-15;  Alma 
33:1922;  Hela.  8:14-15)  The  brazen  serpent  was  kept  as  a  symbol  in  Israel  until  the  time  of  Hezekiah,  who 
broke  it  in  pieces  to  keep  apostate  Israel  of  his  day  from  burning  incense  to  it.  (2  Kings  18:4.) 

Bread  and  Water 

(Bread  and  Water  ) 
See  SACRAMENT. 

Bread  and  Wine 

(Bread  and  Wine  ) 
See  SACRAMENT. 

Bread  of  Life 

(Bread  of  Life  ) 

See  CHRIST,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST,  MANNA,  SACRAMENT,  SYMBOLISMS. 

Christ  is  the  Bread  of  Life.  Just  as  manna  was  showered  down  as  bread  from  heaven  to  save  ancient 
Israel  from  starvation  and  temporal  death,  so  Christ  came  down  from  heaven  to  give  living  bread  and 
living  water  to  all  men  so  that  they  might  gain  everlasting  life.  (John  4: 10-38;  6:30-65.) 

Breastplate 

(Breastplate  ) 

See  URIM  AND  THUMMIM. 

Breath  of  Life 
(Breath  of  Life  ) 

See  LIFE,  LIGHT  OF  LIFE,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  SPIRIT  CHILDREN. 

Literally,  the  breath  of  life  is  the  air  we  breathe,  for  without  this  man  and  all  air-breathing  creatures 
would  die.  The  Mosaic  account  of  the  creation  says  that  "the  Lord  God  formed  man  of  the  dust  of  the 
ground,  and  breathed  into  his  nostrils  the  breath  of  life;  and  man  became  a  living  soul."  (Gen.  2:7;  Moses 
3:7.)  Similarly,  when  the  Lord  created  the  beasts  and  fowls,  he  "breathed  into  them  the  breath  of  life,"  and 
they  also  became  "living  souls."  (Moses  3:19;  Gen.  6:17.) 

In  a  figurative  sense  the  expression  breath  of  life  is  frequently  used  to  mean  the  life  of  man.  Ezekiel 
says,  in  speaking  of  the  resurrection  of  the  house  of  Israel,  "Thus  saith  the  Lord  God  unto  these  bones; 
Behold,  I  will  cause  breath  to  enter  into  you,  and  ye  shall  live."  (Ezek.  37:5-10.)  This  is  a  figurative  way 
of  saying  that  the  spirit  will  again  enter  the  body.  Actually,  as  Abraham's  account  of  the  creation  points 
out,  there  is  a  distinction  between  the  spirit  and  the  breath  of  life.  "And  the  Gods  formed  man  from  the 
dust  of  the  ground,"  this  record  states,  "and  took  his  spirit  (that  is,  the  man's  spirit),  and  put  it  into  him; 
and  breathed  into  his  nostrils  the  breath  of  life,  and  man  became  a  living  soul."  (Abra.  5:7.)  Paul  also 
speaks  of  God's  giving  both  "life,  and  breath"  (Acts  17:25)  to  all,  thus  making  an  apparent  distinction 
between  the  two  things. 

Brethren 

(Brethren  ) 

See  BELIEVERS,  DISCIPLES,  MORMONS,  PROPHETS,  SAINTS. 

All  men  are  brothers  in  the  sense  of  being  the  spirit  offspring  of  Deity.  But  those  who  join  the  true 
Church,  who  take  upon  themselves  the  name  of  Christ,  who  are  adopted  into  the  family  of  Jesus  Christ, 
becoming  his  sons  and  his  daughters,  thus  become  brothers  and  sisters  in  a  special  spiritual  sense.  (Mosiah 
5:7.)  Hence,  all  believers  collectively  or  any  group  of  them  in  particular  are  called  the  brethren.  (Acts 


75 


14:2;  15:33,  40.)  They  are  members  of  the  great  brotherhood  of  Christ.  In  a  spirit  of  love  and  fellowship 
members  of  the  Church  commonly  and  properly  call  each  other  brother  and  sister. 

Our  Lord  gave  graphic  expression  to  this  spiritual  usage  of  the  term  brethren  when,  being  told  that  his 
mother  and  literal  brothers  desired  to  see  him,  he  asked:  "Who  is  my  mother?  and  who  are  my  brothers?" 
In  answer,  "He  stretched  forth  his  hand  toward  his  disciples,  and  said.  Behold  my  mother  and  my  brethren 
for  whosoever  shall  do  the  will  my  Father  which  is  in  heaven,  the  same  is  my  brother,  and  sister,  and 
mother."  (Matt.  12:46-50.) 

Bride 

(Bride  ) 

See  BRIDE  OF  THE  LAMB. 

Bridegroom 

(Bridegroom  ) 

See  BRIDE  OF  THE  LAMB,  CHRIST,  ESPOUSAL,  HUSBAND,  MARRIAGE  SUPPER  OF  THE 
LAMB. 

Christ  is  the  Bridegroom  (Matt.  9:15;  Mark  2:19;  Luke  5:34;  John  3:29),  who  shall  take  the  Church  as 
his  bride  and  celebrate  the  glorious  occasion  at  the  marriage  supper  of  the  Lamb.  Our  Lord's  parable  of  the 
10  virgins  teaches  the  need  of  the  saints  to  be  ready  at  the  coming  of  the  Bridegroom.  (Matt.  25:1-13.) 
Similarly,  he  has  said  in  this  day:  "Be  faithfiil,  praying  always,  having  your  lamps  trimmed  and  burning, 
and  oil  with  you,  that  you  may  be  ready  at  the  coming  of  the  Bridegroom  -  For  behold,  verily,  verily,  I  say 
unto  you,  that  1  come  quickly."  (D.  &  C.  33:17-18;  88:92;  133:10,  19.) 

Bride  of  the  Lamb 

(Bride  of  the  Lamb  ) 

See  BRIDEGROOM,  CHRIST,  ESPOUSAL,  HUSBAND,  MARRLA.GE  SUPPER  OF  THE  LAMB, 
NEW  JERUSALEM. 

Both  the  New  Jerusalem,  which  shall  come  down  from  God  out  of  heaven,  and  The  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  are  called  the  Bride  of  the  lamb  and  the  Lamb's  wife.  (Rev.  21:2,  9-10;  22:17; 
D.  &  C.  109:72-74.)  The  bride  celebrates  the  marriage  supper  with  the  Bridegroom,  her  Husband,  and  is 
cherished  and  honored  by  him.  To  the  millennial  saints  the  Lord  promises:  "As  the  bridegroom  rejoiceth 
over  the  bride,  so  shall  thy  God  rejoice  over  thee."  (Isa.  62:5.) 

Brighamites 

(Brighamites  ) 
See  JOSEPHITES. 

Bright  and  Morning  Star 

(Bright  and  Morning  Star  ) 
See  CHRIST,  EXALTATION. 

Christ  is  the  Bright  and  Morning  Star.  (Rev  22:16.)  In  speaking  of  a  man  as  a  star  the  meaning  is  that 
he  is  a  person  of  brilliant  qualities,  who  stands  out  pre-eminently  among  his  fellows.  Thus  to  single  out 
our  Lord  as  the  Bright  and  Morning  Star,  the  last  bright  luminary  of  the  night  to  give  way  before  the  rising 
sun,  is  to  testify  that  he  is  pre-eminent  over  all  his  brethren,  that  he  is  the  Son  of  God  in  whom  all  fulness 
and  perfection  dwell. 

In  this  connection,  and  having  in  mind  that  those  who  gain  eternal  life  shall  be  joint-heirs  with  Christ, 
it  is  interesting  to  note  that  such  exalted  persons  are  promised  that  they  shall  receive  the  morning  star  that 
is,  reach  a  state  of  pre-eminence  and  perfection  themselves.  (Rev  2:26-28.)  "And  they  that  be  wise  shall 
shine  as  the  brightness  of  the  firmament;  and  they  that  turn  many  to  righteousness  as  the  stars  for  ever  and 


76 


ever."  (Dan.  12:3)  Peter's  statement  about  the  day  star  arising  in  the  hearts  of  certain  of  the  saints,  has 
reference  also  to  those  who  shall  inherit  the  fulness  of  all  things.  (2  Pet.  1:19.) 


Brimstone 

(Brimstone  ) 

See  FIRE  AND  BRIMSTONE. 

Broad-Mindedness 

(Broad-Mindedness  ) 

See  CONVERSION,  GOSPEL,  TESTIMONY,  TOLERANCE,  TRUTH. 

From  the  generally  accepted  and  worldly  standpoint,  broad-mindedness  consists  in  entertaining  liberal 
opinions  and  in  having  tolerant  views,  particularly  on  religious  matters.  Those  who  so  classify  themselves 
take  pride  in  not  accepting  any  particular  creed  or  following  any  selected  dogma;  they  suppose  that  theirs 
is  a  broad  perspective  which  makes  them  receptive  to  all  tmth;  invariably  they  reach  the  conclusion  that 
all  religions  are  equally  true  and  equally  false  and  that  salvation  if  there  is  such  a  thing,  is  not  found  in, 
through  or  because  of  any  one  of  them  in  particular. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  see  how  this  sort  of  broad-mindedness  comes  into  being.  When  inquiring  and 
scientific  minds  delve  into  the  narrow  and  bigoted  creeds  of  the  apostate  sects  of  Christendom  it  is  not 
surprising  that  they  rebel  against  those  dogmas  falsely  set  forth  as  the  tenets  of  tme  religion.  If  this 
modem  broad-mindedness  leads  to  an  open-minded  state  in  which  men  investigate  and  receive  the  true 
principles  of  revealed  religion,  it  has  served  a  beneficial  purpose.  But  if  it  results  in  an  aversion  and 
contempt  for  all  religions,  the  restored  Church  of  our  Lord  included,  it  leaves  the  scientific-minded  person 
no  better  off  than  the  bigoted  adherent  to  the  naiTow  creeds  of  the  apostate  world. 

In  a  very  real  sense  this  worldly  broad-mindedness  is  of  the  devil,  not  of  God.  Lucifer  is  willing  and 
anxious  that  men  believe  any  and  every  conceivable  notion  so  long  as  they  do  not  accept  Joseph  Smith 
and  the  restoration.  The  devil  is  the  most  broad-minded  person  in  all  eternity;  he  is  tolerant  to  every  view, 
particularly  those  leading  to  ungodly  practices.  "Wide  is  the  gate,  and  broad  is  the  way,  that  leadeth  to 
destruction,  and  many  there  be  which  go  in  thereat."  (Matt.  7: 13.) 

In  the  true  gospel  sense  of  the  word,  however,  broad-mindedness  is  the  state  of  mind  of  those  who 
know  the  truths  of  the  gospel,  who  reject  the  false  creeds  of  the  day,  and  who  walk  in  the  light  of  revealed 
truth.  The  broad-minded  man  is  the  one  who  knows  that  baptism  is  essential  to  salvation  and  celestial 
marriage  to  exaltation;  he  is  the  one  who  knows  the  truth.  In  the  eternal  sense  it  is  narrow-minded  to  reject 
the  laws  and  ordinances  of  the  gospel,  for  they  are  the  way  and  means  whereby  men  can  go  on  without 
limit,  restraint,  or  curtailment  in  attaining  perfection  and  enjoying  eternal  progression. 

Broken  Heart 

(Broken  Heart  ) 

See  CONTRITE  SPIRIT. 

Brotherhood  of  Man 

(Brotherhood  of  Man  ) 
See  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN. 


Brotherly  Love 

(Brotherly  Love  ) 
See  LOVE. 

Brother  of  Jared 

(Brother  of  Jared  ) 

See  MAHONRI MORIANCUMER. 


77 


Buffetings  of  Satan 

(Buffetings  of  Satan  ) 

See  DAMNATION,  DEVIL,  FIRE  AND  BRIMSTONE,  HELL. 


To  be  turned  over  to  the  buffetings  of  Satan  is  to  be  given  into  his  hands;  it  is  to  be  turned  over  to  him 
with  all  the  protective  power  of  the  priesthood,  of  righteousness  and  of  godliness  removed,  so  that  Lucifer 
is  free  to  torment,  persecute,  and  afflict  such  a  person  without  let  or  hindrance.  When  the  bars  are  down, 
the  cuffs  and  curses  of  Satan,  both  in  this  world  and  in  the  world  to  come,  bring  indescribable  anguish 
typified  by  burning  fire  and  brimstone.  The  damned  in  hell  so  suffer. 

Those  who  broke  their  Covenants  in  connection  with  the  United  Order  in  the  early  days  of  this 
dispensation  were  to  "be  delivered  over  to  the  buffetings  of  Satan  until  the  day  of  redemption."  (D.  &  C. 
78:12;  82:20-21;  104:9-10.)  A  similar  fate  (plus  destruction  in  the  flesh)  is  decreed  against  those  who  have 
been  sealed  up  unto  eternal  life  so  that  their  callings  and  elections  have  been  made  sure  and  who  thereafter 
turn  to  grievous  sin.  (D.  &  C.  131:5,  132:19-26.) 

Burials 

(Burials  ) 

See  FUNERALS. 

Burning 

(Burning  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 


78 


(C  ) 

Cain 

(Cain  ) 

See  DEVIL,  HAM,  MASTER  MAHAN,  NEGROES,  PERDITION,  SONS  OF  PERDITION, 
UNPARDONABLE  SIN. 

Though  he  was  a  rebel  and  an  associate  of  Lucifer  in  pre-existence  and  though  he  was  a  liar  from  the 
beginning  whose  name  was  perdition,  Cain  managed  to  attain  the  privilege  of  mortal  birth.  Under  Adam's 
tutelage,  he  began  in  this  life  to  serve  God.  He  understood  the  gospel  and  the  plan  of  salvation,  was 
baptized,  received  the  priesthood,  had  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the  position  and  perfection  of  God,  and 
talked  personally  with  Deity.  Then  he  came  out  in  open  rebellion,  fought  God,  worshiped  Lucifer,  and 
slew  Abel. 

Cain's  sacrifice  was  rejected  because  it  was  offered  at  Satan's  command,  not  the  Lord's;  it  was  not  and 
could  not  be  offered  in  faith  for  "he  could  have  no  faith,  or  could  not  exercise  faith  contrary  to  the  plan  of 
heaven."  (Teachings,  pp  58-59.) 

As  a  result  of  his  rebellion,  Cain  was  cursed  and  told  that  "the  earth"  would  not  thereafter  yield  him  its 
abundance  as  previously.  In  addition  he  became  the  first  mortal  to  be  cursed  as  a  son  of  perdition.  As  a 
result  of  his  mortal  birth  he  is  assured  of  a  tangible  body  of  flesh  and  bones  in  eternity,  a  fact  which  will 
enable  him  to  rule  over  Satan.  The  Lord  placed  on  Cain  a  mark  of  a  dark  skin,  and  he  became  the  ancestor 
of  the  black  race.  (Moses  5;  Gen.  4;  Teachings,  p.  169.) 


79 


Calamities 

(Calamities  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Calling  and  Election  Sure 

(Calling  and  Election  Sure  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN, 
DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  ELECTION  OF  GRACE,  ETERNAL  LIFE,  ETERNAL  LIVES, 
EXALTATION,  FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER,  GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST, 
SALVATION,  SECOND  COMFORTER,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

Those  members  of  the  Church  who  devote  themselves  wholly  to  righteousness,  living  by  every  word 
that  proceedeth  forth  from  the  mouth  of  God,  make  their  calling  and  election  sure.  That  is,  they  receive  the 
more  sure  word  of  prophecy,  which  means  that  the  Lord  seals  their  exaltation  upon  them  while  they  are 
yet  in  this  life.  Peter  summarized  the  course  of  righteousness  which  the  saints  must  pursue  to  make  their 
calling  and  election  sure  and  then  (referring  to  his  experience  on  the  Mount  of  Transfiguration  with  James 
and  John)  said  that  those  three  had  received  this  more  sure  word  of  prophecy.  (2  Pet.  1.) 

Joseph  Smith  taught:  "After  a  person  has  faith  in  Christ,  repents  of  his  sins,  and  is  baptized  for  the 
remission  of  his  sins  and  receives  the  Holy  Ghost  (by  the  laying  on  of  hands),  which  is  the  first  Comforter, 
then  let  him  continue  to  humble  himself  before  God,  hungering  and  thirsting  after  righteousness,  and 
living  by  every  word  of  God,  and  the  Lord  will  soon  say  unto  him.  Son,  thou  shall  be  exalted.  When  the 
Lord  has  thoroughly  proved  him,  and  finds  that  the  man  is  determined  to  serve  him  at  all  hazards,  then  the 
man  will  find  his  calling  and  election  made  sure,  then  it  will  be  his  privilege  to  receive  the  other 
Comforter."  To  receive  the  other  Comforter  is  to  have  Christ  appear  to  him  and  to  see  the  visions  of 
eternity.  (Teachings,  pp.  149-151.) 

Thus,  as  the  prophet  also  said,  "The  more  sure  word  of  prophecy  means  a  man's  knowing  that  he  is 
sealed  up  unto  eternal  life,  by  revelation  and  the  spirit  of  prophecy  through  the  power  of  the  Holy 
Priesthood."  (D.  &  C.  131:5.)  Those  so  favored  of  the  Lord  are  sealed  up  against  all  manner  of  sin  and 
blasphemy  except  the  blasphemy  against  the  Holy  Ghost  and  the  shedding  of  innocent  blood.  That  is,  their 
exaltation  is  assured;  their  calling  and  election  is  made  sure,  because  they  have  obeyed  the  fiilness  of 
God's  laws  and  have  overcome  the  world.  Though  such  persons  "shall  commit  any  sin  or  transgression  of 
the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  whatever  and  all  manner  of  blasphemies,  and  if  they  commit  no  murder 
wherein  they  shed  innocent  blood,  yet  they  shall  come  forth  in  the  first  resurrection,  and  enter  into  their 
exaltation."  (D.  &  C.  132:26.) 

The  Lord  says  to  them:  Ye  shall  come  forth  in  the  first  resuiTection;  .  .  .  and  shall  inlierit  thrones, 
kingdoms,  principalities,  and  powers,  dominions,  all  heights  and  depths."  (D.  &  C.  132:19.)  The  prophet, 
for  one,  had  this  seal  placed  upon  him.  That  is,  he  knew  "by  revelation  and  the  spirit  of  prophecy,  through 
the  power  of  the  Holy  Priesthood,"  that  he  would  attain  godhood  in  the  world  to  come.  To  him  Deity  said: 
"I  am  the  Lord  thy  God,  and  will  be  with  thee  even  unto  the  end  of  the  world,  and  through  all  eternity;  for 
verily  I  seal  upon  you  your  exaltation,  and  prepare  a  throne  for  you  in  the  kingdom  of  my  Father  with 
Abraham  your  father."  (D.  &  C.  132:49.) 

It  should  be  clearly  understood  that  these  high  blessings  are  not  part  of  celestial  marriage.  "Blessings 
pronounced  upon  couples  in  connection  with  celestial  marriage  are  conditioned  upon  the  subsequent 
faithfulness  of  the  participating  parties."  (Doctrines  of  Salvation  vol.  2,  pp,  46-47.) 

Calvary 

(Calvary  ) 

See  GOLGOTHA. 

Cancellation  of  Sealings 

(Cancellation  of  Sealings  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  SEALINGS. 


80 


Properly  speaking  there  is  no  sucli  thing  as  a  temple  divorce;  divorces  in  this  day  are  civil  matters 
handled  by  the  courts  of  the  land.  But  following  a  civil  divorce  of  persons  who  have  been  married  for 
eternity  in  the  temples,  if  the  circumstances  are  sufficiently  serious  to  warrant  it,  the  President  of  the 
Church  has  power  to  cancel  the  sealings  involved.  He  holds  the  keys  and  power  both  to  bind  and  loose  on 
earth  and  in  heaven.  (Matt.  16:19;  D.  &  C.  132:46;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  p.  84.) 

Canon  of  Scripture 

(Canon  of  Scripture  ) 

See  APOCRYPHA,  BIBLE,  BOOK  OF  MORMON,  DOCTRINE  AND  COVENANTS,  LOST 
SCRIPTURE,  PEARL  OF  GREAT  PRICE,  SCRIPTURE,  STANDARD  WORKS. 

Such  Biblical  writings  as  are  accepted  by  any  substantial  part  of  Christianity,  as  inspired  and  authentic, 
are  considered  by  their  acceptors  as  the  canon  of  scripture.  Other  supposedly  sacred  Biblical  writings 
which  are  not  so  accepted  are  designated  as  apocryphal  by  those  who  reject  them.  What  is  accepted  as 
canonical  by  one  group  may  be  thrust  aside  as  apocryphal  by  another.  Books  of  the  Apocrypha  itself  may 
be  listed  as  canonical  by  those  who  accept  them  as  authentic  and  inspired  writings.  Canonizing  is 
generally  considered  as  complete  when  some  formal  council,  convention,  or  other  official  church 
assemblage  officially  adopts  a  particular  work.  Thus,  applying  Biblical  standards  to  revelations  in  general, 
the  standard  works  of  the  Church  may  be  said  to  be  canonical  books. 

Canonizing,  as  understood  and  practiced  in  the  Christian  world,  has  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the 
tnith  of  falsity  of  a  particular  writing.  A  revelation  is  tnie  if  it  came  from  God,  false  if  it  did  not.  If  a  tme 
revelation  is  deleted  from  the  body  of  compiled  revelations,  yet  the  discarded  truths  remain  in  force,  and 
those  who  reject  them  are  condemned. 

Inspired  writing  is  tnie  if  the  Holy  Ghost  rests  upon  its  author  at  the  time  of  the  writing,  and  unless 
that  spirit  authors  or  inspires  the  choice  of  words  used,  the  resultant  language  is  not  scripture.  Any  tme 
document  may  subsequently  be  changed  and  perverted  by  uninspired  men.  But  if  the  spirit  of  revelation  is 
present  in  the  body  of  the  priesthood  or  of  the  Church,  and  if  that  inspired  body  votes  to  accept  a  writing 
as  true  and  binding  upon  its  members,  then  that  action  is  a  witness  on  earth  and  in  heaven  of  the  validity 
of  the  scriptural  writing  involved. 

Captain  of  Salvation 

(Captain  of  Salvation  ) 

See  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  AUTHOR  OF  SALVATION,  CAPTAIN  OF  THE  LORD'S  HOST, 
CHRIST,  SALVATION. 

Clirist  is  the  Captain  of  Salvation  (Heb.  2:10),  meaning  that  he  is  the  leader,  chief  officer,  and  agent 
who  made  salvation  available  to  his  brethren  through  his  atoning  sacrifice. 

Captain  of  the  Lord's  Host 

(Captain  of  the  Lord's  Host  ) 

See  ARMIES  OF  HEAVEN,  CAPTAIN  OF  SALVATION,  CHRIST,  GOD  OF  BATTLES,  LORD 
OF  HOSTS,  MICHAEL  THE  ARCHANGEL. 

1 .  Christ  himself  is  the  chief  soldier  in  his  own  army;  as  Commander,  he  carries  the  title  captain  of  the 
Lord's  Host.  By  this  name  he  appeared  to  Joshua,  who  seeing  "him  with  his  sword  drawn  in  his  hand,"  and 
hearing  him  say,  "As  captain  of  the  host  of  the  Lord  am  I  now  come,  .  .  .  Joshua  fell  on  his  face  to  the 
earth,  and  did  worship,  and  said  unto  him,  what  saith  my  lord  unto  his  sei'vant?  And  the  captain  of  the 
Lord's  host  said  unto  Joshua,  Loose  thy  shoe  from  off  thy  foot;  for  the  place  whereon  thou  standest  is 
holy."  (Josh.  5:13-15.)  What  further  direction  was  then  given  has  not  been  preserved  for  us. 

It  is  profitable  to  compare  this  appearance  of  our  Lord  to  Joshua  with  his  appearance  to  Moses  in  the 
burning  bush  at  which  time  the  ground  also  was  hallowed  by  the  personal  presence  of  Deity  (Ex.  3)  and 
also  to  compare  it  with  the  ministry  of  the  angel  whom  John  attempted  to  worship  but  was  restrained  with 
the  command:  "See  thou  do  it  not:  worship  God."  (Rev.  19:9-11.)  Among  righteous  messengers  from  the 


81 


spirit  realms,  none  but  Deity  will  accept  worship  from  mortals,  and  none  but  the  Lord  himself  hallows  a 
spot  so  that  mortals  are  commanded  to  remove  their  shoes. 

2.  Although  not  in  those  words  so  named  in  the  scriptures,  Michael  or  Adam  may  also  properly  be 
designated,  captain  of  the  Lord's  Host,  for  he,  under  Christ,  led  the  armies  of  heaven  when  Lucifer 
rebelled  (Rev.  12:7-9),  and  he,  under  Christ,  will  again  lead  the  hosts  of  heaven  in  "the  battle  of  the  great 
God,"  when  Lucifer  and  his  hosts  are  cast  out  eternally.  (D.  &  C.  88: 1 11-116.) 

Card  Playing 

(Card  Playing  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  GAMBLING,  RECREATION. 

President  Joseph  F.  Smith  has  stated  the  position  of  the  Church  with  reference  to  card  playing  in  these 
words:  "Card  playing  is  an  excessive  pleasure;  it  is  intoxicating  and,  therefore,  in  the  nature  of  a  vice.  It  is 
generally  the  companion  of  the  cigaret  and  the  wine  glass,  and  the  latter  lead  to  the  poolroom  and  the 
gambling  hall.  .  .  .  Few  indulge  frequently  in  card  playing  in  whose  lives  it  does  not  become  a  ruling 
passion.  ...  A  deck  of  cards  in  the  hands  of  a  faithful  servant  of  God  is  a  satire  upon  religion.  .  .  .  Those 
who  thus  indulge  are  not  fit  to  administer  in  sacred  ordinances.  .  .  .  The  bishops  are  charged  with  the 
responsibility  for  the  evil,  and  it  is  their  duty  to  see  that  it  is  abolished.  .  .  .  No  man  who  is  addicted  to  card 
playing  should  be  called  to  act  as  a  ward  teacher;  such  men  cannot  be  consistent  advocates  of  that  which 
they  do  not  themselves  practice. 

"The  card  table  has  been  the  scene  of  too  many  quarrels,  the  birthplace  of  too  many  hatreds,  the 
occasion  of  too  many  murders  to  admit  one  word  of  justification  for  the  lying,  cheating  spirit  which  it  too 
often  engenders  in  the  hearts  of  its  devotees.  .  .  . 

"Card  playing  is  a  game  of  chance,  and  because  it  is  a  game  of  chance  it  has  its  tricks.  It  encourages 
tricks;  its  devotees  measure  their  success  at  the  table  by  their  ability  through  devious  and  dark  ways  to 
win.  It  creates  a  spirit  of  cunning  and  devises  hidden  and  secret  means,  and  cheating  at  cards  is  almost 
synonymous  with  playing  at  cards."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp.  328-332.) 

Members  of  the  Church  should  not  belong  to  bridge  or  other  type  of  card  clubs,  and  they  should 
neither  play  cards  nor  have  them  in  their  homes.  By  cards  is  meant,  of  course,  the  spotted  face  cards  used 
by  gamblers.  To  the  extent  that  church  members  play  cards  they  are  out  of  harmony  with  their  inspired 
leaders.  Innocent  non-gambling  games  played  with  other  types  of  cards,  except  for  the  waste  of  time  in 
many  instances,  are  not  objectionable. 

Carnality 

(Carnality  ) 

See  BORN  AGAIN,  CORRUPTION,  DEVILISHNESS,  FALLEN  MAN,  FALL  OF  ADAM, 
MORTALITY,  SENSUALITY. 

Since  the  fall,  all  men  have  become  carnal,  sensual  and  devilish  by  nature.  (Moses  5:13;  6:49;  Alma 
42:10;  Mosiah  16:1-4;  D.  &  C.  20:20.)  In  this  fallen  state  they  are  subject  to  the  lusts,  passions,  and 
appetites  of  the  flesh.  They  are  spiritually  dead,  having  been  cast  out  of  the  presence  of  the  Lord;  and  thus 
"they  are  without  God  in  the  world,  and  they  have  gone  contrary  to  the  nature  of  God."  They  are  in  a 
"carnal  state"  (Alma  41:10-11);  they  are  of  the  world.  Carnality  connotes  worldliness,  sensuality,  and 
inclination  to  gratify  the  flesh. 

To  be  saved  men  must  forsake  carnality  and  turn  to  the  things  of  the  spirit.  They  "must  be  bom  again; 
yea,  bom  of  God,  changed  from  their  camal  and  fallen  state,  to  a  state  of  righteousness  being  redeemed  of 
God,  becoming  his  sons  and  daughters,"  (Mosiah  27:25.)  All  accountable  persons  who  have  not  received 
the  trath  and  the  spiritual  re-birth  that  attends  such  reception  are  yet  in  a  camal  state.  (Mosiah  4:2;  16: 1-4; 
26:4;  Alma  22: 13;  4: 10-15.) 

Even  members  of  the  Church  who  have  not  forsaken  the  world,  and  who  have  not  bridled  their 
passions  (Alma  38: 12),  are  yet  in  a  camal  state.  "Ye  are  yet  camal,"  Paul  said  to  the  Corinthian  saints,  "for 
whereas  there  is  among  you  envying,  and  strife,  and  divisions,  are  ye  not  camal,  and  walk  as  men?"  (1 
Cor.  3:3;  Mosiah  3:19.)  "To  be  camally  minded  is  death;  but  to  be  spiritually  minded  is  life  and  peace. 
Because  the  camal  mind  is  enmity  against  God."  (Rom.  8:6-7;  2  Ne.  9:39.) 


82 


Carpenter's  Son 

(Carpenter's  Son  ) 

See  CHRIST,  SON  OF  GOD,  SON  OF  JOSEPH. 

In  a  spirit  of  unbelief  and  derision,  the  citizens  of  our  Lord's  own  community  referred  to  him  as  the 
carpenter's  son.  (Matt.  13:53-58;  Mark  6:1-6;  Luke  4:16-29.)  Joseph,  his  foster  father,  earned  his  daily 
bread  through  carpentry,  and  Jesus  himself  was  schooled  in  that  trade. 

Caste  System 

(Caste  System  ) 

See  BONDAGE,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  SLAVERY,  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL. 

In  one  sense  of  the  word,  caste  systems  -  that  is,  the  foraiation  of  hereditary  classes  within  the  social 
organization  -  are  contrary  to  gospel  principles  of  equality  and  fair  treatment.  This  is  so  when  these 
systems  impose  restrictions,  slavery,  and  denial  of  natural  rights  upon  members  of  any  caste. 

God  is  no  respecter  of  persons,  and  inalienable  rights  are  the  natural  heritage  of  all  mankind  (D.  &  C. 
98:5);  persons  in  every  nation,  caste,  and  class  of  society  are  entitled,  as  of  right,  to  be  put  in  a  position 
where  they  can  exercise  the  "moral  agency"  which  the  Lord  has  given  them,  so  that  they  can  be 
accountable  for  their  "own  sins  in  the  day  of  judgment."  (D.  &  C.  101:78.)  Certainly  the  caste  systems  in 
communist  countries  and  in  hidia,  for  instance,  are  man  made  and  are  not  based  on  true  principles. 

However,  in  a  broad  general  sense,  caste  systems  have  their  root  and  origin  in  the  gospel  itself,  and 
when  they  operate  according  to  the  divine  decree,  the  resultant  restrictions  and  segregation  are  right  and 
proper  and  have  the  approval  of  the  Lord.  To  illustrate:  Cain,  Ham,  and  the  whole  negro  race  have  been 
cursed  with  a  black  skin,  the  mark  of  Cain,  so  they  can  be  identified  as  a  caste  apart,  a  people  with  whom 
the  other  descendants  of  Adam  should  not  intermarry.  (Gen.  4;  Moses  5.)  The  whole  house  of  Israel  was 
chosen  as  a  peculiar  people,  one  set  apart  from  all  other  nations  (Ex.  19:5-6;  Deut.  7:6;  14:2);  and  they 
were  forbidden  to  marry  outside  their  own  caste.  (Ex.  34:10-17;  Deut.  7:1-5.)  In  effect  the  Lamanites 
belonged  to  one  caste  and  the  Nephites  to  another,  and  a  mark  was  put  upon  the  Lamanites  to  keep  the 
Nephites  from  intermixing  with  and  marrying  them.  (Alma  3:6-11.)  All  this  is  not  to  say  that  any  race, 
creed,  or  caste  should  be  denied  any  inalienable  rights.  But  it  is  to  say  that  Deity  in  his  infinite  wisdom,  to 
carry  out  his  inscrutable  puiposes,  has  a  caste  system  of  his  own,  a  system  of  segregation  of  races  and 
peoples.  The  justice  of  such  a  system  is  evident  when  life  is  considered  in  its  true  eternal  perspective.  It  is 
only  by  a  knowledge  of  pre-existence  that  it  can  be  known  why  some  persons  are  bom  in  one  race  or  caste 
and  some  in  another. 

Segregation  and  caste  systems  will  continue  on  in  a  future  eternity;  the  righteous  will  go  to  paradise 
and  the  wicked  to  hell;  and  finally  all  men  will  be  segregated  into  kingdoms  -  each  separate  from  the 
others  -  according  as  their  works  have  been. 

Casting  Lots 

(Casting  Lots  ) 
See  LOTS. 

Cathedrals 
(Cathedrals  ) 

See  CHAPELS,  MEETINGHOUSES,  TABERNACLES,  TEMPLES. 

In  some  churches  of  the  world  the  particular  church  building  containing  the  cathedra,  or  chair  of  the 
bishop,  is  called  a  cathedral.  Since  these  houses  of  worship  have  nomially  been  the  largest,  most  ornate, 
and  by  far  the  most  costly  of  all  places  of  religious  assembly,  it  has  become  common  in  the  sectarian 
world  to  refer  to  all  large  and  important  church  buildings  as  cathedrals.  The  Latter-day  Saints,  however, 
do  not  build  cathedrals;  indeed,  the  erection  and  inordinate  adorning  of  expensive  and  elaborate  meeting 
houses  for  church  worship  is  one  of  the  signs  of  the  great  apostasy.  (Morm.  8:37.) 


83 


Cave  Man 

(Cave  Man  ) 
See  EVOLUTION. 

Celestial  Bodies 

(Celestial  Bodies  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  GLORY,  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  CELESTIAL  LAW,  CELESTIAL  SPIRITS, 
EXALTATION,  SALVATION. 

By  obedience  to  celestial  law  men  gain  celestial  bodies,  bodies  which  are  sanctified  by  the  spirit.  (D. 
&.  C.  84:33;  88:16-32;  Alma  13:12;  3  Ne.  27:19-21.)  They  become  new  creatures  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
having  been  bom  again.  (Alma  5.)  Their  renewed  bodies  are  just  as  different  from  bodies  still  in  their 
carnal  state  as  the  bodies  of  the  various  animals,  fowls,  and  fishes  differ  from  each  other.  (1  Cor.  15:39- 
42.)  Those  who  have  gained  celestial  bodies  will,  in  the  resurrection,  receive  back  "the  same  body  which 
was  a  natural  body"  (D.  &  C.  88:28),  that  is  their  celestial  bodies  will  be  immortalized  and  then  they  will 
gain  admission  to  the  celestial  kingdom. 

Celestial  City 

(Celestial  City  ) 

See  NEW  JERUSALEM. 

Celestial  Day 

(Celestial  Day  ) 
See  DAY. 

Celestial  Earth 

(Celestial  Earth  ) 
See  EARTH. 

Celestial  Glory 

(Celestial  Glory  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  BODIES,  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  CELESTIAL  LAW,  CELESTIAL  SPIRITS, 
EXALTATION,  SALVATION. 

If  a  man  obeys  celestial  law  in  this  life,  he  obtains  a  celestial  body  and  spirit.  In  the  resurrection  these 
are  received  back  again  quickened  by  a  celestial  glory  thus  qualifying  him  to  go  to  a  celestial  kingdom 
where  alone  celestial  glory  is  found.  (D.  &  C.  88:16-32.)  Mortal  man  has  no  concept  of  the  glory  of  that 
world.  Those  who  finally  attain  it  are  persons  "whose  bodies  are  celestial,  whose  glory  is  that  of  the  sun, 
even  the  glory  of  God,  the  highest  of  all,  whose  glory  the  sun  of  the  firmament  is  written  of  as  being 
typical."  (D.  &  C.  76:70;  1  Cor.  15:40-42.)  Exaltation  consists  in  gaining  a  fulness  of  celestial  gloiy.  (D. 
&  C.  132:19-20.)  Those  so  attaining  will  receive  "a  fulness  of  the  glory  of  the  Father"  and  be  glorified  in 
Christ  as  he  is  in  the  Father.  (D.  &  C.  93:16-20.)  The  Prophet  said  that  in  the  resurrection  the  righteous 
"shall  rise  again  to  dwell  in  everlasting  burnings  in  immortal  glory,  not  to  sorrow,  suffer,  or  die  any  more; 
but  they  shall  be  heirs  of  God  and  joint-heirs  with  Jesus  Christ."  (Teachings  p.  347.) 

Celestial  Kingdom 

(Celestial  Kingdom  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  BODIES,  CELESTIAL  GLORY,  CELESTIAL  LAW,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE, 
CELESTIAL  SPIRITS,  EXALTATION,  HEAVEN,  KINGDOM  OF  GOD,  KINGDOM  OF  HEAVEN, 
KINGDOMS  OF  GLORY,  MANSIONS,  SALVATION,  TELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  TERRESTRLAL 
KINGDOM. 


84 


Highest  among  the  kingdoms  of  glory  hereafter  is  the  celestial  kingdom.  It  is  the  kingdom  of  God,  the 
glory  thereof  being  typified  by  the  sun  in  the  fimiament.  (D.  &  C.  76:50-70,  92-96;  1  Cor.  15:39-42.)  The 
Prophet  has  left  us  this  record  of  a  glorious  occurrence  that  took  place  in  the  Kirtland  Temple  on  January 
21,  1836:  "The  heavens  were  opened  upon  us,  and  1  beheld  the  celestial  kingdom  of  God,  and  the  glory 
thereof,  whether  in  the  body  or  out  1  cannot  tell.  1  saw  the  transcendent  beauty  of  the  gate  through  which 
the  heirs  of  that  kingdom  will  enter,  which  was  like  unto  circling  flames  of  fire;  also  the  blazing  tlirone  of 
God,  whereon  was  seated  the  Father  and  the  Son.  1  saw  the  beautiful  streets  of  that  kingdom,  which  had 
the  appearance  of  being  paved  with  gold."  (Teachings,  p.  107.) 

An  inheritance  in  this  glorious  kingdom  is  gained  by  complete  obedience  to  gospel  or  celestial  law. 
(D.  &  C.  88:16-32.)  By  entering  the  gate  of  repentance  and  baptism  candidates  find  themselves  on  the 
strait  and  nan'ow  path  leading  to  the  celestial  kingdom.  By  devotion  and  faithfulness,  by  enduring  to  the 
end  in  righteousness  and  obedience,  it  is  then  possible  to  merit  a  celestial  reward.  (2  Ne.  31:17-21.) 

No  unclean  thing  can  enter  this  kingdom,  and  the  plan  of  salvation  is  the  system  whereby  men  are 
washed  and  cleansed,  whereby  they  are  "sanctified  by  the  reception  of  the  Holy  Ghost,"  and  thus  enabled 
to  stand  spotless  before  the  Lord.  (3  Ne.  27:19-21.)  "The  sanctified"  are  "them  of  the  celestial  world."  (D. 
&C.  88:2.) 

"In  the  celestial  glory  there  are  three  heavens  or  degrees,"  and  in  the  same  sense  that  baptism  starts  a 
person  out  toward  an  entrance  into  the  celestial  world,  so  celestial  marriage  puts  a  couple  on  the  path 
leading  to  an  exaltation  in  the  highest  heaven  of  that  world.  (D.  &  C.  131 : 1-4;  132.) 

Celestial  Law 

(Celestial  Law  ) 

See  CELESTLA.L  BODIES,  CELESTIAL  GLORY,  CELESTLA.L  KINGDOM,  CELESTL^L 
MARRIAGE,  CELESTIAL  SPIRITS,  CONSECRATION,  GOSPEL,  LAW,  OBEDIENCE. 

That  law  by  obedience  to  which  men  gain  an  inheritance  in  the  kingdom  of  God  in  eternity  is  called 
celestial  law.  It  is  the  law  of  the  gospel,  the  law  of  Christ,  and  it  qualifies  men  for  admission  to  the 
celestial  kingdom  because  in  and  through  it  men  are  "sanctified  by  the  reception  of  the  Holy  Ghost,"  thus 
becoming  clean,  pure,  and  spotless.  (3  Ne.  27:19-21.) 

"And  they  who  are  not  sanctified  tlirough  the  law  which  I  have  given  unto  you,  even  the  law  of 
Christ,"  the  Lord  says,  "must  inherit  another  kingdom,  even  that  of  a  terrestrial  kingdom,  or  that  of  a 
telestial  kingdom.  For  he  who  is  not  able  to  abide  the  law  of  a  celestial  kingdom  cannot  abide  a  celestial 
glory."  (D.  &  C.  88:21-22.)  Those  who  have  the  companionship  of  the  Holy  Ghost  and  are  guided  thereby 
in  their  lives  are  "able  to  abide  the  law  of  a  celestial  kingdom,"  including  the  law  of  consecration  or 
anything  else  the  Lord  might  ask  of  them.  They  are  the  ones  who  -  "united  according  to  the  union  required 
by  the  law  of  the  celestial  kingdom"  (D.  &  C.  105: 1-5)  -  will  build  up  Zion  in  the  last  days. 

Celestial  Marriage 

(Celestial  Marriage  ) 

See  ARTICLE  ON  MARRLA.GE,  CALLING  AND  ELECTION  SURE,  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM, 
CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  CIVIL  MARRLA.GE,  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  ETERNAL  LIFE, 
ETERNAL  LIVES,  EXALTATION,  FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER,  GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH 
CHRIST,  PLURAL  MARRLA.GE,  SALVATION,  SALVATION  FOR  THE  DEAD,  SEALING  POWER, 
SONS  OF  GOD. 

Marriages  performed  in  the  temples  for  time  and  eternity,  by  virtue  of  the  sealing  keys  restored  by 
Elijah,  are  called  celestial  marriages.  The  participating  parties  become  husband  and  wife  in  this  mortal 
life,  and  if  after  their  marriage  they  keep  all  the  terms  and  conditions  of  this  order  of  the  priesthood,  they 
continue  on  as  husband  and  wife  in  the  celestial  kingdom  of  God. 

If  the  family  unit  continues,  then  by  virtue  of  that  fact  the  members  of  the  family  have  gained  eternal 
life  (exaltation),  the  greatest  of  all  the  gifts  of  God,  for  by  definition  exaltation  consists  in  the  continuation 
of  the  family  unit  in  eternity.  Those  so  inheriting  are  the  sons  and  daughters  of  God,  the  members  of  his 
family,  those  who  have  made  their  callings  and  elections  sure,  They  are  joint-heirs  with  Christ  to  all  that 
the  Father  hath,  and  they  receive  the  fulness  of  the  glory  of  the  Father,  becoming  gods  in  their  own  right. 


85 


(D.  &  C.  132;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  58-99.)  Baptism  is  the  gate  to  the  celestial  kingdom; 
celestial  marriage  is  the  gate  to  an  exaltation  in  the  highest  heaven  within  the  celestial  world.  (D.  &  C. 
131:1-4.)  To  gain  salvation  after  baptism  it  is  necessary  to  keep  the  commandments  of  God  and  endure  to 
the  end  (2  Ne.  31:17-21);  to  gain  exaltation  after  celestial  marriage  the  same  continued  devotion  and 
righteousness  is  required.  Those  who  have  been  married  in  the  temples  for  eternity  know  that  the 
ceremony  itself  expressly  conditions  the  receipt  of  all  promised  blessings  upon  the  subsequent  faithfulness 
of  the  husband  and  wife. 

Making  one's  calling  and  election  sure  is  in  addition  to  celestial  marriage  and  results  from  undeviating 
and  perfect  devotion  to  the  cause  of  righteousness.  Those  married  in  the  temple  can  never  under  any 
circumstances  gain  exaltation  unless  they  keep  the  commandments  of  God  and  abide  in  the  covenant  of 
marriage  which  they  have  taken  upon  themselves. 

Celestial  marriage  is  a  holy  and  an  eternal  ordinance;  as  an  order  of  the  priesthood,  it  has  the  name  the 
new  and  everlasting  covenant  of  inaniage.  Adam  was  the  first  one  on  this  earth  to  enter  into  this  type  of 
union,  and  it  has  been  the  Lord's  order  in  all  ages  when  the  fulness  of  the  gospel  has  been  on  eai1h.  Its 
importance  in  the  plan  of  salvation  and  exaltation  cannot  be  overestimated.  The  most  important  things  that 
any  member  of  The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  ever  does  in  this  world  are:  1.  To  marry 
the  right  person,  in  the  right  place,  by  the  right  authority;  and  2.  To  keep  the  covenant  made  in  cormection 
with  this  holy  and  perfect  order  of  matrimony  -  thus  assuring  the  obedient  persons  of  an  inheritance  of 
exaltation  in  the  celestial  kingdom. 

Celestial  Spirits 

(Celestial  Spirits  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  BODIES,  CELESTIAL  GLORY,  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  CELESTIAL  LAW, 
EXALTATION,  SALVATION. 

Those  who  by  full  obedience  to  gospel  requirements  develop  celestial  bodies,  gain  at  the  same  time 
celestial  spirits.  Then  in  the  resurrection,  when  "the  same  body  which  was  a  natural  body,"  (that  is,  the 
renewed  body,  the  body  sanctified  by  the  spirit,  the  celestial  body)  is  received  back  again,  "they  who  are 
of  a  celestial  spirit"  are  quickened  by  a  celestial  glory  and  go  on  to  an  inheritance  in  a  celestial  kingdom. 
(D.  &C.  88:28.) 

Celestial  Time 

(Celestial  Time  ) 
See  TIME. 

Celibacy 

(Celibacy  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CELESTLA.L  MARRIAGE,  EUNUCHS,  HARLOTS. 

Some  persons  in  some  of  the  churches  in  the  world  are  bound  by  vows  of  celibacy  whereunder  they 
agree  to  remain  unmarried.  Celibacy  is  not  of  God,  whose  law  is  that  "MaiTiage  is  honourable  in  all"  (Heb. 
13:4),  and  that  men  should  "Be  fruitful,  and  multiply,  and  replenish  the  earth."  (Gen.  1:28.) 

Many  who  practice  celibacy  do  so  out  of  an  excessive  religious  devotion  and  with  the  idea  in  mind 
that  they  are  serving  their  Maker.  In  reality  they  are  forsaking  some  of  the  most  important  purposes  of 
their  creation  for  a  man-made,  uninspired  system.  Indeed,  Paul  says  of  this  practice  of  celibacy  that  it 
consists  in  "giving  heed  to  seducing  spirits,  and  doctrines  of  devils."  (1  Tim.  4:1-3.) 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  it  is  to  Paul  that  advocates  of  celibacy  turn  in  a  fruitless 
search  to  find  scripture  justifying  their  unnatural  mode  of  living.  Paul  himself  was  married.  Of  this  there  is 
no  question.  He  had  the  sure  promise  of  eternal  life;  his  calling  and  election  had  been  made  sure 
(Teachings  p.  151)  -  which,  according  to  God's  eternal  laws,  could  not  have  been  unless  he  had  first 
entered  into  the  order  of  celestial  marriage.  (D.  &  C.  131;  132.) 

However,  Paul  wrote  some  things  to  the  Corinthian  saints  which  have  been  interpreted  by  some  to 
mean  that  he  was  umnarried  and  that  he  thought  it  preferable  if  others  did  not  many.  It  may  well  be  that 
his  expressions  on  marriage,  as  found  in  the  King  James  Version  of  the  Bible  (1  Cor.  7),  have  come  to  us 


86 


in  changed  and  perverted  form,  as  compared  to  what  he  originally  wrote.  Some  changes  and  clarifications 
have  been  made  in  the  Inspired  Version.  But  even  as  the  record  stands,  it  does  not  support  celibacy;  and 
when  it  is  read  in  harmony  with  the  rest  of  the  scriptures  (which  always  should  be  done  in  interpreting 
passages),  it  is  found  to  teach  quite  the  reverse. 

It  is  apparent  that  the  Corinthians  had  written  Paul  and  had  said  to  him,  "It  is  good  for  a  man  not  to 
touch  a  woman."  Paul  replied,  in  the  Lord's  name,  writing  by  way  of  commandment,  "Let  every  man  have 
his  own  wife,  and  let  every  woman  have  her  own  husband."  Then  he  announced  that  the  Lord  had  ceased 
to  speak  and  that  he  would  give  some  personal  opinions,  in  an  attempt  to  solve  some  difficult  cases.  He 
does  not  record  what  the  cases  were;  obviously  they  had  been  in  the  letter  the  Corinthians  wrote  him;  and 
to  get  a  fair  perspective  of  his  answer,  we  would  need  to  know  the  exact  questions  involved.  However, 
from  latter-day  revelation  we  do  know  that  the  questions  pertained  to  circumcision,  the  law  of  Moses, 
maiTying  out  of  the  Church,  and  the  false  tradition  that  little  children  are  conceived  in  sin  and  hence  are 
unholy.  (D.  &  C.  74.) 

Paul  then  gives  it  as  his  opinion  (plainly  saying  that  it  is  a  personal  view  and  not  the  voice  of  the  Lord) 
that  certain  persons  should  not  many.  It  may  be  that  he  was  referring  to  some  particular  persons  for  whom 
it  would  have  been  unwise  to  contract  marriages.  Knowing  what  he  did  about  the  doctrine  of  celestial 
marriage  and  exaltation,  it  is  unthinkable  that  he  would  have  counseled  against  marriage,  except  in  some 
peculiar  circumstance.  There  might  be  cases  today  in  which  individuals  should  not  marry,  but  it  is  not  the 
general  rtile,  and  the  principle  of  not  marrying  is  not  the  doctrine  of  the  Church  now  any  more  than  it  was 
in  his  day.  (Inspired  Version,  1  Cor.  7.)  If  we  knew  the  situation  about  which  Paul  wrote,  and  had  a  full 
transcript  of  his  actual  words,  there  would  be  no  ambiguity  as  to  his  meaning  and  doctrine. 

Indeed,  it  is  to  some  of  Paul's  other  writings  that  we  turn  for  direct  confiraiation  of  the  everlasting 
principle  of  eternal  marriage,  as  for  instance  his  epigrammatic  statement,  "Neither  is  the  man  without  the 
woman,  neither  the  woman  without  the  man,  in  the  Lord."  (1  Cor.  11:11.) 

Ceremonies 

(Ceremonies  ) 
See  ORDINANCES. 

Chains  of  Hell 

(Chains  of  Hell  ) 

See  DAMNATION,  GATES  OF  HELL,  HELL. 

Those  who  "harden  their  hearts"  against  gospel  truth  soon  become  engulfed  in  total  spiritual  darkness 
in  which  "they  know  nothing  concerning"  God  and  "his  mysteries;  and  then  they  are  taken  captive  by  the 
devil,  and  led  by  his  will  down  to  destruction.  Now  this  is  what  is  meant  by  the  chains  of  hell."  (Alma 
12:9-11.) 

When  persons  are  thus  finally  bound,  there  is  no  longer  hope  of  reprieve;  they  suffer  the  second  death 
and  are  "chained  down  to  an  everlasting  destruction"  (Alma  12:17),  "from  whence  there  is  no 
deliverance."  (2  Ne.  28:19,  22.)  But  as  these  chains  begin  to  encircle  the  mind,  closing  out  light  and  truth 
degree  by  degree,  there  is  still  the  chance  of  escape  tlirough  repentance  and  righteousness.  (2  Ne.  1:13,  23; 
9:45;  Alma  5:7,  9;  13:30;  26:14.) 

The  angels  who  kept  not  their  first  estate  are  destined  to  inherit  everlasting  darkness;  for  them  there  is 
no  escape  from  the  chains  of  hell.  (D.  &  C.  38:5;  2  Pet.  2:4;  Jude  6.) 

Chance 

(Chance  ) 
See  LAW. 

Chapels 

(Chapels  ) 

See  CATHEDRALS,  MEETINGHOUSES,  TABERNACLES,  TEMPLES. 


87 


Strictly  speaking  a  chapel  is  a  subordinate  place  of  worship  in  a  more  elaborate  church  building;  it  is  a 
room,  recess,  or  cell  containing  an  altar  and  located  in  a  cathedral  or  other  church  building.  The  assembly 
halls  in  which  services  of  worship  are  held  in  Latter-day  Saint  meetinghouses  are  commonly  called 
chapels,  though  the  term  does  not  fully  apply.  To  speak  of  the  ward  chapel  when  ward  meetinghouse  is 
meant  is  not  the  best  usage  of  terms. 

Clergymen  on  official  duty  with  the  armed  services  or  who  are  employed  by  public  institutions  are 
commonly  called  chaplains.  The  title  is  not  one  that  pertains  to  the  Church  or  the  gospel,  and  those  who  so 
serve  are  appointed  by  military  or  civil  power  and  have  no  divine  commission,  unless,  as  occasionally 
happens,  one  of  the  elders  of  Israel  serves  in  such  a  capacity. 

Charity 

(Charity  ) 

See  ALMSGIVING,  CHRIST,  FAITH,  HOPE,  LOVE,  PERFECTION,  RELIEF  SOCIETY, 
SALVATION,  WELFARE  PLAN. 

Above  all  the  attributes  of  godliness  and  perfection,  charity  is  the  one  most  devoutly  to  be  desired. 
Charity  is  more  than  love,  far  more;  it  is  everlasting  love,  perfect  love,  the  pure  love  of  Christ  which 
endureth  forever.  It  is  love  so  centered  in  righteousness  that  the  possessor  has  no  aim  or  desire  except  for 
the  eternal  welfare  of  his  own  soul  and  for  the  souls  of  those  around  him.  (2  Ne.  26:30;  Moro.  7:47;  8:25- 
26.) 

"Above  all  things,"  the  Lord  says,  "clothe  yourselves  with  the  bond  of  charity,  as  with  a  mantle,  which 
is  the  bond  of  perfectness  and  peace."  (D.  &  C.  88:125;  Col.  3:14.)  "Above  all  things  have  fervent  charity 
among  yourselves,"  Peter  said  to  the  saints,  "for  charity  shall  cover  the  multitude  of  sins."  (1  Pet.  4:8.) 
Charity  is  the  crowning  virtue,  "the  end  of  the  commandment"  (1  Tim.  1:5);  "And  now  abideth  faith,  hope, 
charity,  these  three;  but  the  greatest  of  these  is  charity."  (1  Cor.  13:13.) 

Charity  is  an  essential  qualification  for  the  ministers  of  Christ  (D  &  C.  4:5);  no  one  can  assist  in  the 
Lord's  work  without  it  (D.  &  C.  12:8;  18:19);  and  the  saints  of  God  are  commanded  to  seek  and  attain  it. 
(D.  &  C.  121:45;  124:116;  2  Ne.  33:7-9;  Alma  7:24;  1  Cor.  16:14;  1  Tim.  4:12;  2  Tim.  2:22;  Tit.  2:2;  2 
Pet.  1:7.)  Charity  is  a  gift  of  the  Spirit  which  must  be  gained  if  one  is  to  have  salvation.  "There  must  be 
faith,"  Moroni  writes,  "and  if  there  must  be  faith  there  must  also  be  hope;  and  if  there  must  be  hope  there 
must  also  be  charity.  And  except  ye  have  charity  ye  can  in  nowise  be  saved  in  the  kingdom  of  God; 
neither  can  ye  be  saved  in  the  kingdom  of  God  if  ye  have  not  faith;  neither  can  ye  if  ye  have  no  hope." 
(Moro.  10:20-21.) 

To  Moroni  the  Lord  said:  "Faith,  hope  and  charity  bringeth  unto  me  -  the  fountain  of  all 
righteousness,"  and  Moroni  replied  to  the  Lord  (being,  of  course,  moved  upon  by  the  Holy  Ghost):  "I 
remember  that  thou  hast  said  that  thou  hast  loved  the  world,  even  unto  the  laying  down  of  thy  life  for  the 
world,  that  thou  mightest  take  it  again  to  prepare  a  place  for  the  children  of  men.  And  now  I  know  that  this 
love  which  thou  hast  had  for  the  children  of  men  is  charity  wherefore,  except  men  shall  have  charity  they 
cannot  inherit  that  place  which  thou  hast  prepared  in  the  mansions  of  thy  Father."  (Ether  12:28,  33-34.) 

Both  Paul  and  Mormon  wrote  of  charity  in  similar  language.  Either  they  both  had  the  same  words  of 
some  earlier  prophet  before  them  or  the  Holy  Ghost  revealed  the  same  tmths  to  them  in  almost  the  same 
words.  Mormon's  language  included  these  statements:  "If  a  man  be  meek  and  lowly  in  heart,  and  confesses 
by  the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  that  Jesus  is  the  Christ,  he  must  needs  have  charity;  for  if  he  have  not 
charity  he  is  nothing;  wherefore  he  must  needs  have  charity.  And  charity  suffereth  long,  and  is  kind,  and 
envieth  not,  and  is  not  puffed  up,  seeketh  not  her  own,  is  not  easily  provoked,  thinketh  no  evil,  and 
rejoiceth  not  in  iniquity  but  rejoiceth  in  the  truth,  beareth  all  things,  believeth  all  things,  hopeth  all  things, 
endureth  all  things.  Wherefore,  my  beloved  brethren,  if  ye  have  not  charity,  ye  are  nothing,  for  charity 
never  faileth.  Wherefore,  cleave  unto  charity,  which  is  the  greatest  of  ah  for  all  things  must  fail  -  But 
charity  is  the  pure  love  of  Christ,  and  it  endureth  forever;  and  whoso  is  found  possessed  of  it  at  the  last 
day,  it  shall  be  well  with  him.  Wherefore,  my  beloved  brethren,  pray  unto  the  Father  with  all  the  energy  of 
heart,  that  ye  may  be  filled  with  this  love,  which  he  hath  bestowed  upon  all  who  are  true  followers  of  his 
Son,  Jesus  Christ;  that  ye  may  become  the  sons  of  God;  that  when  he  shall  appear  we  shall  be  like  him,  for 
we  shall  see  him  as  he  is;  that  we  may  have  this  hope;  that  we  may  be  purified  even  as  he  is  pure."  (Moro. 
7:44-48.) 


88 


Charms 

(ChaiTTis  ) 
See  MAGIC. 

Chastening 

(Chastening  ) 

See  CHASTISEMENT,  LOVE,  PUNISHMENT,  REPENTANCE,  SECOND  ESTATE. 

By  a  process  of  chastening  the  Lord  helps  prepare  his  saints  for  salvation.  It  is  one  of  his  ways  of 
turning  eiTing  souls  to  paths  of  righteousness.  As  varying  situations  require,  chastening  may  include 
rebukes  for  misconduct  or  subjection  to  trials  and  afflictions.  It  may  even  take  the  forni  of  chastisement, 
meaning  corporal  punishment. 

Men  are  chastened  for  their  sins  (D.  &  C.  58:60;  61:8;  64:8;  75:7;  93:50;  97:6;  103:4;  105:6;  1  Ne. 
16:25),  to  bring  them  to  repentance  (D.  &  C.  1:27;  98:21),  because  the  Lord  loves  them.  (D.  &  C.  95:1-2; 
Hela.  15:3;  Rev.  3:19.)  Chastening  is  designed  to  try  the  faith  and  patience  of  the  saints  (Mosiah  23:21), 
and  those  who  endure  it  well  gain  eternal  life. 

"For  whom  the  Lord  loveth  he  chasteneth,  and  scourgeth  every  son  whom  he  receiveth.  If  ye  endure 
chastening  God  dealeth  with  you  as  with  sons;  for  what  son  is  he  whom  the  father  chasteneth  not?  But  if 
ye  be  without  chastisement,  whereof  all  are  partakers,  then  are  ye  bastards,  and  not  sons.  Furthermore  we 
have  had  fathers  of  our  flesh  which  corrected  us,  and  we  gave  them  reverence:  shall  we  not  much  rather  be 
in  subjection  unto  the  Father  of  spirits,  and  live?  For  they  verily  for  a  few  days  chastened  us  after  their 
own  pleasure;  but  he  for  our  profit,  that  we  might  be  partakers  of  his  holiness.  Now  no  chastening  for  the 
present  seemeth  to  be  joyous,  but  grievous:  nevertheless  afterward  it  yieldeth  the  peaceable  fruit  of 
righteousness  unto  them  which  are  exercised  thereby."  (Heb.  12:6-11;  Job  5:17;  Prov.  3:11.) 

Chastening  is  both  mental  and  physical.  The  Lord  and  his  prophets  may  rebuke  and  counsel  people  for 
their  benefit.  (1  Ne.  16:39.)  And  the  Lord  may  send  calamities  upon  the  people  to  soften  their  hearts  so 
they  will  become  more  receptive  to  his  will.  "Except  the  Lord  doth  chasten  his  people  with  many 
afflictions,  yea,  except  he  doth  visit  them  with  death  and  with  terror,  and  with  famine  and  with  all  manner 
of  pestilence  they  will  not  remember  him."  (Hela.  12:3;  D.  &  C.  87:6.)  "And  my  people  must  needs  be 
chastened  until  they  learn  obedience,  if  it  must  needs  be,  by  the  things  which  they  suffer."  (D.  &  C. 
101:6.) 

"Verily  I  say  unto  you,  concerning  your  bretlii'en  who  have  been  afflicted,  and  persecuted,  and  cast  out 
from  the  land  of  their  inheritance  -  the  Lord  is  speaking  of  those  driven  from  their  homes  in  Jackson 
County  by  the  mobs  -  "I,  the  Lord,  have  suffered  the  affliction  to  come  upon  them,  wherewith  they  have 
been  afflicted,  in  consequence  of  their  transgressions.  Yet  I  will  own  them,  and  they  shall  be  mine  in  that 
day  when  I  shall  come  to  make  up  my  jewels.  Therefore,  they  must  needs  be  chastened  and  tried,  even  as 
Abraham,  who  was  commanded  to  offer  up  his  only  son.  For  all  those  who  will  not  endure  chastening  but 
deny  me,  cannot  be  sanctified."  (D.  &  C.  101:1-5.) 

Chastisement 

(Chastisement  ) 

See  CHASTENING,  PUNISHMENT. 

When  the  chastening  of  the  Lord  takes  the  form  of  corporal  punishment,  it  is  called  chastisement.  (D. 
&  C.  95:1;  103:1-4;  Lev.  26:28.)  Those  who  will  not  bear  chastisement  are  not  worthy  of  salvation.  (D.  & 
C.  136:31) 

One  of  the  great  Messianic  prophecies  foretold  that  our  Lord  would  bear  in  his  own  body  the  wounds 
of  chastisement.  "He  was  wounded  for  our  transgressions,  he  was  bruised  for  our  iniquities;  the 
chastisement  of  our  peace  was  upon  him;  and  with  his  stripes  we  are  healed."  (Isa.  53:5.) 

Chastity 

(Chastity  ) 

See  MODESTY,  REPENTANCE,  SEX  IMMORALITY. 


89 


Chastity,  meaning  virtue  and  sexual  purity,  is  that  state  of  moral  purity  which  is  "most  dear  and 
precious  above  all  things."  (More.  9:9.)  On  the  other  hand,  sexual  sins  are  "most  abominable  above  all 
sins  save  it  be  the  shedding  of  innocent  blood  or  denying  the  Holy  Ghost."  (Alma  39:5.) 

Loss  of  virtue  is  too  great  a  price  to  pay  even  for  the  preservation  of  one's  life  -  better  dead  clean,  than 
alive  unclean.  Many  is  the  faithful  Latter-day  Saint  parent  who  has  sent  a  son  or  a  daughter  on  a  mission 
or  othemise  out  into  the  world  with  the  direction:  "1  would  rather  have  you  come  back  in  a  pine  box  with 
your  virtue  than  return  alive  without  it."  "I  the  Lord  God  delight  in  the  chastity  of  women.  And 
whoredoms  are  an  abomination  before  me;  thus  saith  the  Lord  of  Hosts."  (Jac.  2:28.) 

Cheerfulness 

(Cheerfulness  ) 

See  DESPAIR,  HOPE,  JOY,  LAUGHTER,  REJOICING. 

One  of  the  frequent  bits  of  counsel,  comfort,  and  solace  coming  from  God  to  his  people  is,  "Be  of 
good  cheer."  (John  16:33;  Acts  27:22,  25;  2  Ne.  10:23;  Alma  17:31;  3  Ne.  1:13;  D.  &  C.  61:36;  68:6; 
78:18;  1 12:4.)  That  is,  the  saints  are  exhorted  to  raise  their  spirits,  to  increase  their  hope  of  better  days,  to 
be  comforted  in  their  sorrows,  gladdened  in  their  successes,  and  made  to  rejoice  in  general.  True 
cheerfulness  is  bom  of  righteousness,  for  in  right  living  there  can  be  no  remorse  of  conscience. 

Cherub 

(Cherub  ) 

See  CHERUBIM. 

Cherubim 

(Cherubim  ) 

See  ANGELS,  HIERARCHY,  SERAPHIM. 

Apparently  a  cherub  is  an  angel  of  some  particular  order  or  rank  to  whom  specific  duties  and  work  are 
assigned.  That  portion  of  the  Lord's  word  which  is  now  available  among  men  does  not  set  forth  clearly 
either  the  identity  or  work  of  these  heavenly  beings.  The  concept  of  sectarian  scholars  that  they  are 
"mythological  living  creatures,"  who  filled  for  the  Hebrew  people  the  same  position  that  the  griffins  did 
for  the  Hittites,  is  utterly  false.  (Griffins  were  supposed  to  be  winged  sphinxes  having  the  bodies  of  lions 
and  the  heads  and  wings  of  eagles,  and  they  were  in  fact  mythological  creatures.) 

In  English,  the  plural  of  cherub  is  cherubs;  in  Hebrew,  the  plural  is  cherubim  except  that  the  King 
James  Version  of  the  Bible  erroneously  translates  the  plural  as  chembim.  The  Book  of  Mormon  (Alma 
12:21;  42:2-3),  the  Peari  of  Great  Price  (Moses  4:3 1),  and  the  Inspired  Version  of  the  Bible  (Ex.  25:20-22) 
give  the  plural  as  chembim  when  Adam  and  Eve  were  cast  out  of  Eden,  it  was  "chembim  and  a  flaming 
sword"  which  kept  them  from  partaking  of  the  tree  of  life  so  they  would  have  lived  forever  in  their  sins. 
(Moses  4:31.) 

As  seen  in  the  vision  of  Ezekiel  (Ezek.  1;  10;  11);  as  placed  over  the  mercy  seat  in  the  tabemacle  in 
the  wildemess  (Ex.  25:17-22;  37:6-7);  as  decorations  on  the  curtains  and  veil  of  this  tabemacle  (Ex.  21:1, 
31);  as  embroidered  on  the  veil  of  Solomon's  temple  (2  Chron.  3:14);  as  decorating  the  base  whereon  the 
molten  sea  rested  (1  Kings  7:23-29);  and  as  placed  in  the  holy  of  holies  of  that  magnificent  temple  (1 
Kings  6:23-30;  8:6-7;  2  Chron.  3:10;  5:7-8;  Heb.  9:1-5)-  the  chembim  were  shown  with  wings.  There  are, 
of  course,  no  angels  (chembim  included)  who  have  wings.  Their  usage  in  these  instances  was  symbolical; 
as  with  certain  beasts  seen  in  vision  by  John,  the  presence  of  wings  was  "a  representation  of  power  to 
move,  to  act,  etc."  (D.  &  C.  77:4.) 

The  statement  that  the  Lord  "rode  upon  a  chemb"  is  figurative  it  means,  as  the  balance  of  the  sentence 
explains  that  "he  was  seen  upon  the  wings  of  the  wind."  (2  Sam.  22:1 1;  Ps.  18:10.)  Chembs  and  the  wind 
both  have  wings  in  the  same  sense  and  in  no  other. 


90 


Chief  Shepherd 

(Chief  Shepherd  ) 

See  GOOD  SHEPHERD. 

Children 

(Children  ) 

See  SALVATION  OF  CHILDREN. 

Children  of  Abraham 

(Children  of  Abraham  ) 
See  ISRAEL. 

Children  of  Belial 

(Children  of  Belial  ) 
See  SONS  OF  BELIAL. 

Children  of  Christ 

(Children  of  Christ  ) 
See  SEED  OF  CHRIST. 

Children  of  Disobedience 

(Children  of  Disobedience  ) 

See  CARNALITY,  CHILDREN  OF  LIGHT,  DEVILISHNESS,  DISOBEDIENCE,  SENSUALITY, 
WORLD. 

Those  persons  who  walk  after  the  manner  of  the  world,  following  their  carnal,  sensual,  and  devilish 
desires,  are  referred  to  as  the  children  of  disobedience.  (Eph.  2:2.)  They  are  followers  or  disciples  of 
disobedience  and  are  also  variously  designated  as  "children  of  transgression"  (Isa.  57:4),  "children  of  this 
world:  (Luke  16:8;  20:34),  "children  of  wrath"  (Eph.  2:3),  "children  of  the  kingdom  of  the  devil"  (Alma 
5:25),  and  "the  children  of  them  which  killed  the  prophets."  (Matt.  23:31.)  They  revel  in  the  lusts  of  their 
"father  the  devil."  (John  8:33-56.)  As  sei'vants  of  sins  themselves,  they  fight  the  living  oracles  (D.  &  C. 
121:17),  and  the  wrath  of  God  will  in  due  course  rest  upon  them.  (Eph.  5:6;  Col.  3:6.) 

Children  of  Ephraim 

(Children  of  Ephraim  ) 
See  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL. 

Children  of  God 

(Children  of  God  ) 
See  SONS  OF  GOD. 

Children  of  Israel 

(Children  of  Israel  ) 
See  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL. 

Children  of  Jacob 

(Children  of  Jacob  ) 
See  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL. 


91 


Children  of  Judah 

(Children  of  Judah  ) 
See  JEWS. 

Children  of  Light 

(Children  of  Light  ) 

See  LIGHT,  LIGHT  OF  THE  WORLD,  SAINTS,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

By  accepting  the  gospel  and  thus  coming  out  of  darkness  into  the  marvelous  light  of  Christ  (I  Pet.  2:9) 
men  become  the  children  of  light.  (John  12:36;  Col.  1:12.)  They  are  then  followers  or  disciples  of  light 
and  truth.  The  saints  are  commanded  to  "walk  as  children  of  light."  (Eph.  5:8.)  If  they  do,  they  have  the 
promise  that  the  great  and  dreadful  day  of  the  Lord  will  not  overtake  them  as  a  thief  in  the  night.  ( 1  Thess. 
5:1-6;  D.&C.  106:4-5.) 

Children  of  the  Covenant 

(Children  of  the  Covenant  ) 

See  ADOPTION,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  GOSPEL,  ISRAEL,  NEW  AND  EVERLASTING 
COVENANT,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

According  to  the  terms  of  the  covenant  which  God  made  with  Abraham,  all  of  the  literal  seed  of  that 
great  prophet  are  entitled  to  receive  the  gospel,  the  priesthood,  and  all  of  the  ordinances  of  salvation  and 
exaltation.  (Abra.  2:9-11;  D.  &  C.  86:8-11.)  When  any  of  those  descendants  do  receive  all  of  these  things, 
"They  become  the  sons  of  Moses  and  of  Aaron  and  the  seed  of  Abraham,  and  the  church  and  kingdom, 
and  the  elect  of  God."  (D.  &  C.  84:34.)  They  are  then  children  of  the  covenant,  that  is,  they  are  inheritors 
of  the  fulness  of  the  blessings  appertaining  to  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  which  is  the  gospel.  "Ye 
are  the  children  of  the  covenant"  (3  Ne.  20:24-27),  our  Lord  told  the  Nephites  among  whom  he  ministered, 
a  distinction  which  the  faithful  saints  of  this  dispensation  also  enjoy.  Rebellious  descendants  of  Abraham 
are  not  his  children  in  the  special  sense  that  is  intended  by  the  designation  children  of  the  covenant.  (John 
8:33,59.) 

Children  of  the  Kingdom 

(Children  of  the  Kingdom  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  KINGDOM  OF  GOD,  SAINTS. 

Our  Lord's  Church  is  the  kingdom  of  God  on  earth.  Faithful  members  of  that  Church,  those  who 
adhere  to  the  standards  of  the  kingdom,  are  the  children  of  the  kingdom.  (Matt.  13:38.)  They  are  followers 
or  disciples  of  the  Master  because  they  believe  the  gospel  of  the  kingdom.  Special  blessings  are  reserved 
for  them  (D.  &  C.  41:6),  and  they  are  conunanded  to  bring  forth  fruit  mete  for  the  Father's  kingdom.  (D.  & 
C.  84:58-59.)  Children  of  the  kingdom  eventually  "shall  sit  down  with  Abraham,  and  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  in 
the  kingdom  of  heaven."  (Matt.  8:1 1-12.) 

Children  of  the  Prophets 

(Children  of  the  Prophets  ) 

See  ADOPTION,  CHILDREN  OF  THE  COVENANT,  PROPHETS,  SEED  OF  CHRIST. 

Those  who  follow  in  the  footsteps  of  the  prophets,  who  believe  as  they  believed  and  live  as  they  lived, 
are  the  children  of  the  prophets.  (D.  &  C.  84:33-34.)  They  are  children  in  the  sense  of  being  followers  or 
disciples,  and  they  may  also  be  their  literal  seed.  (3  Ne.  20:25-27;  Acts  3:25.)  However,  the  rebellious 
literal  seed  cut  themselves  off  from  the  blessings  of  their  fathers,  and  they  become  the  children  of  the  devil 
rather  than  the  children  of  the  prophets.  (John  8:33-59.) 


92 


Children  of  Zion 

(Children  of  Zion  ) 

See  CHILDREN  OF  LIGHT,  CHILDREN  OF  THE  KINGDOM,  ZION. 

Those  who  seek  the  welfare  of  Zion,  whose  desires  and  strivings  are  that  Zion  may  be  built  up  and  her 
glory  spread  through  all  the  earth,  are  the  children  of  Zion.  Since  the  great  latter-day  Zion  is  to  be  built  up 
by  the  Church  and  kingdom  of  God  on  earth,  it  follows  that  the  children  of  Zion  are  members  of  that 
divine  institution.  (D.  &  C.  84:56-58;  101:41,  81-85;  103:35.) 

Chocolate 

(Chocolate  ) 

See  WORD  OF  WISDOM. 


Chosen  One 

(Chosen  One  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ELECTION  OF  GRACE. 

Christ  is  the  Chosen  One.  (Moses  4:2;  7:39.)  By  this  is  meant  that  from  the  beginning,  because  of 
devotion,  obedience,  and  righteousness,  he  was  chosen  by  the  Father  to  play  the  chief  part  in  the  great 
creative  and  redemptive  enteiprises  of  Deity. 

Chosen  Seed 

(Chosen  Seed  ) 

See  ELECT  OF  GOD. 

Christ 

(Christ  ) 

See  ADONAI,  ADVOCACY,  ADVOCATE,  ALMIGHTY  GOD,  ALPHA  AND  OMEGA,  ALPHUS, 
AMEN,  ANGEL,  APOSTLE,  ASCENSION  OF  CHRIST,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  AUSTERE 
MAN,  AUTHOR  OF  SALVATION,  BABE  OF  BETHLEHEM,  BEGINNING  AND  END,  BELOVED 
SON,  BISHOP,  BLASPHEMY,  BLOOD  ATONEMENT  DOCTRINE,  BRANCH,  BRAZEN  SERPENT, 
BREAD  OF  LIFE,  BRIDEGROOM,  BRIDE  OF  THE  LAMB,  BRIGHT  AND  MORNING  STAR, 
CAPTAIN  OF  SALVATION,  CAPTAIN  OF  THE  LORD'S  HOST,  CARPENTER'S  SON,  CHOSEN 
ONE,  CHRIST  AS  THE  FATHER,  CHRIST  CHILD,  CHRISTENDOM,  CHRISTHOOD,  CHRISTIAN 
ERA,  CHRISTIANITY,  CHRISTIANS,  CHRISTMAS,  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER- 
DAY  SAINTS,  COUNSELOR,  CREATOR,  CROSS,  CRUCIFIED  ONE,  CRUCIFIXION,  DELIVERER, 
DESIRE  OF  ALL  NATIONS,  DOOR  OF  THE  SHEEP,  ELDER  BROTHER,  ELIAS,  ETERNAL  LIFE, 
EXALTATION,  EXEMPLAR,  EXPLA.TION,  EXPLA.TOR,  FAITH,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  FALSE 
CHRISTS,  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  FIRST  AND  LAST,  FIRSTBORN,  GALILEAN,  GOD;  GOD  OF 
ABRAHAM,  ISAAC,  AND  JACOB;  GOD  OF  BATTLES,  GOD  OF  GODS,  GOD  OF  ISRAEL,  GOD 
OF  JESHURUN,  GOD  OF  NATURE,  GOD  OF  SPIRITS,  GOD  OF  THE  WHOLE  EARTH,  GOD  OF 
TRUTH,  GOOD  SHEPHERD,  GOSPEL,  GREAT  I  AM,  HEIR  OF  GOD,  HIGH  PRIEST,  HOLY,  HOLY 
GHOST,  HOLY  MESSIAH,  HOLY  ONE,  HOLY  ONE  OF  GOD,  HOLY  ONE  OF  ISRAEL,  HOLY 
ONE  OF  JACOB,  HOLY  ONE  OF  ZION,  HUSBAND,  IMMANUEL,  INCARNATE  GOD, 
INTERCESSION,  INTERCESSOR,  JAH,  JEALOUS,  JEHOVAH,  JESUS,  JESUS  OF  NAZARETH, 
JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  JUDGE  OF  ALL  THE  EARTH,  JUSTIFICATION,  JUST  ONE, 
KEEPER  OF  THE  GATE,  KEY  OF  DAVID,  KING,  KING  OF  GLORY,  KING  OF  HEAVEN,  KING  OF 
ISRAEL,  KING  OF  KINGS,  KING  OF  THE  JEWS,  KING  OF  ZION,  LAMB  OF  GOD,  LAW, 
LAWGIVER,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST,  LIGHT  OF  LIFE,  LIGHT  OF  THE  WORLD,  LION  OF  TRIBE  OF 
JUDAH,  LOGOS,  LORD,  LORD  GOD,  LORD  OF  GLORY,  LORD  OF  HOSTS,  LORD  OF  LORDS, 
LORD  OF  SABAOTH,  LORD  OF  THE  HARVEST,  LORD  OF  THE  SABBATH,  LORD  OF  THE 
VINEYARD,  LORD  OMNIPOTENT,   LORD  OUR  RIGHTEOUSNESS,  MANNA,  MARRIAGE 


93 


SUPPER  OF  THE  LAMB,  MARY,  MASTER,  MEDIATION,  MEDIATOR,  MELCHIZEDEK, 
MESSENGER  BEFORE  THE  LORD,  MESSENGER  OF  SALVATION,  MESSENGER  OF  THE 
COVENANT,  MESSIAH,  MESSIAHSHIP,  MESSLANIC  PROPHECIES,  MESSLA.S,  MINISTER  OF 
SALVATION,  MOSES,  MOST  HIGH,  NAME  OF  CHRIST,  NAZARENE,  OMEGUS, 
OMNIPOTENCE,  OMNIPRESENCE,  OMNISCIENCE,  ONLY  BEGOTTEN,  OUR  LORD, 
PARABLES,  PARACLETE,  PASSION  OF  CHRIST,  PERSONIFICATION,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION, 
POTENTATE,  POTTER,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  PRINCE  OF  PEACE,  PROPHET,  PROPHET  OF  THE 
HIGHEST,  PROPHETS,  PROPITIATION,  PROPITLA.TOR,  PURIFIER,  QUETZALCOATL,  RABBI, 
RECONCILIATION,  RECONCILER,  REDEEMER,  REDEMPTION,  REFINER,  REST  OF  THE  LORD, 
RESTORER,  RESURRECTION,  RESURRECTION  AND  THE  LIFE,  RISEN  LORD,  ROCK  OF 
HEAVEN,  ROOT  OF  DAVID,  RULER,  SALVATION,  SANCTIFICATION,  SAVIOR,  SECOND 
ADAM,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST,  SEED  OF  CHRIST,  SERVANT,  SHILOH,  SIGN  OF 
JONAS,  SIGN  OF  THE  CROSS,  SON,  SON  AHMAN,  SON  OF  DAVID,  SON  OF  GOD,  SON  OF 
JOSEPH,  SON  OF  MAN,  SON  OF  MARY,  SON  OF  RIGHTEOUSNESS,  SON  OF  THE  ETERNAL 
FATHER,  SON  OF  THE  EVERLASTING  GOD,  SON  OF  THE  HIGHEST,  SON  OF  THE  LIVING 
GOD,  SONG  OF  THE  LAMB,  SPIRIT  OF  TRUTH,  STEM  OF  JESSE,  STONE  OF  ISRAEL, 
SYMBOLISMS,  TESTATOR,  TETRAGRAMMATON,  THEOPHANIES,  TRUE  VINE,  TRUTH, 
UNPARDONABLE  SIN,  VIRGIN  BIRTH;  WAY,  TRUTH,  AND  LIFE;  WORD  OF  GOD,  YAHWEH, 
YOKE  OF  CHRIST. 

As  far  as  man  is  concerned,  all  things  center  in  Christ.  He  is  the  Firstborn  of  the  Father.  By  obedience 
and  devotion  to  the  truth  he  attained  that  pinnacle  of  intelligence  which  ranked  him  as  a  God,  as  the  Lord 
Omnipotent,  while  yet  in  his  pre-existent  state.  As  such  he  became,  under  the  Father,  the  Creator  of  this 
earth  and  of  worlds  without  number;  and  he  was  then  chosen  to  work  out  the  infinite  and  eternal 
atonement,  to  come  to  this  particular  earth  as  the  literal  Son  of  the  Father,  and  to  put  the  whole  plan  of 
redemption  salvation,  and  exaltation  in  operation. 

Through  him  the  gospel,  all  saving  truths,  and  every  edifying  principle  have  been  revealed  in  all  ages. 
He  is  the  Eternal  Jehovah  the  promised  Messiah,  the  Redeemer  and  Savior,  the  Way,  the  Truth,  and  the 
Life.  By  him  immortality  and  eternal  life  become  realities,  and  through  his  grace  and  goodness  salvation  is 
possible  for  all  who  will  believe  and  obey. 

He  was  bom  into  this  world  as  the  Son  of  Mary  (inheriting  from  her  the  power  of  mortality)  and  as  the 
Son  of  Man  of  Holiness  (inheriting  from  him  the  powers  of  immortality).  In  this  life  he  received  not  of  the 
fulness  at  the  first,  but  went  from  grace  to  grace  until,  in  the  final  triumph  of  the  resurrection,  he  gained 
the  fulness  of  all  things;  and  all  power  was  given  him  both  in  heaven  and  on  earth.  He  has  all  truth,  all 
power,  all  knowledge;  he  comprehends  all  things,  is  infinite  in  all  his  attributes  and  powers;  and  he  has 
given  a  law  unto  all  things. 

In  due  course  he  will  come  again,  in  power,  dominion,  and  glory  to  reign  with  righteous  men  on  earth 
a  thousand  years.  Thereafter,  with  the  righteous  saints,  he  shall  reign  to  all  eternity  as  King  of  Kings,  Lord 
of  Lords,  and  God  of  Gods.  To  his  holy  name,  both  now  and  forever,  be  ascribed  glory  and  honor,  power, 
riches,  and  dominion,  and  an  eternal  fiilness  of  all  things  for  endless  ages. 

If  the  sectarian  world,  or  even  the  spiritually  unenlightened  in  the  Church,  had  the  slightest  concept  of 
the  dominion,  exaltation,  and  pre-eminence  of  our  Lord  both  in  pre-existence,  during  his  mortal  ministry, 
and  now  that  he  has  returned  to  his  Father,  it  would  seem  little  short  of  direful  and  presumptuous 
blasphemy  to  them.  Words,  either  written  or  spoken,  cannot  convey  such  a  realization;  it  can  only  come 
by  the  revelations  of  the  Spirit.  This  work  on  Mornion  Doctrine  deals  in  a  most  fragmentary  way  with 
him,  his  laws,  and  his  doctrines.  The  well  over  200  separate  articles  cross-referenced  under  the  heading 
Christ  deal  briefly  with  his  names,  ministry,  mission,  and  exalted  position  in  the  eternal  scheme  of  things. 

Christ  As  the  Father 

(Christ  As  the  Father  ) 

See  BORN  AGAIN,  CHRIST,  CREATOR,  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  SON  OF  GOD,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

Although  Christ  -  the  Firstborn  in  the  spirit  and  the  Only  Begotten  in  the  flesh  -  is  the  Son  of  God  the 
Father,  and  as  such  is  a  separate  and  distinct  personage  from  the  Father,  yet  there  are  three  senses  in  which 
Christ  is  called  the  Father.  These  are  clearly  set  forth  in  a  document  entitled,  "The  Father  and  the  Son:  A 


94 


Doctrinal  Exposition  by  the  First  Presidency  and  tlie  Twelve."  (Articles  of  Faith,  pp  465-473;  Man:  His 
Origin  and  Destiny,  pp  1 17-129.) 

1 .  Christ  is  the  Father  in  the  sense  that  he  is  the  Creator,  the  Maker,  the  Organizer  of  the  heavens  and 
of  the  earth,  and  all  things  that  in  them  are.  (Isa.  9:6;  2  Ne.  19:6;  Mosiah  15:4;  16:15;  Alma  11:38-39; 
Ether  4:7.) 

2.  He  is  the  Father  of  all  those  who  are  bom  again  (Mosiah  27:24-29),  who  "are  begotten  sons  and 
daughters  unto  God"  through  his  atoning  Sacrifice  (D.  &  C.  76:24),  who  are  "spiritually  begotten"  through 
faith,  thus  becoming  "his  sons  and  his  daughters."  (Mosiah  5:7.) 

3.  He  is  the  Father  by  what  has  aptly  been  termed  divine  investiture  of  authority.  That  is  since  he  is 
one  with  the  Father  in  all  of  the  attributes  of  perfection,  and  since  he  exercises  the  power  and  authority  of 
the  Father,  it  follows  that  everything  he  says  or  does  is  and  would  be  exactly  and  precisely  what  the  Father 
would  say  and  do  under  the  same  circumstances. 

Accordingly,  the  Father  puts  his  own  name  on  the  Son  and  authorizes  him  to  speak  in  the  first  person 
as  though  he  were  the  Father.  This  is  similar  to  the  situation  in  which  Clirist  puts  his  name  on  an  angel  so 
that  the  designated  heavenly  ministrant  can  speak  in  the  first  person  as  though  he  were  Christ  himself. 
(Rev.  1:1;  19:9-10;  22:8-14.)  Thus  it  is  that  our  Lord  can  begin  a  revelation  by  saying,  "Listen  to  the  voice 
of  Jesus  Clirist,"  and  shortly  thereafter  speak  of  "mine  only  Begotten"  (D.  &  C.  29:1,  41-46),  such  latter 
expression  being  made  by  Christ,  but  under  that  divine  investiture  of  authority  which  permits  him  to  speak 
as  though  he  were  the  Father.  (D.  &  C.  93:3-5;  Mosiah  15:1-5.) 

Christ  Child 

(Christ  Child  ) 

See  BABE  OF  BETHLEHEM,  CHRIST. 

Among  Cln'istian  people  it  is  common  to  refer  to  the  youthfiil  Son  of  Deity  as  the  Christ  Child,  he  of 
course  having  been  bom  and  having  grown  to  maturity  as  other  men  do.  (Matt.  2:19-23;  Luke  1:76.) 
Though  as  a  youth  he  had  unusual  mental  and  spiritual  capacity  (Luke  2:41-52),  yet  according  to  the 
customs  and  laws  of  the  time  he  was  in  subjection  to  his  parents.  The  Prophet  inserted  this  revealed  tmth 
in  the  Inspired  Version  of  the  Bible.  "Jesus  grew  up  with  his  brethren,  and  waxed  strong,  and  waited  upon 
the  Lord  for  the  time  of  his  ministry  to  come.  And  he  served  under  his  father,  and  he  spake  not  as  other 
men,  neither  could  he  be  taught;  for  he  needed  not  that  any  man  should  teach  him."  (Inspired  Version, 
Matt.  3:24-25.) 

Christendom 

(Christendom  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHRIST,  CHRISTIANITY,  CHRISTIANS. 

That  portion  of  the  world  in  which  so-called  Christianity  prevails  -  as  distinguished  from  heathen  or 
Mohammedan  lands  -  is  called  Christendom.  The  term  also  applies  to  the  whole  body  of  supposed 
Christian  believers;  as  now  constituted  this  body  is  properly  termed  apostate  Christendom. 

Christening 

(Christening  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  BLESSING  OF  CHILDREN,  INFANT  BAPTISM. 

In  modem  Christendom  the  ceremony  of  baptizing  and  naming  a  child  is  called  christening.  Obviously 
this  practice,  including  as  it  does  the  false  practice  of  infant  baptism,  is  contrary  to  revealed  trath.  In  the 
Lord's  Church  infant  children  are  named  in  blessings  given  by  the  elders,  but  this  is  not  accompanied  by 
infant  baptism  and  is  not  properly  called  christening. 

Christhood 

(Christhood  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHRIST,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST. 


95 


There  is  only  one  Christ,  because  there  is  only  one  Son  of  God,  only  one  Only  Begotten,  only  one 
person  ever  bom  into  the  world  with  life  in  himself  with  the  power  to  lay  down  his  life  and  to  take  it  up 
again.  (John  10:11-18.)  False  doctrines  found  in  some  cults  to  the  effect  that  a  number  of  persons  have 
attained  Christhood  or  the  state  of  being  a  Christ  are  direful  perversions  of  the  truth.  They  are  the  devil's 
substitute  for  the  true  doctrine  which  teaches  that  men  may  become  joint-heirs  with  Christ. 

Christian  Era 

(Christian  Era  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CHRISTIANITY. 

On  the  false  assumption  that  Christianity  had  its  beginning  with  our  Lord's  mortal  ministry,  his  birth 
was  chosen  to  mark  the  beginning  of  the  so-called  Cliristian  Era.  Though  there  is  considerable  controversy 
and  uncertainty  among  scholars  of  the  world  as  to  the  actual  year  of  Chrisf  s  birth,  the  revelation  given  on 
the  day  the  Church  was  organized  in  this  dispensation  apparently  intends  to  convey  the  thought  that  he 
was  bom  April  6,  B.C.  1.  (D.  &  C.  20:1.) 

Christianity 

(Christianity  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CHRISTIANS,  DISPENSATIONS. 

Christianity  is  the  religion  of  the  Christians.  Hence,  tme  and  acceptable  Christianity  is  found  among 
the  saints  who  have  the  fulness  of  the  gospel,  and  a  perverted  Christianity  holds  sway  among  the  so-called 
Christians  of  apostate  Christendom.  In  these  circles  it  is  believed  and  taught  that  Christianity  had  its 
beginning  with  the  mortal  ministry  of  our  Lord.  Actually,  of  course,  Adam  was  the  first  Christian,  for  both 
he  and  the  saints  of  all  ages  have  rejoiced  in  the  very  doctrines  of  salvation  restored  to  earth  by  our  Lord 
in  his  ministry. 

Christians 

(Christians  ) 

See  BELIEVERS,  BRETHREN,  CHRIST,  CHRISTIANITY,  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF 
LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  DISCIPLES,  MORMONS,  PROPHETS,  SAINTS. 

Tme  believers  in  Christ,  both  in  America  among  the  Nephites  and  in  the  old  world  beginning  in 
apostolic  times,  were  called  Christians.  (Alma  46:13-16;  48:10;  Acts  11:26;  26:28;  1  Pet.  4:16.)  Probably 
the  name  was  applied  first  in  derision,  but  it  found  ready  acceptance  among  the  members  of  the  Church 
because  they  rejoice  in  the  privilege  of  taking  upon  themselves  "the  name  of  Clirist,  or  Christians"  (Alma 
46:15.) 

As  the  day  of  the  great  apostasy  set  in,  the  term  Christian  continued  to  be  applied  to  the  supposed 
followers  of  Christ,  even  though  in  reality  they  had  departed  from  the  tme  doctrines.  Today  those  who 
purport  to  believe  in  Christ  though  they  may  not  actually  accept  him  as  the  Son  of  God,  are  called 
Christians. 

The  first  Nephite  reference  to  Cliristians  in  the  Book  of  Momion  is  dated  about  73  B.C.  in  what  the 
sectarian  world  would  call  the  pre-Christian  era.  But  since  the  doctrine  of  Christ  has  been  taught  in 
successive  dispensations  from  the  days  of  Adam  to  the  present,  either  the  very  name  Christian  or  some 
equally  expressive  synonym  has  been  applied  to  the  saints  of  the  Most  High  of  all  ages. 

Christmas 

(Christmas  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHRIST,  EASTER,  EPIPHANY. 

Modem  day  Christians  celebrate  December  25th  as  an  annual  church  festival  and  as  the  traditional  day 
of  our  Lord's  mortal  birth.  Special  gifts  and  greetings  are  coimnon,  and  both  Christmas  itself  and  the 


96 


whole  yuletide  season  often  take  on  an  air  of  commercialism  and  worldliness.  Apparently  Christ  was  bom 
on  the  day  corresponding  to  April  6  (D.  &  C.  20:1),  but  the  saints  nevertheless  join  in  the  wholesome 
portions  of  the  Christmas  celebration.  Christmas  becomes  to  them  an  ideal  oppoitunity  to  renew  their 
search  for  the  true  Spirit  of  Christ  and  to  center  their  attentions  again  on  the  true  doctrine  of  his  birth  as 
the  son  of  an  Immortal  Father,  a  fact  that  enabled  him  to  work  out  the  infinite  and  eternal  atonement. 


Christ's  Passion 

(Christ's  Passion  ) 

See  PASSION  OF  CHRIST. 

Church 

(Church  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL, 
CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  DISPENSATIONS,  GOSPEL,  KINGDOM  OF  GOD,  MORMONISM. 

Our  Lord's  true  Church  is  the  formal,  official  organization  of  believers  who  have  taken  upon 
themselves  the  name  of  Christ  by  baptism,  thus  covenanting  to  serve  God  and  keep  his  commandments. 
(D.  &  C.  10:67-69;  18:20-25.)  It  is  literally  the  kingdom  of  God  on  earth  (D.  &  C.  65;  84:34;  136:41),  and 
as  such  its  affairs  are  administered  by  apostles,  prophets,  and  other  legal  administrators  appointed  by 
Christ  the  King.  (1  Cor.  12:27-29.)  It  is  the  congregation  or  assembly  of  saints  who  have  forsaken  he 
world  by  accepting  the  gospel,  formal  society  of  converted  persons  and  not  the  unorganized  spiritual 
vagary  teraied  the  Christian  church  by  sectarianism. 

The  church  was  first  organized  on  earth  in  the  days  of  Adam,  with  that  great  patriarch  standing  as  its 
first  president,  the  presiding  high  priest  over  God's  earthly  kingdom.  The  common  sectarian  notion  that 
the  day  of  Pentecost  is  the  birthday  of  the  Cliristian  Church  is  a  false  heresy.  Whenever  the  gospel  has 
been  on  earth,  it  has  been  taught  and  administered  in  and  through  Christ's  church.  The  Church  or  kingdom 
as  organized  in  the  meridian  of  time  by  our  Lord  and  his  apostolic  ministers  was  a  restored  Church. 

With  the  coming  of  the  great  apostasy  the  primitive  Church  was  lost,  and  the  various  churches  or 
societies  which  have  since  grown  up  bear  no  particular  similarity  to  the  original.  This  reality  is  frankly 
accepted  by  impartial  theologians  whether  in  the  Church  or  out  of  it.  One  eminent  author  has  written:  "As 
God  peimits  men  to  mar  the  perfection  of  his  designs  in  their  behalf,  and  as  men  have  both  corrupted  the 
doctrines  and  broken  the  unity  of  the  Church,  we  must  not  expect  to  see  the  Church  of  Holy  Scripture 
actually  existing  in  its  perfection  on  earth.  It  is  not  to  be  found,  thus  perfect,  either  in  the  collected 
fragments  of  Christendom,  or  still  less  in  any  one  of  these  fragments;  though  it  is  possible  that  one  of 
those  fragments  more  than  another  may  approach  the  scriptural  and  apostolic  ideal  which  existed  only 
until  sin,  heresy,  and  schism,  had  time  sufficiently  to  develop  themselves  to  do  their  work. "  (Smith's  Bible 
Dictionary,  vol.  1,  p.  458.) 

It  has  always  been  common  to  refer  to  the  Church  as  the  kingdom.  Matthew  so  speaks  more  than  a 
score  of  times.  (Matt.  13:24.)  But  the  terai  Church  itself  has  also  always  been  used,  though  possibly  more 
frequently  in  some  ages  than  in  others.  "The  church,  in  ancient  days,"  for  instance,  chose  to  call  the  higher 
priesthood  after  the  name  of  Melchizedek.  (D.  &  C.  107:3-4.)  Some  600  years  before  Christ,  Nephi  spoke 
of  "the  brethren  of  the  church"  (1  Ne.  4:26),  though  the  name  Church  is  not  found  in  the  Old  Testament  as 
we  now  have  that  document. 

Matthew  is  the  only  gospel  author  in  whose  writings  the  term  has  been  preserved,  and  it  appears  over 
100  additional  times  in  the  balance  of  the  New  Testament.  It  is  found  about  230  times  in  the  Book  of 
Mormon  with  about  191  of  these  occurring  between  600  B.C.  and  34  A.D.  and  the  other  two  score  or  so 
being  in  the  period  after  the  ministry  of  the  resurrected  Lord  among  the  Nephites.  The  Doctrine  and 
Covenants  contains  about  500  references  to  the  Church  or  churches. 

Those  who  join  the  true  Church  and  keep  their  covenants  gain  salvation  in  the  celestial  kingdom  of 
God.  (D.  &  C.  10:55,  69.)  In  the  true  Church  there  will  be  apostles,  prophets,  tme  doctrinal  teachings, 
revelation,  visions,  miracles,  healings,  the  ministering  of  angels,  and  all  of  the  gifts  of  the  Spirit.  (Mark 
16:14-20;  1  Cor.  12;  13;  14;  3  Ne.  27;  Morm.  8;  9;  Moro.  7;  8;  D.  &  C.  46.)  Where  these  things  are  found, 
there  is  the  true  Church;  where  these  things  are  not  found,  there  the  true  Church  is  not. 


97 


Church  Courts 

(Church  Courts  ) 

See  BISHOPS  COURT,  COMMON  COUNCIL  OF  THE  CHURCH,  DISFELLOWSHIPMENT, 
ELDERS  COURT,  EXCOMMUNICATION,  FIRST  PRESIDENCY,  HIGH  COUNCIL,  HOME 
TEACHERS,  JUDGES  IN  ISRAEL. 

Being  the  kingdom  of  God  on  earth  and  having  a  perfect  organization,  provision  is  made  in  the  Church 
for  the  trial  of  transgressors  against  church  standards  and  for  the  settlement  of  disputes  between  church 
members  and  groups.  It  is  the  practice  of  the  Church  for  home  teachers  (or  other  specially  assigned 
brethren)  to  investigate  alleged  transgression  and  then,  if  necessary,  bring  charges  against  accused 
persons,  either  before  a  bishops  court  or  a  stake  presidency  and  high  council.  Both  of  these  courts  have 
original  jurisdiction  in  all  cases,  but  a  bishops  court  may  not  impose  a  penalty  of  excommunication  upon  a 
holder  of  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood.  Persons  tried  by  a  bishops  court  may  appeal  to  the  stake  presidency 
and  high  council,  and  from  there  appeals  may  be  taken  to  the  First  Presidency  of  the  Church. 

In  practice  most  church  trials  deal  with  alleged  transgression,  excommunication  being  the  supreme 
penalty  that  may  be  imposed.  (D.&  C.  134:10.)  On  occasion,  however,  temporal  matters  have  been 
decided  by  church  courts  as  in  the  case  of  President  John  Taylor's  calling  a  Common  Council  of  the 
Church  to  decide  water  disputes  between  persons  living  in  different  stakes.  (Gospel  Kingdom,  pp.  201- 
202.)  Indeed,  the  framework  is  so  formed  that  all  types  of  cases  might  be  handled  by  church  courts. 

Church  Hierarchy 

(Church  Hierarchy  ) 
See  HIERARCHY. 

Church  Historian  and  Recorder 

(Church  Historian  and  Recorder  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  REMEMBRANCE,  BOOK  OF  THE  LAW  OF  GOD,  CLERKS,  HISTORY, 
JOURNALS,  RECORD  KEEPING. 

Record  keeping  and  the  writing  of  history  is  so  essential  a  part  of  the  gospel  plan  that  it  would  be  done 
automatically  by  prophets  and  others  even  if  there  were  no  commandments  requiring  it.  From  the  very 
beginning,  whenever  prophets  received  revelations,  such  necessarily  were  recorded  and  preserved  so  they 
could  be  studied  and  obeyed.  Joseph  Smith  kept  a  daily  journal,  which  of  course  included  the  revelations 
he  received,  and  this  journal  has  become  the  six  volume  History  of  the  Church. 

On  the  very  day  the  Church  was  organized  in  this  dispensation  the  Lord  commanded  his  people  to 
keep  records.  (D.  &  C.  2 1 : 1 .)  Oliver  Cowdery,  who  already  had  been  acting  as  amanuensis  to  the  Prophet, 
became  the  first  Church  Historian  and  Recorder.  When  he  was  called  to  other  work,  John  Whitmer  was 
chosen  by  revelation  to  "keep  a  regular  history"  of  the  Church  (D.  &  C.  47:1),  "a  history  of  all  the 
important  things  which  he  shall  observe  and  know  concerning  my  church,"  the  Lord  said.  Also:  "Let  my 
servant  John  Whitmer  travel  many  times  from  place  to  place,  and  from  church  to  church,  that  he  may  the 
more  easily  obtain  knowledge  -  Preaching  and  expounding,  writing,  copying,  selecting,  and  obtaining  all 
things  which  shall  be  for  the  good  of  the  church,  and  for  the  rising  generations  that  shall  grow  upon  the 
land  of  Zion,  to  possess  it  from  generation  to  generation,  forever  and  ever."  (D.  &  C.  69;  85.) 

This  gathering,  recording,  compiling,  and  collecting  of  historical  data  is  continuing  in  the  Church 
today.  The  Church  Historian's  Office  is  a  great  repository  of  original  journals  and  documents;  of  books 
about  the  Church  and  its  affairs;  of  the  historical  records  of  ward,  stakes,  missions,  and  quorums;  of 
statistical  data  revealing  the  faith  and  works  of  the  saints;  and  of  the  seraions  and  doctrinal  teachings  of 
church  members.  Church  histories  are  the  most  important  and  accurate  in  existence.  It  is  interesting  to 
note  that  pursuant  to  revelation  and  commandment  this  office  keeps  copies  of  the  scurrilous,  false,  and 
libelous  histories  that  are  published  about  the  Church  and  the  Lord's  people.  (D.  &  C.  123;  Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp  197-204.) 


98 


Church  Historian's  Office 

(Church  Historian's  Office  ) 

See  CHURCH  HISTORIAN  AND  RECORDER. 


Church  of  Christ 

(Church  of  Christ  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CHURCH,  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  MORMONS. 

One  or  more  of  the  names  of  Christ  has  always  been  used  in  the  formal  name  of  the  Church.  The 
revelation  coimnanding  the  Prophet  to  organize  the  Church  in  this  dispensation  speaks  of  it  as  the  Church 
of  Christ.  (D.  &  C.  20:1.)  Similar  usage  is  found  in  the  Book  of  Mormon.  (Mosiah  18:17;  3  Ne.  26:21; 
28:23;  4  Ne.  26,  29;  Moro.  6:4.)  In  due  course,  however,  the  Lord  giving  his  revelations  line  upon  line  and 
precept  upon  precept,  the  official  and  formal  name  of  the  Church  was  specified,  that  is,  The  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  (D.  &  C.  1 15:3-4.) 

Church  of  Enoch 

(Church  of  Enoch  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  EXALTATION,  TRANSLATED  BEINGS. 

All  the  inhabitants  of  Zion  -  being  devoted  members  of  the  Lord's  Church,  with  Enoch  at  their  head  - 
were  translated  and  taken  to  heaven.  (Moses  7:69.)  Their  callings  and  elections  were  made  sure,  and  they 
were  all  assured  of  membership  in  the  Church  of  the  Firstborn  and  of  an  inheritance  of  exaltation  in  the 
eternal  worlds.  Those  so  favored  were,  of  course,  with  Christ  in  his  resurrection.  (D.  &  C.  133:54-56.) 
They  are  spoken  of  as  "the  general  assembly  and  church  of  Enoch"  (D.  &  C.  76:67)  and  all  those  who  gain 
exaltation  will  be  joined  with  them. 

Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-Day  Saints 

(Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-Day  Saints) 

See  CHRIST,  CHURCH,  CHURCH  OF  CHRIST,  DISPENSATION  OF  THE  FULNESS  OF  TIMES, 
GOSPEL,  JOSEPH  SMITH  THE  PROPHET,  KINGDOM  OF  GOD,  MISSIONARIES,  MORMONISM, 
RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

To  his  earthly  kingdom  in  the  dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  times  the  Lord  has  given  the  formal  name, 
The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  (D.  &  C.  115:3-4.)  This  Church  is  "the  only  true  and 
living  church  upon  the  face  of  the  whole  earth"  (D.  &  C.  1:30),  the  only  organization  authorized  by  the 
Almighty  to  preach  his  gospel  and  administer  the  ordinances  of  salvation,  the  only  Church  which  has 
power  to  save  and  exalt  men  in  the  hereafter.  Membership  in  this  divine  institution  is  a  pearl  of  great  price. 

With  the  appearance  of  the  Father  and  the  Son  to  the  Prophet  in  the  spring  of  1820,  the  final  gi'eat 
gospel  dispensation  had  its  beginning.  Thereafter  angels  ministered  to  the  Prophet,  he  received  many 
revelations,  the  Book  of  Mormon  (which  itself  contains  the  fulness  of  the  gospel)  was  translated,  and  the 
keys  and  power  of  the  priesthood  were  restored. 

In  about  June,  1829,  Peter,  James,  and  John  conferred  upon  Joseph  Smith  and  Oliver  Cowdery  the 
Melchizedek  Priesthood,  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  of  God  (meaning  the  Church),  and  the  keys  of  the 
dispensation  of  the  fiilness  of  times.  (D.  &  C.  27:12-13;  65;  128:20.)  Acting  by  revelation  and 
commandment,  in  the  power  and  authority  of  the  priesthood  and  keys  so  conferred  upon  them,  and  in  the 
name  of  Him  whose  we  are,  on  the  6th  day  of  April,  1830,  the  Prophet  and  his  associates  organized  again 
on  earth  the  Lord's  own  Church.  (D.  &  C.  20.) 

The  Lord's  hand  was  in  the  work,  and  he  decreed  the  ultimate  and  final  triumph  of  the  work  so  begun. 
(D.  &  C.  65;  Dan.  2:44.)  From  that  day  the  Church  began  to  grow  and  the  gospel  message  to  roll  forth. 
Guidance  and  direction  was  received  line  upon  line  and  precept  upon  precept.  Each  part  of  the  doctrine 
and  of  the  organization  was  made  manifest  as  occasion  required. 


99 


After  every  key,  power,  and  authority  had  been  restored,  after  the  foundation  of  the  great  latter-day 
work  was  securely  laid,  the  Prophet  and  Patriarch  sealed  their  testimony  with  their  own  blood  and  were 
taken  on  to  continued  glory  and  dominion  in  the  realms  of  the  Spirit.  (D.  &  C.  135.)  But  the  work  they  had 
commenced  continued  to  progress  carrying  with  it  the  assurance  that  eventually  the  knowledge  of  God 
would  cover  the  earth  as  the  waters  cover  the  sea  and  every  living  soul  would  be  converted  to  the  truth. 
(Isa.  11:9.) 

This  newly  organized  Church  is  the  same  in  every  essential  particular  as  the  Church  of  the  Lamb  has 
been  in  all  ages  past  when  it  has  been  found  among  men.  It  conforms  for  instance  to  the  New  Testament 
pattern  of  the  Lord's  Church.  In  it  is  found  the  same  authority  the  same  organization  the  same  ordinances 
the  same  teachings  and  doctrines  that  were  found  in  the  primitive  Church.  And  the  same  gifts  of  the  Spirit 
-  revelations,  visions,  miracles,  healings,  the  ministering  of  angels,  tongues,  and  a  host  of  others  -  as  were 
poured  out  upon  the  ancient  saints  are  again  showered  in  equal  measure  upon  the  modem  saints,  the 
members  of  the  Lord's  own  Church  and  kingdom. 

Church  of  the  Devil 

(Church  of  the  Devil  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  BABYLON,  DEVIL,  KINGDOM  OF  THE  DEVIL,  SECOND  COMING  OF 
CHRIST,  WORLD. 

The  titles  church  of  the  devil  and  great  and  abominable  church  are  used  to  identify  all  churches  or 
organizations  of  whatever  name  or  nature  -  whether  political,  philosophical,  educational,  economic  social, 
fraternal,  civic,  or  religious  -  which  are  designed  to  take  men  on  a  course  that  leads  away  from  God  and 
his  laws  and  thus  from  salvation  in  the  kingdom  of  God. 

Salvation  is  in  Clirist,  is  revealed  by  him  from  age  to  age,  and  is  available  only  to  those  who  keep  his 
commandments  and  obey  his  ordinances.  These  commandments  are  taught  in,  and  these  ordinances  are 
administered  by,  his  Church.  There  is  no  salvation  outside  this  one  true  Church,  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ.  There  is  one  Christ,  one  Church,  one  gospel,  one  plan  of  salvation,  one  set  of  saving  ordinances, 
one  group  of  legal  administrators,  "One  Lord,  one  faith,  one  baptism."  (Eph.  4:5.) 

Any  church  or  organization  of  any  kind  whatever  which  satisfies  the  innate  religious  longings  of  man 
and  keeps  him  from  coming  to  the  saving  truths  of  Christ  and  his  gospel  is  therefore  not  of  God. 

Hence  we  find  our  Lord  saying,  "He  that  is  not  with  me  is  against  me;  and  he  that  gathereth  not  with 
me  scattereth  abroad."  (Matt.  12:30.)  And  hence  we  find  Alma  inviting  the  wicked  to  repent  and  join  the 
true  Church  of  Christ  and  become  the  sheep  of  the  Good  Shepherd.  "And  now  if  ye  are  not  the  sheep  of 
the  good  shepherd  of  what  fold  are  ye?"  he  asks.  "Behold,  I  say  unto  you,  that  the  devil  is  your  shepherd 
and  ye  are  of  his  fold;  and  now,  who  can  deny  this?  Behold,  I  say  unto  you,  whosoever  denieth  this  is  a 
liar  and  a  child  of  the  devil."  (Alma  5:39;  Jos.  Smith  2: 19.) 

Iniquitous  conditions  in  the  various  branches  of  the  great  and  abominable  church  in  the  last  days  are 
powerfully  described  in  the  Book  of  Mormon.  (2  Ne.  28;  Morm.  8:28,  32-33,  36-38;  D.  &  C.  10:56.) 
Nephi  saw  the  "church  which  is  most  abominable  above  all  other  churches"  in  vision.  He  "saw  the  devil 
that  he  was  the  foundation  of  it";  and  also  the  murders,  wealth,  harlotry,  persecutions,  and  evil  desires  that 
are  part  of  this  organization.  (1  Ne.  13:1-10.) 

He  saw  that  this  church  took  away  from  the  gospel  of  the  Lamb  many  covenants  and  many  plain  and 
precious  parts;  that  it  perverted  the  right  ways  of  the  Lord;  that  it  deleted  many  teachings  from  the  Bible; 
that  it  was  "the  mother  of  harlots";  and  finally  that  the  Lord  would  again  restore  the  gospel  of  salvation.  (1 
Ne.  13:24-42.) 

Similar  visions  were  given  to  John  as  recorded  in  the  1 7th  and  1 8th  chapter's  of  Revelation.  He  saw 
this  evil  church  as  a  whole  ruling  over  peoples,  multitudes,  nations  and  tongues;  as  being  fiill  of 
blasphemy  abominations,  filthiness,  and  fornication;  as  having  the  name,  "MYSTERY,  BABYLON  THE 
GREAT,  THE  MOTHER  OF  HARLOTS  AND  ABOMINATIONS  OF  THE  EARTH";  as  drunken  with 
the  blood  of  the  saints;  as  revelling  in  wealth  and  the  delicacies  of  the  earth;  as  making  merchandise  of  all 
costly  items  and  of  "slaves,  and  souls  of  men."  And  then  John,  as  did  Nephi,  saw  the  fall  and  utter 
destruction  of  this  great  church  whose  foundation  is  the  devil. 

In  this  world  of  carnality  and  sensuousness,  the  great  and  abominable  church  will  continue  its 
destructive  course.  But  there  will  be  an  eventual  future  day  when  evil  shall  end,  "and  the  great  and 
abominable  church,  which  is  the  whore  of  all  the  earth,  shall  be  cast  down  by  devouring  fire."  (D.  &  C. 


100 


29:21;  Ezek.  38;  39;  1  Ne.  22:23;  Rev.  18.)  Before  that  day,  however,  desolations  will  sweep  through  the 
earth  and  the  various  branches  of  the  great  and  abominable  church  "shall  war  among  themselves,  and  the 
sword  of  their  own  hands  shall  fall  upon  their  own  heads,  and  they  shall  be  drunken  with  their  own 
blood."  (1  Ne.  22:13-14;  14:3.) 

The  resurrected  Christ  gave  to  the  Nephites  this  test  whereby  they  might  distinguish  the  true  Church 
from  any  other:  1.  It  would  be  called  in  his  name,  for  "how  be  it  my  church  save  it  be  called  in  my  name?" 
he  said.  2.  It  would  be  built  upon  his  gospel,  that  is,  the  eternal  plan  of  salvation  with  all  its  saving  powers 
and  graces  would  be  had  in  it.  3.  The  Father  would  show  foi1h  his  works  in  it,  meaning  that  miracles, 
righteousness,  and  every  good  fruit  would  abound  in  it.  4.  It  would  not  be  hewn  down  and  cast  into  the  fire 
as  must  surely  come  to  pass  with  the  great  and  abominable  church.  "If  it  be  not  built  upon  my  gospel,  and 
is  built  upon  the  works  of  men,  or  upon  the  works  of  the  devil,  verily  I  say  unto  you  they  have  joy  in  their 
works  for  a  season,  and  by  and  by  the  end  cometh,  and  they  are  hewn  down  and  cast  into  the  fire,  from 
whence  there  is  no  return."  (3  Ne.  27:4-12.) 

Church  of  the  Firstborn 

(Church  of  the  Firstborn  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  CHURCH  OF  ENOCH,  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF 
LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  EXALTATION,  FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER, 
GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  SALVATION,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

Members  of  The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  who  so  devote  themselves  to 
righteousness  that  they  receive  the  higher  ordinances  of  exaltation  become  members  of  the  Church  of  the 
Firstborn.  Baptism  is  the  gate  to  the  Church  itself,  but  celestial  marriage  is  the  gate  to  membership  in  the 
Church  of  the  Firstborn,  the  imier  circle  of  faithfiil  saints  who  are  heirs  of  exaltation  and  the  fulness  of  the 
Father's  kingdom.  (D.  &  C.  76:54,  67,71,94,  102;  77:11;  78:21;  88:1-5;  Heb.  12:23.) 

The  Church  of  the  Firstborn  is  made  up  of  the  sons  of  God,  those  who  have  been  adopted  into  the 
family  of  the  Lord,  those  who  are  destined  to  be  joint-heirs  with  Christ  in  receiving  all  that  the  Father 
hath.  "If  you  keep  my  commandments  you  shall  receive  of  his  fulness,  and  be  glorified  in  me  as  I  am  in 
the  Father;  .  .  .  And  all  those  who  are  begotten  through  me  are  partakers  of  the  glory  of  the  same,  and  are 
the  church  of  the  Firstborn."  (D.  &  C.  93:20-22;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  9,  41-43.) 

Church  Organization 

(Church  Organization  ) 

See  AUXILIARY  ORGANIZATIONS,  BRANCHES,  GENERAL  AUTHORITIES,  GENERAL 
AUXILIARY  OFFICERS,  HIERARCHY,  MISSIONS,  PRIESTHOOD  ORDINANCES,  PRIESTHOOD 
QUORUMS,  STAKES,  WARDS. 

Basically,  church  organization  is  the  same  in  all  ages;  the  same  organization  that  existed  in  the 
primitive  Church  prevails  now.  (Sixth  Article  of  Faith.)  Whenever  the  Church  has  been  fully  established 
on  earth,  the  priesthood,  the  keys  of  the  kingdom,  and  the  apostolic  power  have  been  manifest.  In  such 
periods  there  have  always  been  prophets,  evangelists,  pastors,  and  teachers.  (Eph.  4: 11-14.) 

But  God's  earthly  kingdom  is  always  organized  in  such  a  manner  as  to  serve  most  ideally  the  needs  of 
the  people  under  the  conditions  that  exist  in  the  particular  age.  Hence,  provision  is  made  for  "helps, 
governments,"  quorums,  auxiliary  organizations,  committees,  boards,  and  special  administrative  units  to 
satisfy  special  needs.  (1  Cor.  12:28.)  In  the  last  days,  worldly  conditions  and  the  complexities  of 
civilization  being  what  they  are,  the  church  organization  is  probably  more  extended  and  intricate  than  in 
any  previous  dispensation. 

Church  organization  is  always  given  by  revelation.  One  of  the  great  evidences  of  the  need  of 
contemporary  revelation  is  the  fact  that  changing  social,  economic,  industrial,  and  other  conditions, 
warrant  changes  in  the  helps  and  governments  appended  to  the  great  basic  and  unchanging  church 
organization. 

Over  the  whole  Church  the  First  Presidency  presides;  each  gi'oup  of  General  Authorities  acts  under  the 
direction  of  the  Presidency  in  an  assigned  sphere.  From  time  to  time  special  auxiliaries,  committees,  and 
organizations  are  set  up  to  serve  the  whole  church. 


101 


For  administrative  purposes  the  Church  is  divided  into  stakes  and  missions.  Each  stake  (composed  of 
wards  and  branches)  is  so  organized  as  to  caiTy  on  the  full  program  of  the  Church;  each  mission 
(composed  of  districts  which  in  turn  are  composed  of  branches)  adapts  itself  to  the  circumstances 
prevailing  in  it  and  carries  on  as  much  of  the  church  program  as  possible.  Priesthood  quorums  and  the 
auxiliary  organizations  function  within  the  stakes,  wards,  branches,  missions,  and  districts.  Groups  of 
stakes  are  combined  to  form  regions  or  districts,  for  the  purpose  of  administering  various  programs,  as  for 
instance  the  welfare  program  and  the  work  in  the  temples. 

The  Church  maintains  an  extensive  educational  program  that  includes  universities,  colleges,  schools, 
seminaries,  and  institutes  of  religion.  Since  the  kingdom  of  God  on  earth  is  concerned  with  temporal  as 
well  as  eternal  salvation,  there  are  of  course  banking,  insurance,  industrial,  agricultural  and  other  business 
enterprises  in  which  the  Church  has  an  interest. 

Church  Security  Program 

(Church  Security  Program  ) 

See  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN. 

Church  Standards 

(Church  Standards  ) 
See  OBEDIENCE. 

Church  Welfare  Plan 

(Church  Welfare  Plan  ) 

See  ALMSGFVING,  BISHOPS  STOREHOUSES,  CONSECRATION,  DEBT,  DESERET 
INDUSTRIES,  DOLE,  EMPLOYMENT,  FAST  OFFERINGS,  IDLENESS,  POOR,  RELIEF  SOCIETY, 
SELF-RELIANCE,  STEWARDSHIPS,  THRIFTINESS,  UNITED  ORDER,  USURY,  WORK. 

The  Church  Welfare  Plan  is  that  part  of  the  gospel  which  is  designed  under  our  present  economic 
circumstances  to  care  for  the  temporal  needs  of  the  saints  and  to  do  it  on  the  basis  of  gospel  principles. 
Welfare  work  and  principles  as  such  are  not  new;  in  every  dispensation  there  have  been  tithes,  offerings 
cooperative  enterprises  united  orders  or  whatever  arrangements  were  needed  under  conditions  as  they  then 
existed. 

But  the  Present  organization  for  handling  welfare  matters,  first  set  up  in  1936,  is  the  particular  one 
geared  to  the  present  needs  and  faith  of  the  saints.  Indeed,  the  fact  that  the  saints  do  have  adequate 
procedures  for  caring  for  the  temporal  well-being  of  the  poor  among  them  is  one  of  the  evidences  of  the 
divinity  of  the  great  latter-day  work.  Modem  revelation  is  required  to  apply  the  eternal  welfare  principles 
to  the  intricacies  of  modem  civilization. 

"Our  primary  purpose,"  said  the  First  Presidency  with  reference  to  the  newly  formulated  welfare 
arrangement,  "was  to  set  up,  in  so  far  as  it  might  be  possible,  a  system  under  which  the  curse  of  idleness 
would  be  done  away  with,  the  evils  of  a  dole  abolished,  and  independence,  industry,  thrift  and  self-respect 
be  once  more  established  amongst  our  people.  The  aim  of  the  Church  is  to  help  the  people  to  help 
themselves.  Work  is  to  be  re-enthroned  as  the  mling  principles  of  the  lives  of  our  Church  membership." 
(Conf  Rep.,  Oct.,  1936,  p.  3.) 

The  doctrine  of  Church  Welfare  is  that  "the  responsibility  for  one's  economic  maintenance  rests  (I) 
upon  himself  (2)  upon  his  family,  and  (3)  upon  the  Church,  if  he  is  a  faith&l  member  thereof"  (Welfare 
Handbook,  pp.  1-2.) 

Man  has  been  placed  on  earth  to  work  out  his  salvation  both  temporally,  and  spiritually.  If  all  that  had 
been  needed  for  his  etemal  progression  was  spiritual  in  nature,  this  earth  life  would  not  have  been 
necessary.  Accordingly,  "No  tme  Latter-day  Saint  will,  while  physically  able,  voluntarily  shift  from 
himself  the  burden  of  his  own  support.  So  long  as  he  can,  under  the  inspiration  of  the  Almighty  and  with 
his  own  labors,  he  will  supply  himself  with  the  necessities  of  life."  (Welfare  Handbook,  p.  2.) 

In  keeping  with  this  principle,  the  saints  are  counseled  to  get  out  of  debt,  free  themselves  from 
mortgages,  live  within  their  incomes,  save  a  little,  have  on  hand  enough  food  and  clothing  and  where 


102 


possible  fuel  also  for  a  least  a  year  ahead,  plant  gardens,  farm  fanns,  and  use  wisdom  and  inspiration  in  all 
their  temporal  pursuits. 

When  a  member  of  the  Church  is  unable  to  care  for  his  own  temporal  needs,  the  responsibility  for  such 
falls  upon  his  relatives.  "If  any  provide  not  for  his  own,  and  specially  for  those  of  his  own  house,  he  hath 
denied  the  faith,  and  is  worse  than  an  infidel."  (1  Tim.  5:8.)  But  if  the  just  wants  and  needs  of  a  church 
member  cannot  be  supplied  through  his  own  efforts  or  by  his  family,  then  the  Church  itself  steps  in,  draws 
on  the  bishops  storehouses  and  the  fast  offering  contributions,  and  cares  for  the  temporal  needs  of  the  poor 
person.  Wherever  possible  those  receiving  welfare  assistance  work  for  what  they  receive.  The  necessaiy 
food,  clothing,  fuel,  and  other  items  are  almost  all  produced  by  the  Church  on  the  hundreds  of  great 
welfare  projects  operated  by  various  wards,  stakes,  and  welfare  regions. 

Circumcision 

(Circumcision  ) 

See  ABRAHAMIC  COVENANT,  BAPTISM,  COVENANTS,  SALVATION  OF  CHILDREN. 

In  token  and  remembrance  of  the  everlasting  covenant  made  by  God  with  Abraham,  Deity  instituted 
the  law  of  circumcision.  As  revealed  to  Joseph  Smith,  the  circumstances  and  conditions  calling  forth  the 
revelation  of  this  law  of  circumcision  were  these:  "My  people  have  gone  astray  from  my  precepts,  and 
have  not  kept  mine  ordinances,  which  I  gave  unto  their  fathers,"  the  Lord  said  to  Abraham,  "And  they 
have  not  obsereed  mine  anointing,  and  the  burial,  or  baptism  wherewith  I  commanded  them;  But  they 
have  turned  from  the  commandment,  and  taken  unto  themselves  the  washing  of  children,  and  the  blood  of 
sprinkling;  And  have  said  that  the  blood  of  the  righteous  Abel  was  shed  for  sins;  and  have  not  known 
wherein  they  are  accountable  before  me. 

"But  as  for  thee,  behold,  I  will  make  my  covenant  with  thee,  and  thou  shalt  be  a  father  of  many 
nations.  And  this  covenant  I  make,  that  thy  children  may  be  known  among  all  nations.  Neither  shall  thy 
name  any  more  be  called  Abram,  but  thy  name  shall  be  called  Abraham;  for,  a  father  of  many  nations  have 
I  made  thee.  And  I  will  make  thee  exceedingly  fruitful,  and  I  will  make  nations  of  thee,  and  kings  shall 
come  of  thee,  and  of  thy  seed.  And  I  will  establish  a  covenant  of  circumcision  with  thee,  and  it  shall  be  my 
covenant  between  me  and  thee,  and  thy  seed  after  thee,  in  their  generations;  that  thou  mayest  know  for 
ever  that  children  are  not  accountable  before  me  until  they  are  eight  years  old.  And  thou  shalt  observe  to 
keep  all  my  covenants  wherein  I  covenanted  with  thy  fathers;  and  thou  shalt  keep  the  commandments 
which  I  have  given  thee  with  mine  own  mouth,  and  I  will  be  a  God  unto  thee  and  thy  seed  after  thee.  And 
I  will  give  unto  thee  and  thy  seed  after  thee,  a  land  wherein  thou  art  a  stranger;  all  the  land  of  Canaan,  for 
an  everlasting  possession;  and  I  will  be  their  God. 

"And  God  said  unto  Abraham,  Therefore  thou  shalt  keep  my  covenant,  thou  and  thy  seed  after  thee,  in 
their  generations.  And  this  shall  be  my  covenant  which  ye  shall  keep  between  me  and  thee  and  thy  seed 
after  thee;  every  man  child  among  you  shall  be  circumcised.  And  ye  shall  circumcise  the  flesh  of  your 
foreskin;  and  it  shall  be  a  token  of  the  covenant  betwixt  me  and  you.  And  he  that  is  eight  days  old  shall  be 
circumcised  among  you,  every  man  child  in  your  generations;  He  that  is  bom  in  the  house,  or  bought  with 
money  of  any  stranger,  which  is  not  of  thy  seed.  He  that  is  bom  in  thy  house,  and  he  that  is  bought  with 
thy  money,  must  needs  be  circumcised,  and  my  covenant  shall  be  in  your  flesh  for  an  everlasting 
covenant.  And  the  uncircumcised  man  child,  whose  flesh  of  his  foreskin  is  not  circumcised,  that  soul  shall 
be  cut  off  from  his  people,  he  hath  broken  my  covenant."  (Inspired  Version,  Gen.  17:4-20.) 

One  of  the  provisions  of  this  law  of  circumcision  was  that  it  should  be  practiced  by  the  chosen  seed,  to 
identify  and  distinguish  them,  until  the  day  of  the  mortal  ministiy  of  Clirist.  From  Abraham  to  the 
meridian  of  time,  the  gospel  and  such  of  the  laws  of  salvation  as  were  revealed  in  any  period  were  reseree 
almost  exclusively  for  the  seed  of  Abraham  in  whose  flesh  the  token  of  circumcision  was  found. 

But  beginning  in  the  meridian  of  time  the  Lord's  eternal  plans  called  for  sending  the  gospel  to  all  the 
world;  the  Gentile  nations  were  to  be  invited  to  come  to  Christ  and  be  heirs  of  salvation.  The  laws  of 
salvation  were  to  be  offered  to  those  in  whose  flesh  the  token  of  the  everlasting  covenant  was  not  found. 
Clirist  himself  limited  his  ministiy  to  the  house  of  Israel;  "I  am  not  sent  but  unto  the  lost  sheep  of  the 
house  of  Israel,"  he  said.  (Matt.  15:24.)  But  he  sent  his  apostolic  ministers  to  preach  to  all  men  (Mark 
16:15),  it  being  pointedly  revealed  to  Peter  that  the  gospel  was  for  Gentiles  as  well  as  Jews.  (Acts  10.) 
Accordingly,  the  need  for  the  special  token  in  the  flesh  no  longer  existed,  and  so  circumcision  as  a  gospel 
ordinance  was  done  away  in  Clirist. 


103 


Mormon  received  this  revelation:  "Little  children  are  whole,  for  they  are  not  capable  of  committing 
sin;  wherefore  the  curse  of  Adam  is  taken  from  them  in  me,  that  it  hath  no  power  over  them;  and  the  law 
of  circumcision  is  done  away  in  me."  (Moro.  8:8.)  The  disciples  in  the  Old  World  received  a  similar 
revelation  and  with  the  approval  of  the  Holy  Ghost  discontinued  the  practice  of  circumcision,  rejecting  the 
doctrine  of  those  who  claimed  that  circumcision  was  still  essential  to  salvation.  (Acts  15.)  Paul,  the  apostle 
to  the  Gentiles,  of  necessity  had  to  write  and  teach  much  about  circumcision  so  that  his  converts  would 
understand  that  it  was  done  away  in  Christ.  (Rom.  2;  3;  4;  1  Cor.  7:19;  Gal.  5:6;  6:15;  Col.  2: 1 1;  3: 11.) 

By  the,  time  of  Paul  the  apostate  Jews,  as  with  the  people  of  Abraham's  day,  had  lost  the  knowledge 
"that  children  are  not  accountable  .  .  .  until  they  are  eight  years  old."  (Inspired  Version,  Gen.  17:11.) 
Rather  they  had  a  tradition  that  little  children  were  unholy  and  that  circumcision  was  essential  to  their 
cleansing.  Those  thus  circumcised  were  then  "brought  up  in  subjection  to  the  law  of  Moses,"  and  giving 
"heed  to  the  traditions  of  their  fathers,"  they  "believed  not  the  gospel  of  Clirist,  wherein  they  became 
unholy."  (D.  &  C.  74.)  It  was  while  struggling  to  solve  this  difficult  problem  that  Paul  gave  some  of  his 
counsel  on  mamage,  which  counsel  can  only  be  understood  in  the  light  of  the  then  existing  circumcision 
difficulties.  (1  Cor.  7.) 

City  of  Enoch 

(City  of  Enoch  ) 
See  ZION. 

City  of  Zion 

(CityofZion  ) 
See  ZION. 

Civil  Governments 
(Civil  Governments  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES,  GOVERNMENT  OF  GOD, 
INALIENABLE  RIGHTS,  KINGDOM  OF  GOD,  PATRIOTISM,  THEOCRACY  (THEARCHY). 

The  first  government  on  earth  was  a  theocracy.  But  as  apostasy  set  in  and  men  rejected  the  direct  rule 
of  God  through  his  prophets,  governments  of  men  were  created.  Except  for  short  periods  of  time  and 
among  limited  groups  of  people,  civil  governments  have  held  sway  ever  since.  These  earthly  governments 
have  had  varying  degrees  of  merit,  depending  on  the  manner  in  which  they  have  been  organized  and  the 
integrity  and  ability  of  their  rulers. 

But  all  nations  have  been  used  by  the  Lord  to  accomplish  his  inscrutable  purposes.  (Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  313-326.)  Egypt  saved  the  house  of  Jacob  in  an  age  of  famine.  (Gen.  46;  47;  48;  49; 
50.)  Cyms  the  unbelieving  Persian  ruler  was  called  of  God  to  accomplish  a  particular  work  with  ancient 
Israel.  (Isa.  44:28;  45:1-4.)  The  constitution  of  the  United  States  was  established  by  the  Lord  as  an  aid  to 
the  perpetuation  of  freedom  among  the  American  people.  (D.  &  C.  101:76-80.) 

With  the  restoration  of  the  gospel,  however,  the  government  of  God  began  again  to  be  established  on 
earth.  So  far  that  government  operates  only  in  spiritual  things,  but  in  due  course  the  Lord  will  make  a  full 
end  of  all  nations.  (D.  &  C.  87:6.)  Then  civil  government  as  found  in  all  the  kingdoms  of  this  present 
world  will  cease,  and  the  theocratic  millennial  administration  will  begin  in  which  the  government  of  God 
will  be  both  spiritual  and  temporal.  (D.  &  C.  38:20-22.)  Pending  that  glorious  day  the  saints  are 
commanded  to  obey  the  laws  of  the  land,  to  be  subject  to  the  powers  that  be  (D.  &  C.  58:20-22),  and  to 
uphold,  sustain,  and  support  constitutional  laws  and  wise  leaders.  (D.  &  C.  98:4-10.) 

Civilization 

(Civilization  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  DARK  AGES,  EVOLUTION,  GOSPEL,  GOVERNMENT  OF  GOD, 
PRIESTHOOD,  RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

As  part  of  the  false  educational  theories  of  the  day,  it  is  generally  believed  and  taught  that  civilization 
has  reached  its  highest  point  in  the  20th  century  and  that  the  civilizations  of  the  past  were  far  beneath 


104 


present  standards.  Measured  solely  from  the  standpoint  of  inventions,  engineering  achievements,  and 
industrial  development,  this  is  tme.  But  when  every  form  of  social  development  and  culture,  of  arts, 
letters,  and  refinement,  and  of  moral  uprightness  is  included  in  the  meaning  of  civilization,  then  it 
becomes  apparent  that  many  of  the  civilizations  of  the  past  have  far  exceeded  our  own. 

Adam  began  his  mortal  life  as  a  son  of  God.  (Moses  6:22.)  He  and  Eve  and  their  posterity  wrote  and 
spoke  the  pure  Adamic  language,  a  language  far  more  perfect  and  powerful  than  any  now  had  on  earth. 
(Moses  6:5-8.)  They  had  the  gospel,  celestial  marriage,  a  perfect  government,  communion  with  God  and 
angels,  and  they  walked  in  the  light  of  continual  revelation.  Similar  conditions  prevailed  for  365  years  in 
the  City  of  Zion;  indeed,  so  perfect  was  the  civilization  of  that  people  that  the  Lord  came  and  dwelt  with 
them.  (Moses  7.)  Among  the  Nephites  for  200  years  a  godly  society  prevailed.  There  is  no  question  but 
what  literature,  art,  culture,  refinement,  morality,  and  every  form  of  social  intercourse  in  these  ancient 
times  far  exceeded  anything  that  has  evolved  among  worldly  kingdoms.  During  the  millennium  the  most 
advanced  social  development  ever  known  on  earth  will  take  place;  civilization  will  then  reach  its  zenith  as 
far  as  mortal  beings  are  concerned. 

But  even  among  worldly  kingdoms,  there  have  been  civilizations  of  the  past  which  have  surpassed 
ours  in  selected  fields.  Can  we  equal  today  the  literary  excellence  of  the  King  James  Bible  or  of 
Shakespeare?  What  art  are  we  producing  that  compares  with  the  paintings  of  the  old  masters?  Do  we  have 
musicians  today  that  excel  Beethoven,  Bach,  Brahms,  Mendelssohn,  and  Mozart? 

Civil  Law 

(Civil  Law  ) 

See  CIVIL  GOVERNMENTS. 

Civil  Marriage 

(Civil  MaiTiage  ) 

See  CELESTLAL  MARRIAGE. 

Among  Latter-day  Saints  the  term  civil  marriage  means  a  marriage  performed  solely  by  civil  authority 
as  distinguished  from  an  eternal  or  a  celestial  marriage,  which  is  performed  both  by  civil  authority  and  by 
that  power  which  binds  on  earth  and  seals  eternally  in  the  heavens.  Civil  marriages  are  performed  by 
man's  authority  and  last  until  death  or  divorce  separates  the  parties;  celestial  marriages  are  by  God's 
authority,  and  the  unions  endure  in  time  and  in  eternity. 

For  those  who  are  not  qualified  and  worthy  to  enter  into  the  Lord's  order  of  matrimony,  civil  marriages 
are  proper  and  honorable  and  there  is  no  sin  attached  to  the  relationship  that  results  from  them.  But  for  a 
true  saint,  one  who  loves  the  Lord  and  has  in  his  heart  the  hope  of  eternal  life,  no  mamage  will  prove 
satisfactory  but  one  that  is  eternal.  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  expressed  the  feelings  of  those  who  believe 
and  know  the  tmth  when  he  said  that  he  would  rather  go  himself  to  the  grave  than  associate  with  a  woman 
outside  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  of  marriage. 

Cleanliness 

(Cleanliness  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  FORGIVENESS,  HOLINESS,  PURITY,  SANCTIFICATION. 

Since  no  unclean  thing  can  inherit  the  kingdom  of  heaven  (Alma  1 1 :37;  3  Ne.  27:19-21;  Moses  6:57), 
and  since  all  accountable  men  have  committed  sin  and  are  therefore  unclean  (Rom.  3:23;  5:12),  it  follows 
that  all  who  gain  salvation  must  undergo  a  cleansing  process.  This  process  is  one  of  repentance  and 
baptism  (D.  &  C.  76:52;  Alma  7:14),  one  that  enables  the  cleansing  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  to  transfomi 
the  human  soul  fiom  an  unclean  to  a  clean  state  (Moro.  6:4),  one  that  enables  the  penitent  person  to  wash 
his  garments  in  the  blood  of  the  Lamb.  (Alma  5:21-27.) 

Our  Lord  came  into  the  world  for  the  purpose  of  cleansing  and  sanctifying  men  through  the  power  of 
his  atoning  sacrifice.  (D.  &  C.  76:41;  Morni.  9:6.)  This  cleaning  power  is  offered  only  on  conditions  of 
obedience  to  his  laws.  (D.  &  C.  29:17.)  "If  we  walk  in  the  light,  as  he  [God]  is  in  the  light,"  John  said,  "we 
have  fellowship  one  with  another,  and  the  blood  of  Jesus  Clirist  his  on  cleanseth  us  from  all  sin.  If  we  say 


105 


that  we  have  no  sin,  we  deceive  ourselves,  and  the  truth  is  not  in  us.  If  we  confess  our  sins,  he  is  faithful 
and  just  to  forgive  us  our  sins,  and  to  cleanse  us  from  all  unrighteousness."  (1  John  1:6-9.) 

After  their  baptism  the  Lord  commands  his  saints  to  continue  to  seek  cleanliness  of  life  and  spirit  with 
all  their  power.  "Be  ye  clean  that  bear  the  vessels  of  the  Lord."  (D.  &  C.  38:42;  133:5;  3  Ne.  20:41;  Isa. 
52:1 1.)  "Let  all  things  be  done  in  cleanliness  before  me."  (D.  &  C.  42:41.)  "Entangle  not  yourselves  in  sin, 
but  let  your  hands  be  clean,  until  the  Lord  comes."  (D.  &  C.  88:86.)  "Cleanse  your  hands,  ye  sinners;  and 
purify  your  hearts  ye  double  minded."  (Jas.  4:8.) 

Those  who  love  the  Lord  desire  to  cleanse  and  perfect  their  lives:  To  themselves  they  say:  "Let  us 
cleanse  ourselves  from  all  filthiness  of  the  flesh  and  spirit,  perfecting  holiness  in  the  fear  of  God."  (2  Cor. 
7:1.)  "Create  in  me  a  clean  heart,  O  God;  and  renew  a  right  spirit  within  me,"  is  their  cry.  (Ps.  51:10.) 
They  desire  to  worship  God  with  pure  hearts  and  clean  hands  (2  Ne.  25:16);  to  work  miracles  among  their 
fellowmen  in  this  life  (3  Ne.  8:1);  to  be  clean  in  the  day  of  judgment  (Alma  5:19;  24:15);  to  be  cleansed 
from  mortality  to  immortality  (3  Ne.  28:36);  to  enjoy  the  eternal  presence  of  their  God  (Ps.  24:1-5);  to  be 
possessors  of  all  things.  (D.  &  C.  50:28-29.)  They  know  that  the  Lord  is  pleased  only  with  the  clean.  (D. 
&C.  38:8-10;  66:3.) 

When  men  accept  the  truth  and  embark  on  the  Lord's  ertand,  acting  as  his  ministers,  they  thereby 
assume  the  responsibility  for  the  blood  and  sins  of  those  over  whom  they  preside  or  to  whom  they  are  sent 
with  the  Lord's  message.  This  burden  is  removed  from  the  Lord's  agents  only  on  the  condition  that  they 
magnify  their  callings  and  faithfully  discharge  the  duties  imposed  upon  them.  (Ezek.  33;  34.)  Thus 
through  their  faithfulness  the  elders  have  power  to  become  clean  from  the  blood  and  sins  of  this 
generation.  (D.  &  C.  88:74-75,  85;  109:42;  112:33;  135:5;  Ether  12:37.) 

Clergy 

(Clergy  ) 

See  MINISTERLAL  TITLES,  MINISTERS. 

In  the  sectarian  world,  the  clergy  is  the  whole  body  of  so-called  ordained  ministers;  those  ordained  to 
the  ministry  (as  they  suppose)  are  called  clergymen.  The  ministry  involved  differs  so  radically  from  the 
Lord's  true  ministry  that  the  temis  clergy  and  clergymen  are  not  ordinarily  applied  by  the  tnie  Church  to 
its  own  ministers. 

Clergymen 

(Clergymen  ) 
See  CLERGY. 


Clerks 

(Clerks  ) 

See  CHURCH  HISTORIAN  AND  RECORDER,  RECORD  KEEPING. 

Since  record  keeping  is  such  an  important  part  of  church  operation,  qualified  and  able  persons  are 
chosen  and  set  apai1  to  serve  as  clerks  and  secretaries  in  all  of  the  organizations  of  the  Church.  Among 
others,  stake  clerks  assist  stake  presidencies  ward  clerks  and  bishoprics,  quorum  secretaries  carry  much  of 
the  priesthood  load,  and  auxiliary  organization  secretaries  preserve  the  records  of  those  units. 

Clinic  Baptisms 

(Clinic  Baptisms  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  BAPTISM,  INFANT  BAPTISM. 

"Baptisms  by  pouring  or  sprinkling  were  exceptional  in  the  early  ages  of  the  Christian  Church.  They 
were  called  clinic  baptisms,  because  administered  as  a  rule  to  the  sick,  who  could  not  be  taken  from  their 
beds  to  be  immersed;  but  they  were  rare,  and  were  regarded  only  as  quasi-baptisms."  (Orson  F.  Whitney, 
Saturday  Night  Thouglits,  pp.  252-253.) 


106 


Cocoa 

(Cocoa  ) 

See  WORD  OF  WISDOM. 

Coffee 

(Coffee  ) 

See  HOT  DRINKS. 

Cola  Drinks 

(Cola  Drinks  ) 

See  WORD  OF  WISDOM. 

Combinations 

(Combinations  ) 

See  SECRET  COMBINATIONS. 

Comforter 

(Comforter  ) 

See  HOLY  GHOST,  PARACLETE,  SECOND  COMFORTER. 

The  Holy  Gliost  is  the  Comforter.  (John  14:26-27;  Teachings,  pp.  149-150.)  This  name-title  is  given  to 
the  third  member  of  the  Godhead  to  signify  his  mission  of  bringing  solace,  love,  peace,  quiet  enjoyment, 
and  comfort  to  the  saints.  Scriptures  setting  forth  the  consolation  and  encouragement  which  spring  up  in 
the  hearts  of  the  righteous  by  the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  frequently  speak  of  him  as  the  Comforter. 
Moroni,  writing  of  "the  visitation  of  the  Holy  Ghost,"  says  that  this  "Comforter  filleth  with  hope  and 
perfect  love."  (Moro.  8:26.) 

By  gaining  the  testimony  of  Jesus  men  find  peace,  rest,  and  comfort.  This  testimony  comes  by  the 
power  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  Thus  it  is  the  Comforter  who  testifies  of  Christ  (John  15:26);  it  is  the  Comforter, 
which  manifesteth  that  Jesus  was  crucified  by  sinflil  men  for  the  sins  of  the  world"  (D.  &  C.  21:9);  it  is 
"the  Comforter"  which  is  "shed  forth  upon"  men  "for  the  revelation  of  Jesus  Christ"  (D.  &  C.  90:11);  it  is 
"the  Comforter"  who  "knoweth  all  things,  and  beareth  record  of  the  Father  and  of  the  Son."  (D.  &  C. 
42:17.) 

By  gaining  light  and  knowledge  from  heaven,  men  attain  a  prelude  of  that  peace  and  quiet  enjoyment 
which  is  found  in  a  future  heaven.  Thus  it  is  "the  Comforter,  which  showeth  all  things,  and  teacheth  the 
peaceable  things  of  the  kingdom"  (D  &  C.  39:6;  36:2);  it  is  the  Comforter  who  gives  revelation  and 
guidance  to  the  disciples  (D.  &  C.  24:5;  31:11;  52:9;  79:2;  90:14);  it  is  by  the  power  of  the  Comforter  that 
the  Lord's  agents  teach  the  gospel,  even  being  given  in  the  very  hour  the  words  they  shall  speak  (D.  &  C. 
28:1;  50:14,  17;  75:10;  124:97);  and  it  is  by  the  Comforter  that  inspired  men  write  (D.  &  C.  47:4)  and 
speak  and  prophesy.  (D.  &  C.  42:16.)  Our  Lord's  promise  to  his  ancient  disciples  was  that  the  Comforter 
would  "bring  all  things"  to  their  "remembrance"  (John  14:26),  and  it  was  by  this  power  that  the  scriptures 
were  written. 

Commander 

(Commander  ) 

See  CAPTAIN  OF  THE  LORD'S  HOST. 

Commandments 

(Commandments  ) 

See  AGENCY,  COVENANTS,  GOSPEL,  LAW,  OBEDIENCE,  RIGHTEOUSNESS,  TEN 
COMMANDMENTS. 


107 


Those  things  which  men  are  directed  to  do  to  attain  peace  in  this  life  and  gain  eternal  life  in  the  world 
to  come  are  collectively  called  the  commandments.  They  are  the  laws,  ordinances,  covenants,  contracts, 
statutes,  judgments,  decrees,  revelations,  and  requirements  which  come  to  man  from  God.  They  are  "the 
words  of  eternal  life,"  with  reference  to  which  it  is  proclaimed:  "You  shall  live  by  every  word  that 
proceedeth  forth  from  the  mouth  of  God."  (D.  &  C.  84:43-44.) 

It  is  God's  right  to  command;  he  is  not  restricted  to  sending  requests  or  petitions.  He  made  us;  we 
belong  to  him;  in  his  infinite  wisdom  he  orders  us  to  do  what  will  further  our  interests  and  his.  By 
obedience  we  are  blessed.  Failure  to  obey  denies  us  the  blessing  and  makes  us  guilty  of  the  additional  sin 
of  ingratitude. 

"If  thou  wilt  enter  into  life,  keep  the  commandments,"  was  our  Lord's  succinct  statement  to  the  rich 
young  man.  (Matt.  19:17.)  "If  ye  love  me,  keep  my  commandments,"  he  said  to  his  disciples.  (John 
14:15.)  "For  this  is  the  love  of  God,  that  we  keep  his  commandments:  and  his  commandments  are  not 
grievous,"  John  wrote.  (1  John  5:3.)  "Let  us  hear  the  conclusion  of  the  whole  matter:  Fear  God  and  keep 
his  commandments:  for  this  is  the  whole  duty  of  man."  (Eccles.  12:13.) 

Common  Consent 

(Common  Consent  ) 

See  AGENCY,  KEYS  OF  THE  KINGDOM,  REVELATION. 

Administrative  affairs  of  the  Church  are  handled  in  accordance  with  the  law  of  common  consent.  This 
law  is  that  in  God's  earthly  kingdom,  the  King  counsels  what  should  be  done,  but  then  he  allows  his 
subjects  to  accept  or  reject  his  proposals.  Unless  the  principle  of  free  agency  is  operated  in  righteousness 
men  do  not  progress  to  ultimate  salvation  in  the  heavenly  kingdom  hereafter.  Accordingly,  church  officers 
are  selected  by  the  spirit  of  revelation  in  those  appointed  to  choose  them,  but  before  the  officers  may  serve 
in  their  positions,  they  must  receive  a  formal  sustaining  vote  of  the  people  over  whom  they  are  to  preside. 
(D.  &  C.  20:60-67;  26:2;  28;  38:34-35;  41:9-11;  42:11;  102:9;  124:124-145.) 

Revelations  given  of  God  through  his  prophets,  however,  are  not  subject  to  an  approving  or  sustaining 
vote  of  the  people  in  order  to  establish  their  validity.  Members  of  the  Church  may  vote  to  publish  a 
particular  revelation  along  with  the  other  scriptures,  or  the  people  may  bind  themselves  by  covenant  to 
follow  the  instructions  found  in  the  revealed  word.  But  there  is  no  provision  in  the  Lord's  plan  for  the 
members  of  the  Church  to  pass  upon  the  validity  of  revelations  themselves  by  a  vote  of  the  Church;  there 
is  nothing  permitting  the  Church  to  choose  which  of  the  revelations  will  be  binding  upon  it,  either  by  a 
vote  of  people  or  by  other  means. 

Revelation  is  revelation.  When  the  Lord  speaks,  he  has  spoken.  His  word  is  to  be  accepted  and  obeyed 
if  men  expect  to  receive  salvation.  To  reject  the  word  of  the  Lord  is  to  reject  the  Lord  himself  to  that 
extent.  This  is  the  case  with  members  of  the  so-called  Reorganized  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter  Day 
Saints.  They  have  selected,  by  a  vote  of  their  people,  which  of  the  revelations  they  will  accept  and  which 
they  will  reject.  Naturally  revelations  dealing  with  salvation  for  the  dead,  temple  work,  and  celestial 
marriage  find  no  part  in  their  philosophy,  and  in  consequence  they  deny  themselves  the  blessings  offered 
in  these  revelations. 

Common  Council  of  the  Church 

(Common  Council  of  the  Church  ) 

See  CHURCH  COURTS,  FIRST  PRESIDENCY. 

The  supreme  tribunal  in  the  Church  is  the  Common  Council  of  the  Church,  which  consists  of  the  First 
Presidency  of  the  Church  and  12  high  priests  chosen  by  them  to  assist  as  counselors.  "This  is  the  highest 
council  of  the  church  of  God,  and  a  final  decision  upon  controversies  in  spiritual  matters.  There  is  not  any 
person  belonging  to  the  church  who  is  exempt  from  this  council  of  the  church.  And  inasmuch  as  a 
President  of  the  High  Priesthood  shall  transgi'ess,  he  shall  be  had  in  remembrance  before  the  common 
council  of  the  church,  who  shall  be  assisted  by  twelve  counselors  of  the  High  Priesthood;  And  their 
decision  upon  his  head  shall  be  an  end  of  controversy  concerning  him.  Thus,  none  shall  be  exempted  from 
the  justice  and  the  laws  of  God,  that  all  things  may  be  done  in  order  and  in  solemnity  before  him, 
according  to  truth  and  righteousness.  (D.  &  C.  107:76-84.) 


108 


Presumably  the  First  Presidency  would  choose  the  Council  of  the  Twelve  to  serve  as  the  12  high 
priests,  but  in  one  case  in  the  days  of  President  John  Taylor,  they  chose  bretliren  who  were  not  among  the 
General  Authorities  but  who  were  expeils  in  the  matters  scheduled  to  come  before  the  Council.  In  that 
case  water  rights  were  involved.  (Gospel  Kingdom,  pp.  201-202.) 

Common  Enemy 

(Common  Enemy  ) 
See  DEVIL. 

This  designation  of  Satan  describes  his  position  as  the  general  enemy  of  all  mankind.  No  accountable 
persons  are  free  from  his  wiles.  (D.  &  C.  29:47.) 

Common  Judge  in  Israel 

(Common  Judge  in  Israel  ) 
See  JUDGES  IN  ISRAEL. 

Common  Property 

(Common  Property  ) 
See  UNITED  ORDER. 

Commotions 

(Commotions  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Communism 

(Communism  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL,  SECRET  COMBINATIONS. 

Basically  and  chiefly,  communism  is  a  form  of  false  religion;  it  is  one  of  the  major  divisions  of  the 
church  of  the  devil.  It  denies  God  and  Christ;  belittles  Christianity;  runs  counter  to  the  moral  and  ethical 
standards  of  religion  and  decency;  denies  men  their  agency;  wrenches  from  them  their  inalienable  rights; 
and  swallows  the  individual  and  his  well-being  up  in  the  formless  mass  of  the  state. 

Communism  is  also  a  political  movement,  one  that  fosters  and  promotes  world  revolution,  and  has  as 
its  aim  the  subjugation  of  all  free  peoples  and  nations.  It  necessarily  is  a  dictatorship  of  the  severest  and 
most  ruthless  type. 

The  position  of  the  Church  relative  to  communism  is  stated  by  the  First  Presidency  in  these  words: 
"With  great  regret  we  learn  from  credible  sources,  governmental  and  others,  that  a  few  Church  members 
are  joining,  directly  or  indirectly,  the  communists  and  are  taking  part  in  their  activities. 

"The  Church  does  not  interfere,  and  has  no  intention  of  trying  to  interfere,  with  the  fullest  and  freest 
exercise  of  the  political  franchise  of  its  members,  under  and  within  our  Constitution  which  the  Lord 
declared:  T  established  ...  by  the  hands  of  wise  men  whom  I  raised  up  unto  this  very  purpose,"  (D.  &  C. 
101 :80)  and  which,  as  to  the  principles  thereof,  the  Prophet  dedicating  the  Kirtland  Temple,  prayed  should 
be  'established  forever.' 

"But  communism  is  not  a  political  party  nor  a  political  plan  under  the  Constitution;  it  is  a  system  of 
government  that  is  the  opposite  of  our  Constitutional  government,  and  it  would  be  necessary  to  destroy 
our  government  before  communism  could  be  set  up  in  the  United  States. 

"Since  communism,  established,  would  destroy  our  American  Constitutional  government,  to  support 
communism  is  treasonable  to  our  free  institutions,  and  no  patriotic  American  citizen  may  become  either  a 
communist  or  supporter  of  communism. 

"To  our  Church  members  we  say:  Communism  is  not  the  United  Order,  and  bears  only  the  most 
superficial  resemblance  thereto;  communism  is  based  upon  intolerance  and  force,  the  United  Order  upon 
love  and  freedom  of  conscience  and  action;  communism  involves  forceful  despoliation  and  confiscation, 
the  United  Order  voluntary  consecration  and  sacrifice. 


109 


"Communists  cannot  establish  the  United  Order,  nor  will  communism  bring  it  about.  The  United  Order 
will  be  established  by  the  Lord  in  his  own  due  time  and  in  accordance  with  the  regular  prescribed  order  of 
the  Church. 

"Furthermore,  it  is  charged  by  universal  report,  which  is  not  successfully  contradicted  or  disproved, 
that  communism  undertakes  to  control,  if  not  indeed  to  proscribe  the  religious  life  of  the  people  living 
within  its  jurisdiction,  and  that  it  even  reaches  its  hand  into  the  sanctity  of  the  family  circle  itself, 
disrupting  the  nonnal  relationship  of  parent  and  child,  all  in  a  manner  unknown  and  unsanctioned  under 
the  Constitutional  guarantees  under  which  we  in  America  live.  Such  interference  would  be  contrary  to  the 
fundamental  precepts  of  the  gospel  and  to  the  teachings  and  order  of  the  Church. 

"Communism  being  thus  hostile  to  loyal  American  citizenship  and  incompatible  with  true  Church 
membership,  of  necessity  no  loyal  American  citizen  and  no  faithful  Church  member  can  be  a  communist. 

"We  call  upon  all  Church  members  completely  to  eschew  communism.  The  safety  of  our  divinely 
inspired  Constitutional  government  and  the  welfare  of  our  Church  imperatively  demand  that  communism 
shall  have  no  place  in  America."  (hnprovement  Era,  vol.  39,  p.  488.) 

Compassion 

(Compassion  ) 

See  KINDNESS,  MERCY. 

True  compassion  for  one's  fellow  men  is  a  mark  of  a  true  saint.  It  consists  in  son'ow  for  their 
sufferings,  in  having  pity  and  sympathy  for  them,  and  in  exhibiting  mercy,  tenderness  and  kindness 
towards  them.  Indeed,  one  of  the  specific  covenants  taken  by  those  who  accept  fellowship  with  the  saints 
is  to  mourn  with  those  that  mourn,  comfort  those  that  stand  in  need  of  comfort,  and  bear  the  burdens  of 
each  other.  (Mosiah  18:8-9.)  Standing  counsel  to  the  saints  is:  "Be  ye  all  of  one  mind,  having  compassion 
one  of  another,  love  as  brethren,  be  pitifiil,  be  couileous."  (1  Pet.  3:8.)  "Be  ye  kind  one  to  another, 
tenderhearted,  forgiving  one  another,  even  as  God  for  Christ's  sake  hath  forgiven  you."  (Eph.  4:32.) 

Jesus  himself  set  the  perfect  example  of  compassion;  as  James  said,  "The  Lord  is  very  pitiful,  and  of 
tender  mercy."  (Jas.  5:11.)  This  was  in  no  instance  better  illustrated  than  in  his  ministry  among  the 
Nephites.  "Behold,  my  bowels  are  filled  with  compassion  towards  you,"  he  told  them.  "Have  ye  any  that 
are  sick  among  you?  Bring  them  hither.  Have  ye  any  that  are  lame,  or  blind,  or  halt,  or  maimed,  or 
leprous,  or  that  are  withered,  or  that  are  deaf,  or  that  are  afflicted  in  any  manner?  Bring  them  hither  and  I 
will  heal  them,  for  I  have  compassion  upon  you;  my  bowels  are  filled  with  mercy."  (3  Ne.  17:6-7.) 


Compulsion 

(Compulsion  ) 

See  AGENCY,  FREEDOM,  INALIENABLE  RIGHTS,  SALVATION. 

Compulsion  involves  the  use  of  coercion  or  force.  It  is  the  opposite  of  free  agency.  Neither  salvation, 
the  attainment  of  godly  virtues,  nor  eternal  progression  can  be  forced  upon  an  individual.  In  the  pre- 
existent  counsels,  Lucifer  sought  to  deny  men  their  agency  and  compel  them  to  be  saved,  a  proposal  that 
would  not  and  could  not  work.  God  deals  in  agency,  Lucifer  in  compulsion.  To  the  extent  that  men  are  not 
free  to  choose  their  own  governments,  beliefs,  faiths,  associates,  employment,  and  the  like,  the  will  of 
Satan  is  overruling  the  will  of  Deity  in  the  world. 

Conceived  in  Sin 

(Conceived  in  Sin  ) 

See  INFANT  BAPTISM,  ORIGINAL  SIN  THEORY,  SALVATION  OF  CHILDREN,  YEARS  OF 
ACCOUNTABILITY. 

Are  all  little  children  conceived  in  sin?  Such  is  the  teaching  of  those  churches  which  practice  infant 
baptism,  such  baptism  being  performed,  as  they  contend,  to  free  the  newborn  infant  from  the  taint  of 
original  sin.  It  is  true  that  there  are  scriptures  which  say  that  children  are  conceived  in  sin.  But  do  they 
mean  what  those  who  practice  infant  baptism  claim  they  do? 


110 


When  David  was  groaning  under  tlie  crusliing  burden  of  those  personal  sins  which  caused  him  to  lose 
his  exaltation  (D.  &  C.  132:39),  he  pleaded  for  mercy  with  such  cries  as:  "Have  mercy  upon  me.  .  .  My  sin 
is  ever  before  me.  .  .  Behold,  I  was  shapen  in  iniquity;  and  in  sin  did  my  mother  conceive  me.  .  .  .  Hide  thy 
face  from  my  sins,  and  blot  out  all  mine  iniquities.  .  .  .  Deliver  me  from  bloodguiltiness."  (Ps.  51.)  From 
the  entire  context  it  should  be  clear  that  David  is  not  teaching  that  he  came  into  this  world  burdened  with 
the  sin  of  Adam,  so  that  without  the  cleansing  of  infant  baptism  his  soul  would  be  lost,  but  rather  that  he 
had  been  bom  into  a  world  of  sin  and  temptation  that  was  greater  than  he  could  bear,  and  hence  he  seemed 
to  think  that  the  Lord  should  act  leniently  toward  him. 

Perhaps  when  David  wrote  the  expression,  "conceived  in  sin,"  he  was  familiar  with  a  more  ancient 
scripture  which  used  the  same  words.  In  any  event,  the  expression  is  found  in  scriptures  that  date  back  to 
Adam's  day  -  found,  however,  in  a  context  that  makes  the  whole  doctrine  involved  stand  out  clearly. 

"And  our  father  Adam  spake  unto  the  Lord,  and  said:  Why  is  it  that  men  must  repent  and  be  baptized 
in  water?  And  the  Lord  said  unto  Adam:  Behold  I  have  forgiven  thee  thy  transgression  in  the  Garden  of 
Eden.  Hence  came  the  saying  abroad  among  the  people.  That  the  Son  of  God  hath  atoned  for  original  guilt 
wherein  the  sins  of  the  parents  cannot  be  answered  upon  the  heads  of  the  children,  for  they  are  whole  from 
the  foundation  of  the  world.  And  the  Lord  spake  unto  Adam,  saying:  Inasmuch  as  thy  children  are 
conceived  in  sin,  even  so  when  they  begin  to  grow  up,  sin  conceiveth  in  their  hearts,  and  they  taste  the 
bitter  that  they  may  know  to  prize  the  good.  And  it  is  given  unto  them  to  know  good  from  evil  wherefore 
they  are  agents  unto  themselves,  and  I  have  given  unto  you  another  law  and  commandment.  Wherefore 
teach  it  unto  your  children,  that  all  men,  everywhere  must  repent,  or  they  can  in  nowise  inherit  the 
kingdom  of  God."  (Moses  6:53-57.) 

In  other  words,  though  children  are  bom  into  a  world  where  sin  is  present  so  that  they  can  be  tried  and 
tested  and  use  their  own  agency,  yet  there  is  no  "original  guilt"  attaching  to  them,  and  the  sins  of  the 
parents  cannot  be  answered  upon  their  heads. 

It  is  a  false  and  unholy  perversion  of  the  tme  doctrine  to  suppose  that  innocent  children  come  into  the 
world  with  any  taint  of  original  sin.  "Marriage  is  honourable  in  all,  and  the  bed  undefiled."  (Heb.  13:4.) 
Parents  are  commanded  to  multiply  and  fill  the  earth  with  posterity.  (D.  &  C.  49:15-17.)  "Children  are  an 
heritage  of  the  Lord."  (Ps.  127:3.)  "Little  children  are  whole,  for  they  are  not  capable  of  committing  sin; 
wherefore  the  curse  of  Adam  is  taken  from  them  in  me,"  the  Lord  said,  with  Mormon  adding,  "Little 
children  are  alive  in  Christ."  (Moro.  8:8,  12.) 

Concubines 

(Concubines  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  PLURAL  MARRIAGE. 

In  modem  times  a  concubine  is  a  woman  who  cohabits  with  a  man  without  being  his  wife.  But  "from 
the  beginning  of  creation,"  all  down  through  the  history  of  God's  dealings  with  his  people,  including  those 
with  the  house  of  Israel,  concubines  were  legal  wives  married  to  their  husbands  in  the  new  and  everlasting 
covenant  of  marriage.  (D.  &  C.  132:1,  37-39,  65.) 

Anciently  they  were  considered  to  be  secondary  wives,  that  is,  wives  who  did  not  have  the  same 
standing  in  the  caste  system  then  prevailing  as  did  those  wives  who  were  not  called  concubines.  There 
were  no  concubines  connected  with  the  practice  of  plural  marriage  in  this  dispensation,  because  the  caste 
system  which  caused  some  wives  to  be  so  designated  did  not  exist. 

Concupiscence 

(Concupiscence  ) 

See  SEX  IMMORALITY. 


Condemnation 

(Condemnation  ) 
See  DAMNATION. 


Ill 


Condescension  of  God 

(Condescension  of  God  ) 

See  GOD,  GRACE  OF  GOD,  ONLY  BEGOTTEN  SON,  SALVATION  BY  GRACE. 

After  asking  the  question,  "Knowest  thou  the  condescension  of  God"  an  angel  showed  Nephi  the 
virgin  who  was  to  be  "the  mother  of  the  Son  of  God,  after  the  manner  of  the  flesh."  Nephi  saw  that  "she 
was  carried  away  in,  the  Spirit  for  the  space  of  a  time,"  and  that  she  then  appeared  "bearing  a  child  in  her 
arras,  .  .  .  even  the  Son  of  the  Eternal  Father."  Then  with  the  exclamation,  "Look  and  behold  the 
condescension  of  God,"  the  angelic  ministrant  showed  Nephi  many  of  the  major  incidents  in  the  moilal 
ministry  of  the  Lamb  of  God,  including  the  fact  that  "he  was  lifted  up  upon  the  cross  and  slain  for  the  sins 
ofthe  world."  (1  Ne.  11:13-36.) 

Thus  the  condescension  of  God  (meaning  the  Father)  consists  in  the  fact  that  though  he  is  an  exalted, 
perfected,  glorified  Personage,  he  became  the  personal  and  literal  Father  of  a  moilal  offspring  born  of 
mortal  woman.  And  the  condescension  of  God  (meaning  the  Son)  consists  in  the  fact  that  though  he 
himself  is  the  Lord  Omnipotent,  the  very  Being  who  created  the  earth  and  all  things  that  in  it  are,  yet  being 
bom  of  mortal  woman,  he  submitted  to  all  the  trials  of  mortality,  suffering  "temptations,  and  pain  of  body, 
hunger,  thirst,  and  fatigue,  even  more  than  man  can  suffer,  except  it  be  unto  death"  (Mosiah  3:5-8),  finally 
being  put  to  death  in  a  most  ignominious  manner. 

Conferences 

(Conferences  ) 

See  DISTRICTS,  FAST  MEETINGS,  SACRAMENT  MEETINGS,  SOLEMN  ASSEMBLIES, 
TESTIMONY  MEETINGS,  WORSHIP. 

1.  Latter-day  Saints  assemble  periodically  in  various  conferences  "to  worship  the  King,  the  Lord  of 
hosts"  (Zech.  14:16-19);  to  be  built  up  in  faith,  testimony,  and  desires  of  righteousness;  to  transact  the 
business  of  the  Church;  to  sustain  the  officers  whom  the  Lord  has  appointed  to  administer  the  affairs  of  his 
kingdom;  and  to  receive,  from  those  appointed  so  to  serve,  the  counsel,  inspiration,  and  revelation  needed 
in  both  temporal  and  spiritual  fields. 

Conferences  are  far  more  than  religious  conventions  in  which  views  are  expressed,  differences 
resolved,  and  policies  adopted.  Rather  they  consist  in  a  series  of  meetings  at  which  the  mind  and  will  of 
the  Lord  is  manifest  to  the  people  by  the  mouths  of  his  servants.  The  Church  being  a  kingdom,  not  a 
democracy,  instruction  and  direction  comes  from  above;  it  does  not  originate  with  the  citizens  but  with  the 
King.  Songs,  prayers,  semions,  testimonies,  reports,  and  sometimes  recreational  undertakings  are  woven 
into  conference  schedules. 

2.  hi  the  early  days  of  this  dispensation,  the  ecclesiastical  units  in  missions,  which  units  are  now  called 
districts,  were  called  conferences. 

Confession 

(Confession  ) 

See  FORGIVENESS. 

Confirmation 

(Confimiation  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST,  LAYING  ON  OF  HANDS. 

In  the  name  of  Christ  and  the  authority  of  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood,  baptized  persons  are  confirmed 
members  of  The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  As  part  of  this  ordinance  of  confimiation  the 
gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost  is  bestowed.  (D.  &  C.  20:38-43;  33:15.)  It  is  also  proper  for  the  legal  administrators 
performing  the  ordinance  to  give  expression,  as  led  by  the  Spirit,  to  a  few  brief  words  of  blessing, 
promise,  counsel,  and  exhortation. 


112 


Conformity 

(Confomiity  ) 
See  OBEDIENCE. 

Confusion  of  Tongues 

(Confusion  of  Tongues  ) 
See  LANGUAGES. 

Congregations 

(Congregations  ) 
See  WARDS. 

Conjuration 

(Conjuration  ) 
See  EXORCISM. 

Conjure  Man 

(Conjure  Man  ) 

See  MAGIC,  MEDICINE  MEN,  WITCHCRAFT,  WITCH  DOCTORS. 

In  some  localities,  particularly  the  West  Indies  and  Southern  United  States,  a  witch,  practitioner  of 
magic,  or  witch  doctor  is  called  a  conjure  man  or  woman.  Conjuration  includes  the  practice  of  magic  and 
the  summoning  of  evil  spirits  by  invocation  or  incantation. 

Conscience 

(Conscience  ) 

See  AGENCY,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST. 

Every  person  bom  into  the  world  is  endowed  with  the  light  of  Christ  (Spirit  of  Christ  or  of  the  Lord)  as 
a  free  gift.  (D.  &  C.  84:45-48.)  By  virtue  of  this  endowment  all  men  automatically  and  intuitively  know 
right  from  wrong  and  are  encouraged  and  enticed  to  do  what  is  right.  (Moro.  7:16.)  The  recognizable 
operation  of  this  Spirit  in  enlightening  the  mind  and  striving  to  lead  men  to  do  right  is  called  conscience.  It 
is  an  inborn  consciousness  or  sense  of  the  moral  goodness  or  blameworthiness  of  one's  conduct, 
intentions,  and  character,  together  with  an  instinctive  feeling  or  obligation  to  do  right  or  be  good. 

Members  of  the  Church  are  entitled  to  the  enlightemnent  of  the  light  of  Christ  and  also  to  the  guidance 
of  the  Holy  Ghost.  If  they  so  live  as  to  enjoy  the  actual  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  then  their  consciences  are 
also  guided  by  that  member  of  the  Godhead.  (Rom.  9:1.) 

Every  man's  conscience  is  pure  and  clean  at  birth.  (D.  &  C.  93:38.)  But  after  an  individual  arrives  at 
the  years  of  accountability  his  conscience  begins  to  be  blackened  by  his  sins.  Because  of  disobedience 
one's  conscience  is  "seared  with  a  hot  iron"  (1  Tim  4:2);  it  becomes  weak  and  defiled.  (1  Cor.  3:7;  Tit. 
1:15.) 

Wickedness  invariably  leads  to  remorse  of  conscience  (Alma  29:5;  42:18),  and  those  so  smitten 
tremble  under  a  consciousness  of  their  own  guilt  and  filthiness  before  the  Lord.  (Alma  12:1;  14:6;  Monn. 
9:3-4;  John  8:9.)  But  men  are  commanded  to  purge  their  consciences  from  dead  works  (Heb.  9:14),  to  gain 
"peace  of  conscience"  through  "a  remission  of  their  sins."  (Mosiah  4:3.)  Paul  (Acts  23:1;  2  Tim.  1:3  Heb. 
13:18),  King  Benjamin  (Mosiah  2:15,  27),  and  Joseph  Smith  (D.  &  C.  135:4),  list  themselves  among  those 
whose  consciences  were  not  burdened  with  regret  or  remorse. 

"The  free  exercise  of  conscience"  is  one  of  the  inalienable  rights  of  man,  and  governments  are 
obligated  to  enact  and  administer  such  laws  as  will  preserve  this  right.  (D.  &  C.  134:2-5.) 


113 


Consciousness 

(Consciousness  ) 
See  MIND. 

Consecration 

(Consecration  ) 

See  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  STEWARDSHIPS,  TITHING,  UNITED  ORDER. 

Righteous  saints  in  all  ages  have  consecrated  their  time,  talents,  strength,  properties,  and  monies  to  the 
establisliment  of  the  Lord's  work  and  kingdom  in  their  respective  days.  As  circumstances  have  required, 
these  saints  -  having  set  their  hearts  on  righteousness  and  having  actually  put  first  in  their  lives  the  things 
of  God's  kingdom  -  have  been  and  are  called  upon  to  serve  on  missions,  colonize  wilderness  areas,  build 
temples,  go  to  the  ends  of  the  earth  on  the  Lord's  errand,  magnify  calls  in  the  ministry,  and  contribute  of 
their  means  in  the  great  welfare  and  building  projects  of  the  Church. 

In  practice  and  as  a  general  thing,  church  members  now  are  being  called  upon  to  consecrate  only 
portions  (usually  relatively  small  portions)  of  their  total  substance  for  use  in  the  furtherance  of  the  Lord's 
interests.  However,  an  attempt  was  made  in  the  early  days  of  this  dispensation  to  live  the  law  of 
consecration  in  full.  The  vehicle  through  which  the  attempt  was  made  to  live  the  financial  and  monetary 
portions  of  this  law  was  called  the  United  Order. 

As  then  attempted,  practice  of  the  foil  law  of  consecration  called  for  the  saints  to  consecrate,  transfer, 
and  convey  to  the  Lord's  agent  all  of  their  property  "with  a  covenant  and  a  deed  which  cannot  be  broken." 
(D.  &  C.  42:30;  58:35.)  They  were  then  given  stewardships  to  use  for  their  own  maintenance,  with  all 
surpluses  reverting  back  to  the  Lord's  storehouses.  Because  of  greed,  avarice,  and  the  worldly 
circumstances  in  which  they  found  themselves,  the  saints  did  not  achieve  great  success  in  the  practice  of 
this  law,  and  in  due  course  the  Lord  withdrew  from  them  the  privilege  of  so  conducting  their  temporal 
affairs. 

Many  of  the  underlying  principles  which  were  part  of  the  law  of  consecration,  however,  have  been 
retained  and  are  still  binding  upon  the  Church.  Those  touching  church  finances,  as  summarized  by 
President  J.  Reuben  Clark,  Jr.,  are:  "1.  Worldly  riches  should  not  be  sought  for.  2.  Every  man  should 
esteem  his  brother  as  himself.  3 .  The  Church  should  care  for  the  temporal  needs  of  those  whom  the  Lord 
called  into  church  service.  4.  The  worldly  goods  of  the  members,  beyond  family  necessities,  should  be 
made  available  for  the  Lord's  work.  5.  The  Church  should  see  that  its  poor  were  cared  for."  (Albert  E. 
Bowen,  The  Church  Welfare  Plan,  p.  6.) 

Practice  of  the  law  of  consecration  is  inextricably  intertwined  with  the  development  of  the  attributes  of 
godliness  in  this  life  and  the  attainment  of  eternal  life  in  the  world  to  come.  "The  law  pertaining  to 
material  aid  is  so  formulated  that  the  carrying  of  it  out  necessitates  practices  calculated  to  root  out  human 
traits  not  in  harmony  with  requirements  for  living  in  the  celestial  kingdom  and  replacing  those 
inhamionious  traits  with  the  virtues  and  character  essential  to  life  in  that  abode."  (Bowen,  The  Church 
Welfare  Plan,  p.  13.)  "For  if  you  will  that  I  give  you  a  place  in  the  celestial  world,  you  must  prepare 
yourselves  by  doing  the  things  which  I  have  commanded  you  and  required  of  you."  (D.  &  C.  78:7.) 

That  the  full  law  of  consecration  will  yet  again  be  practiced  is  well  known.  It  is  a  celestial  law,  "And 
Zion  cannot  be  built  up  unless  it  is  by  the  principles  of  the  law  of  the  celestial  kingdom;  otherwise  I  can 
not  receive  her  unto  myself"  (D  &  C.  105:5.)  In  this  connection  it  should  be  remembered  that  man  cannot 
live  a  higher  law  until  he  is  first  able  to  abide  a  lesser  law;  he  will  not  consecrate  all  of  his  properties, 
unless  he  is  first  willing  to  consecrate  a  portion;  and  he  cannot  live  the  perfect  law  of  consecration  unless 
he  first  abides  perfectly  the  law  of  tithing. 


Consecration  of  Oil 

(Consecration  of  Oil  ) 
See  ADMINISTRATIONS. 

Before  oil  is  used  in  administering  to  the  sick  it  should  be  consecrated,  dedicated,  and  set  apart,  by 
those  holding  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood,  for  the  anointing  of  the  sick  in  the  household  of  faith.  (Jas. 


114 


5:14-16.)  It  is  the  oil  and  not  the  container  that  is  being  consecrated,  and  there  is  no  impropriety  in 
consecrating  the  oil  in  a  large  container  and  thereafter  pouring  it  into  smaller  vessels.  A  good  grade  of 
pure  olive  oil  should  be  used,  and  after  it  has  been  consecrated,  it  should  not  be  commingled  with  any 
ointments  or  used  indiscriminately. 

Constitutional  Law 

(Constitutional  Law  ) 

See  CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

Constitution  of  the  United  States 

(Constitution  of  the  United  States  ) 

See  BILL  OF  RIGHTS,  CIVIL  GOVERNMENTS,  FREEDOM,  INALIENABLE  RIGHTS, 
KINGDOM  OF  GOD,  LIBERTY,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Our  federal  constitution  is  the  supreme  law  of  the  land.  It  is  the  written  instrument  embodying  the 
fundamental  organic  laws  and  principles  governing  the  American  nation,  and  it  has  the  following  essential 
characteristics: 

1 .  The  constitution  was  ordained  and  established  by  the  people,  not  by  the  states,  not  by  a  select  group 
of  autocrats  who  seized  power,  not  by  any  outside  governmental  power.  The  whole  philosophy  of 
constitutional  government  is  that  all  sovereign  power  rests  with  the  body  of  the  people  and  that  by  the  free 
exercise  of  their  agency  they  elect  to  delegate  certain  powers  and  fiinctions  to  the  governmental  bodies  set 
up  by  them. 

2.  It  is  a  written  document  not  an  accumulation  of  traditions,  customs,  or  legal  interpretations.  It  is 
capable  of  specific  interpretation  and  encourages  a  course  of  stability  and  uniformity  of  action  where 
governmental  affairs  are  concerned. 

3.  A  framework  of  government  is  established  by  it.  Powers  are  divided  between  legislative,  executive, 
and  judicial  branches  of  government,  thus  creating  an  ideal  system  of  checks  and  balances  where  the 
possible  exercise  of  autocratic  powers  is  concerned. 

4.  In  the  constitution  are  listed  the  specific  powers  and  authorities  delegated  to  the  government  and  to 
the  particular  branches  of  the  same.  The  government  has  no  rights;  it  has  duties  only.  It  is  ordained  to 
serve  the  people.  The  constitution  contains  the  written  instructions  of  the  sovereign  people  to  their  chosen 
servants;  it  is  the  circuit  by  which  the  people  transmit  part  of  their  power  to  their  government. 

5.  Express  provision  is  made  in  the  constitution  for  the  preservation  of  the  natural  rights  of  man:  (a)  by 
specifically  delegating  to  the  national  government  the  things  it  can  do;  (b)  by  pointedly  reserving  to  the 
people  all  rights  and  the  perfonnance  of  all  acts  not  50  delegated;  and  i'^Vi  by  expressly  denying  the 
federal  government  power  to  interfere  with  the  people's  use  of  certain  named  rights  such  as  freedom  of 
speech. 

6.  Means  are,  of  course,  provided  for  the  constitution's  own  change  and  amendment. 

In  the  providences  of  the  Almighty  the  constitution  of  the  United  States  was  established  to  serve  an 
even  greater  purpose  than  that  of  setting  up  a  stable  government  under  which  freedom  would  prevail.  It 
was  designed  to  do  far  more  than  guarantee  the  preservation  of  natural  and  inalienable  rights  to  the 
American  people.  The  constitution  came  forth  to  prepare  the  way  for  the  restoration  of  the  gospel,  the 
fulfilling  of  the  covenants  God  made  with  ancient  Israel,  and  the  organization  of  the  Church  and  kingdom 
of  God  on  earth  in  the  last  days. 

America  was  to  be  a  land  of  liberty  upon  which  no  kings  should  rule.  (2  Ne.  10: 11- 14.)  The  nation  to 
possess  it  was  to  "be  free  from  bondage,  and  from  captivity,  and  from  all  other  nations."  (Ether  2:12.)  The 
Gentiles  were  to  "be  established  in  this  land,  and  be  set  up  as  a  free  people  by  the  power  of  the  Father,"  so 
that  the  Book  of  Monnon  might  come  forth  to  the  people  and  the  covenants  made  with  ancient  Israel  be 
fulfilled.  (3  Ne.  21:4.)  "And  for  this  purpose  have  I  established  the  Constitution  of  this  land,  by  the  hands 
of  wise  men  whom  I  raised  up  unto  this  very  purpose,  and  redeemed  the  land  by  the  shedding  of  blood." 
(D.  &C.  101:80;  109:54) 

"The  constitution  of  the  United  States  is  a  glorious  standard,"  the  Prophet  said,  "it  is  founded  in  the 
Wisdom  of  God.  It  is  a  heavenly  baimer;  it  is  to  all  those  who  are  privileged  with  the  sweets  of  liberty,  like 
the  cooling  shades  and  refreshing  waters  of  a  great  rock  in  a  thirsty  and  weary  land.  It  is  like  a  great  tree 
under  whose  branches  men  from  every  clime  can  be  shielded  from  the  burning  rays  of  the  sun. 


115 


"We  say  that  God  is  true;  that  the  constitution  of  the  United  States  is  true;  that  the  Bible  is  true;  that 
the  Book  of  Mormon  is  true;  that  the  Book  of  Covenants  is  true;  that  Christ  is  tme;  that  the  ministering 
angels  sent  forth  from  God  are  true,  and  that  we  know  that  we  have  an  house  not  made  with  hands  eternal 
in  the  heavens,  whose  builder  and  maker  is  God."  (Teachings  pp.  147-148.) 

Contention 

(Contention  ) 

See  DEBATES,  WAR. 

Contention  consists  in  debating,  quarreling  and  disputing  about  some  contested  matter.  Disputation, 
debates,  dissensions,  arguments,  controversies,  quarrels,  and  strife  or  contention  of  any  sort  have  no  part 
in  the  gospel;  they  are  of  the  devil.  The  gospel  is  one  of  peace,  hannony,  unity,  and  agreement.  In  it 
argument  and  debate  are  supplanted  by  discussion  and  study.  Those  who  have  the  Spirit  do  not  hang 
doggedly  to  a  point  of  doctrine  or  philosophy  for  no  other  reason  than  to  come  off  victorious  in  a 
disagreement.  Their  purpose,  rather,  is  to  seek  truth  by  investigation,  research,  and  inspiration.  "Cease  to 
contend  one  with  another,"  the  Lord  has  commanded.  (D.  &  C.  136:23;  Tit.  3:9.) 

The  Nephite  disciples  had  disputed  among  themselves  about  the  doctrine  of  baptism.  To  them  the  Lord 
revealed  the  true  doctrine  and  then  said:  "Thus  shall  ye  baptize.  And  there  shall  be  no  disputations  among 
you,  as  there  have  hitherto  been;  neither  shall  there  be  disputations  among  you  concerning  the  points  of 
my  doctrine,  as  there  have  hitherto  been.  For  verily,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  he  that  hath  the  spirit  of 
contention  is  not  of  me,  but  is  of  the  devil,  who  is  the  father  of  contention,  and  he  stin'eth  up  the  hearts  of 
men  to  contend  with  anger,  one  with  another.  Behold,  this  is  not  my  doctrine,  to  stir  up  the  hearts  of  men 
with  anger,  one  against  another;  but  this  is  my  doctrine,  that  such  things  should  be  done  away."  (3  Ne. 
11:28-30.) 

Continence 

(Continence  ) 
See  PASSIONS. 

Continuation  of  the  Lives 

(Continuation  of  the  Lives  ) 
See  ETERNAL  LIVES. 


Continuation  of  the  Seeds 

(Continuation  of  the  Seeds  ) 
See  ETERNAL  LIVES. 

Contracts 

(Contracts  ) 

See  COVENANTS. 


Contrite  Spirit 

(Contrite  Spirit  ) 

See  HUMILITY,  MEEKNESS,  PENITENCE,  REMORSE,  REPENTANCE. 

To  have  a  broken  heart  and  a  contrite  spirit  is  to  be  broken  down  with  deep  son'ow  for  sin,  to  be 
humbly  and  thoroughly  penitent,  to  have  attained  sincere  and  purposeful  repentance.  Such  a  status  is  a 


116 


condition  precedent  to  a  valid  baptism  and  consequent  membership  in  the  earthly  kingdom  of  God.  (D.  & 
C.  20:37;  3  Ne.  9:20;  12:19;  Moro.  6:2.)  Acquirement  of  a  broken  heart  and  a  contrite  spirit  is  thus 
essential  to  salvation.  (Hela.  8:15;  Ps.  34:18;  D.  &  C.  97:8.)  Indeed,  it  was  primarily  for  those  in  this 
condition  of  heart  and  mind  that  the  very  atoning  sacrifice  of  Christ  was  worked  out.  (2  Ne.  2:7;  D.  &  C. 
21:9.)  And  the  sacrifice  the  Lord,  in  turn,  requires  of  his  saints  is  that  they  offer  him  a  broken  heart  and  a 
contrite  spirit.  (D.  &  C.  59:8;  3  Ne.  9:20;  Ps.  51:17.) 

The  Lord's  Spirit  is  sent  forth  to  enlighten  the  contrite  (D.  &  C.  136:33),  and  they  are  the  ones  who 
gain  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  (D.  &  C.  55:3.)  In  fact,  special  blessings  are  repeatedly  showered  forth 
upon  them.  (D.  &  C.  52:15;  56:7,  17-18;  Isa.  66:2;  Ether  4:15.)  The  wicked  on  the  other  hand,  are 
condemned  because  they  do  not  "come  unto  Jesus  with  broken  hearts  and  contrite  spirits."  (Morm.  2: 14.) 

Contrition 

(Contrition  ) 

See  CONTRITE  SPIRIT. 


Controversy 

(Controversy  ) 
See  CONTENTION. 

Conversion 

(Conversion  ) 

See  BORN  AGAIN,  FAITH,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST,  GIFTS  OF  THE  SPIRIT,  HOLY 
GHOST,  PROPHECY,  REVELATION,  TESTIMONY,  TRUTH. 

1 .  In  a  broad,  general  sense  conversion  consists  in  changing  one's  views  or  beliefs  to  confomi  to  a 
pattern  of  thinking  which  was  unacceptable  prior  to  the  time  of  the  conversion.  There  is  one  Biblical 
instance  of  such  usage.  (Acts  3:19.) 

2.  In  the  full  gospel  sense,  however,  conversion  is  more  -  far  more  -  than  merely  changing  one's  belief 
from  that  which  is  false  to  that  which  is  true;  it  is  more  than  the  acceptance  of  the  verity  of  gospel  truths, 
than  the  acquirement  of  a  testimony.  To  convert  is  to  change  from  one  status  to  another,  and  gospel 
conversion  consists  in  the  transformation  of  man  from  his  fallen  and  carnal  state  to  a  state  of  saintliness. 

A  convert  is  one  who  has  put  off  the  natural  man,  yielded  to  the  enticings  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and 
become  "a  saint  through  the  atonement  of  Christ  the  Lord."  Such  a  person  has  become  "as  a  child, 
submissive,  meek,  humble,  patient,  full  of  love,  willing  to  submit  to  all  things  which  the  Lord  seeth  fit  to 
inflict  upon  him,  even  as  a  child  doth  submit  to  his  father."  (Mosiah  3:19.)  He  has  become  a  new  creature 
of  the  Holy  Ghost:  the  old  creature  has  been  converted  or  changed  into  a  new  one.  He  has  been  born 
again:  where  once  he  was  spiritually  dead,  he  has  been  regenerated  to  a  state  of  spiritual  life.  (Mosiah 
27:24-29.)  In  real  conversion,  which  is  essential  to  salvation  (Matt.  18:3),  the  convert  not  only  changes  his 
beliefs,  casting  off  the  false  traditions  of  the  past  and  accepting  the  beauties  of  revealed  religion,  but  he 
changes  his  whole  way  of  life,  and  the  nature  and  structure  of  his  very  being  is  quickened  and  changed  by 
the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 

Peter  is  the  classic  example  of  how  the  power  of  conversion  works  on  deceptive  souls.  During  our 
Lord's  mortal  ministry,  Peter  had  a  testimony,  bom  of  the  Spirit,  of  the  divinity  of  Christ  and  of  the  great 
plan  of  salvation  which  was  in  Christ.  "Thou  art  the  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  living  God,"  he  said,  as  the 
Holy  Ghost  gave  him  utterance.  (Matt.  16:13-19.)  When  others  fell  away,  Peter  stood  forth  with  the 
apostolic  assurance,  "We  believe  and  are  sure  that  thou  art  that  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  living  God."  (John 
6:69.)  Peter  knew,  and  his  knowledge  came  by  revelation. 

But  Peter  was  not  converted,  because  he  had  not  become  a  new  creature  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  Rather, 
long  after  Peter  had  gained  a  testimony,  and  on  the  very  night  Jesus  was  arrested,  he  said  to  Peter:  "When 
thou  art  converted,  strengthen  thy  brethren."  (Luke  22:32.)  Immediately  thereafter,  and  regardless  of  his 
testimony,  Peter  denied  that  he  knew  Christ.  (Luke  22:54-62.)  After  the  crucifixion,  Peter  went  fishing, 
only  to  be  called  back  to  the  ministry  by  the  risen  Lord.  (John  21:1-17.)  Finally  on  the  day  of  Pentecost 
the  promised  spiritual  endowment  was  received;  Peter  and  all  the  faithful  disciples  became  new  creatures 


117 


of  the  Holy  Ghost;  they  were  truly  converted;  and  their  subsequent  achievements  manifest  the  fixity  of 
their  conversions.  (Acts  3;  4.) 

It  is  interesting  to  note  also  that  the  Latter-day  Twelve,  long  after  they  had  testimonies  of  the  gospel, 
and  more  than  two  years  after  their  calls  to  the  apostleship,  were  promised  that  if  they  would  be  faithful 
they  would  yet  be  converted.  (D.  &  C  112:1 2- 13.) 

Corruption 

(Corruption  ) 

See  CARNALITY,  DEATH,  DEVILISHNESS,  INCORRUPTION,  MORTALITY,  SENSUALITY. 

1.  Mortal  bodies  are  corruptible  bodies;  that  is,  they  are  subject  to  physical  change  and  decay, 
corruption  means  mortality;  incorruption  means  immortality.  Speaking  of  the  resurrection,  Abinadi  said, 
"This  mortal  shall  put  on  immortality,  and  this  corruption  shall  put  on  incorruption."  (Mosiah  16:10;  2  Ne. 
9:7;  Alma  40:2;  41:4;  1  Cor.  15:42-54.) 

2.  Corruption  is  also  used  to  signify  the  decay  and  change  that  will  take  place  after  death.  Thus  David 
recorded  the  Lord's  promise  that  he  would  not  suffer  his  Holy  One  to  see  corruption  (Ps.  16:10),  a  promise 
amply  fiilfiUed  in  Christ  as  both  Peter  (Acts  2:27)  and  Paul  (Acts  13:30-37)  testified. 

3.  The  term  is  further  used  with  reference  to  the  wicked,  depraved,  and  dissolute  acts  of  those  who  are 
steeped  in  iniquity.  "He  that  soweth  to  his  flesh  shall  of  the  flesh  reap  corruption;  but  he  that  soweth  to  the 
Spirit  shall  of  the  Spirit  reap  life  everlasting,"  Paul  says  (Gal.  6:8);  and  it  is  by  thus  sowing  to  the  Spirit 
that  the  saints  have  "escaped  the  comiption  that  is  in  the  world  thi'ough  lust."  (2  Pet.  1:4.) 

Council  in  Heaven 

(Council  in  Heaven  ) 

See  AGENCY,  FOREORDINATION,  HEAVEN,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION,  PRE-EXISTENCE, 
WAR  IN  HEAVEN. 

There  were  many  meetings,  conferences,  councils  and  schooling  sessions  held  among  the  Gods  and 
their  spirit  offspring  in  pre-existence.  Among  other  things,  at  these  various  assemblages,  plans  were  made 
for  the  creation  and  peopling  of  this  earth  and  for  the  redemption  and  salvation  of  the  offspring  of  Deity. 
The  spirit  children  of  the  Father  were  then  taught  the  terms  and  conditions  of  the  plan  of  salvation  and 
were  given  opportunity  to  accept  or  reject  the  Father's  proposals. 

Joseph  Smith  speaks  of  "the  head  of  the  Gods"  calling  "a  council  of  the  Gods"  to  arrange  for  the 
creation  and  peopling  of  the  earth.  (Teachings,  pp.  348-349.)  He  also  speaks  of  "the  grand  council  of 
heaven"  in  which  those  destined  "to  minister  to  the  inliabitants  of  the  world"  were  "ordained"  to  their 
respective  callings.  (Teachings,  p.  365.) 

Ordinarily,  perhaps,  when  the  saints  speak  of  the  council  in  heaven,  they  have  in  mind  the  solemn 
session  (at  which,  apparently,  all  of  the  pre-existent  hosts  were  present)  when  the  Father  made  fonnal 
announcement  of  his  plan  of  redemption  and  salvation.  It  was  then  explained  that  his  spirit  children  would 
go  down  to  earth,  gain  bodies  of  flesh  and  blood,  be  tried  and  tested  in  all  things,  and  have  opportunity  by 
obedience  to  come  back  again  to  the  Eternal  Presence.  It  was  then  explained  that  one  of  the  spirit  children 
of  the  Father  would  be  chosen  to  be  the  Redeemer  and  work  out  the  infinite  and  eternal  atonement.  And  it 
was  then  that  the  Father  sent  forth  the  call  which  said  in  substance  and  effect:  Whom  shall  I  send  to  be  my 
Son  in  mortality?  Who  will  go  down,  be  bom  with  life  in  himself  and  work  out  the  great  atoning  sacrifice 
by  which  immortality  will  come  to  all  men  and  eternal  life  be  assured  to  the  obedient? 

Two  mighty  spirits  answered  the  call  and  volunteered  their  services.  Christ  said,  in  effect;  Here  am  I, 
send  me;  I  will  be  thy  Son;  I  will  follow  thy  plan;  and  "thy  will  be  done,  and  the  glory  be  thine  forever." 
But  Lucifer  sought  to  amend  the  plan  of  the  Father  and  to  change  the  proffered  tenns  of  salvation. 
"Behold,  here  am  I,  send  me,"  he  said,  "I  will  be  thy  son,  and  I  will  redeem  all  mankind  that  one  soul  shall 
not  be  lost,  and  surely  I  will  do  it;  wherefore  give  me  thine  honor."  (Moses  4:1-4.)  When  the  Father  said, 
"I  will  send  the  first,"  then  Lucifer  was  angry,  kept  not  his  first  estate,  rebelled  and  he  and  one-third  of  the 
hosts  of  heaven  were  cast  out  down  to  earth  to  become  the  devil  and  his  angels.  (Abra.  32528;  D.  &  C. 
29:36-40.) 


118 


Council  of  the  Twelve 

(Council  of  the  Twelve  ) 

See  APOSTOLIC  SUCCESSION. 

Counselor 

(Counselor  ) 

See  CHRIST,  MAN  OF  COUNSEL. 

Clirist,  the  Son  of  Man  of  Counsel  (Moses  7:35),  bears  the  name-title  Counselor.  Isaiah  so  designates 
him  in  one  of  the  great  Messianic  prophecies.  (Isa.  9:6-7.)  The  name  bears  record  of  his  pre-eminent 
position  among  men  where  the  exercise  of  deliberate  judgment  and  prudence  are  concerned.  His  counsel 
is:  Come  unto  me  and  be  saved. 

Counselors 

(Counselors  ) 

See  CHURCH  ORGANIZATION,  PRESIDENCY. 

In  nearly  all  instances  of  presidency,  the  Lord  vests  the  keys  and  power  in  a  president  who  is  assisted, 
aided,  and  counseled  by  two  counselors.  Such  is  the  case  with  the  First  Presidency,  with  stake  presidencies 
ward  bishopric,  branch  presidencies,  quomm  presidencies  (except  in  case  of  seventies),  auxiliary 
organizations,  and  the  Presiding  Bishopric  (except  when  a  literal  descendant  of  Aaron  holds  the  keys  of 
this  ministry). 

The  keys  of  presidency  center  in  the  president;  counselors  are  set  apart  to  aid  him,  to  give  him  their 
views  and  judgment  on  all  matters  that  properly  come  before  the  presidency.  But  the  final  decision  rests 
with  the  president,  and  counselors  are  obligated  to  sustain  and  support  that  decision  (no  matter  what 
counsel  they  have  given  prior  to  the  final  determination),  unless  some  iniquity  is  manifest  which  requires 
an  appeal  to  higher  authority. 

In  reaching  decisions,  however,  full  weight  should  be  given  to  the  views  of  counselors.  President 
Joseph  F.  Smith  said:  "I  propose  that  my  counselors  and  fellow  presidents  in  the  First  Presidency  shall 
share  with  me  in  the  responsibility  of  every  act  which  I  shall  perform  in  this  capacity.  I  do  not  propose  to 
take  the  reins  in  my  own  hands  to  do  as  I  please;  but  I  propose  to  do  as  my  brethi'en  and  I  agree  upon,  and 
as  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  manifests  to  us.  .  .  .  The  Lord  never  did  intend  that  one  man  should  have  all 
power,  and  for  that  reason  he  has  placed  in  his  Church,  presidents,  apostles,  high  priests,  seventies,  elders 
and  the  various  officers  of  the  lesser  priesthood,  all  of  which  are  essential  in  their  order  and  place 
according  to  the  authority  bestowed  on  them.  The  Lord  never  did  anything  that  was  not  essential  or  that 
was  superfluous.  There  is  a  use  for  every  branch  of  the  priesthood  that  he  has  established  in  his  Church. 
We  want  every  man  to  learn  his  duty,  and  we  expect  every  man  will  do  his  duty  as  faithfully  as  he  knows 
how,  and  caiTy  off  his  portion  of  the  responsibility  of  building  up  Zion  in  the  latter-days."  (Gospel 
Doctrine,  5th  ed.  pp.  176-177.) 

Counsels  of  God 

(Counsels  of  God  ) 

See  COMMANDMENTS,  COUNSELOR,  COUNSELORS,  OBEDIENCE,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION. 

The  counsels  of  God  include:  1.  His  purposes  and  plan,  the  great  system  he  has  ordained  whereby  men 
may  gain  immortality  and  eternal  life;  and  2.  Such  commandments  admonitions,  warnings,  advice,  and 
instruction  as  he  gives  to  enable  men  to  gain  peace  here  and  salvation  hereafter. 

Speaking  of  God's  counsels  as  synonyinous  with  his  purposes  and  plans,  Peter  said  that  "Jesus  of 
Nazareth,  a  man  approved  of  God,"  was  crucified  and  slain  "by  the  detenninate  counsel  and 
foreknowledge  of  God."  (Acts  2:22-23.)  That  is,  as  the  primitive  saints  said  in  a  prayer  to  God,  those  who 
crucified  Christ  had  done  what  God's  hand  and  his  "counsel  determined  before  to  be  done."  (Acts  4:23- 
30.) 


119 


Speaking  of  Deity's  counsels,  iiaving  reference  to  iiis  commandments,  our  Lord  said  "the  Pharisees  and 
lawyers  rejected  the  counsel  of  God  against  themselves"  because  they  did  not  submit  to  John's  baptism. 
(Luke  7:30.) 

All  of  the  Lord's  counsels  are  eternal  and  immutable.  (Heb.  6:17.)  They  stand  forever.  (Ps.  33:11.) 
Those  who  reject  them  "shall  perish."  (2  Ne.  9:28.)  "Seek  not  to  counsel  the  Lord,  but  to  take  counsel  from 
his  hand.  For  behold,  ye  yourselves  know  that  he  counseleth  in  wisdom,  and  injustice,  and  in  great  mercy, 
over  all  his  works."  (Jac.  4:10;  Alma  29:8;  37:12.)  "Counsel  with  the  Lord  in  all  thy  doings,  and  he  will 
direct  thee  for  good."  (Alma  37:37.) 

Courtesy 

(Courtesy  ) 

See  KINDNESS,  TACTFULNESS. 

Courtesy  is  a  natural  outgrowth  of  the  refining  influence  of  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord.  It  presupposes  the 
presence  of  kindness  and  an  inherent  consideration  for  the  comfort  and  well-being  of  others.  Peter 
simimed  up  the  doctrine  of  the  Church  in  this  field  by  saying  simply:  "Be  courteous."  (I  Pet.  3:8.) 


Covenants 

(Covenants  ) 

See  ABRAHAMIC  COVENANT,  CHILDREN  OF  THE  COVENANT,  COMMANDMENTS, 
GOSPEL,  MEDIATOR,  NEW  AND  EVERLASTING  COVENANT,  NEW  TESTAMENT,  OLD 
TESTAMENT. 

In  the  gospel  sense,  a  covenant  is  a  binding  and  solemn  compact,  agreement,  contract,  or  mutual 
promise  between  God  and  a  single  person  or  a  gi'oup  of  chosen  persons.  (D.  &  C.  5:3,  27-28;  54:4.)  Since 
God  is  a  party  to  every  gospel  covenant,  it  follows  that  his  mind  and  will  must  be  known  with  respect  to 
the  particular  contractual  relationship  involved.  Hence,  covenants  come  only  by  revelation,  and  no  person 
or  group  of  persons  enters  into  a  gospel  covenant  except  on  the  basis  of  direct  revelation  from  God. 

It  follows  that,  as  far  as  men  now  living  are  concerned,  the  only  ones  who  have  entered  into  covenants 
with  the  Lord  are  the  members  of  The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  Their  prophets  are  the 
only  spiritual  leaders  receiving  revelation  for  the  Church  and  the  world,  and  the  saints  themselves  are  the 
only  ones  enjoying  the  companionship  of  the  Holy  Ghost  so  that  personal  revelation  may  be  received. 
Ancient  and  modem  scriptures  contain  a  record  of  many  of  the  covenants  of  the  past  and  the  present.  ( 1 
Ne.  13:23-26;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  152-156.) 

The  new  and  everlasting  covenant  is  the  fiilness  of  the  gospel  and  embraces  within  its  terms  and 
conditions  every  other  covenant  that  Deity  ever  has  made  or  ever  will  make  with  men.  (D.  &  C.  132:5-7; 
133:57.)  The  provisions  of  this  covenant  are  that  if  men  will  believe,  repent,  be  baptized,  receive  the  Holy 
Ghost,  and  endure  in  righteousness  to  the  end,  they  shall  have  an  inheritance  in  the  celestial  world. 

All  of  the  terms  and  conditions  of  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  are  accepted  by  individual  men 
incident  to  their  baptism  under  the  hands  of  a  legal  administrator.  In  effect,  by  baptism,  an  individual  signs 
his  name  to  the  contract  of  salvation.  If,  after  the  baptism,  a  person  keeps  the  covenant  of  baptism  (which 
is  to  endure  in  faith  to  the  end),  his  salvation  is  assured.  (2  Ne.  31;  Mosiah  18:8-10.) 

In  the  ordinance  of  the  sacrament  men  renew  the  covenant  made  in  the  waters  of  baptism,  receiving 
again  the  assurance  that  they  shall  have  the  Spirit  to  be  with  them  in  this  life  (D.  Sc  C.  20:77-79),  as  well 
as  an  inheritance  of  eternal  life  in  the  world  to  come.  (John  6:54.)  They,  on  their  part,  agree  again  to  keep 
the  commandments. 

Ordination  to  office  in  the  Melchizedek  priesthood  and  entering  into  that  "order  of  the  priesthood" 
named  "the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  of  marriage"  are  both  occasions  when  men  make  the  covenant 
of  exaltation,  being  promised  through  their  faithfulness  all  that  the  Father  hath.  (D.  &  C.  131:1-4;  84:39- 
41;  132;  Num.  25:13.) 

Tithing  is  a  covenant  by  conformity  to  which  men  are  assured  temporal  and  spiritual  blessings.  (Mai. 
3:7-12;  D.  &  C.  119.)  Sabbath  observance  is  a  covenant  between  God  and  his  people  through  all  their 
generations.  (Ex.  31:16;  D.  &  C.  59:9-20.)  The  word  of  wisdom  is  a  covenant,  conformity  to  which 
assures  both  strength  of  body  and  a  special  spiritual  endowment.  (D.  &  C.  89.)  The  United  Order  with  its 


120 


principles  of  consecration  was  and  is  to  be  entered  by  the  saints  by  covenant  (D.  &  C.  42:30;  78: 11;  82:1 1, 
15,  21;  104:4),  a  covenant  assuring  the  faithful  of  a  celestial  reward.  (D.  &  C.  105:3-5.)  In  the  temples  the 
faithful  enter  into  many  covenants  pertaining  to  exaltation.  And  so  it  goes,  the  more  faithful  and  devoted  a 
person  is,  the  more  of  the  covenants  of  the  Lord  he  is  enabled  to  receive,  until  he  receives  them  in  full  and 
his  calling  and  election  is  made  sure. 

Special  covenants  have  often  been  made  for  special  purposes  to  particular  persons  or  groups.  The  Lord 
covenanted  with  Noah  never  to  destroy  the  earth  again  by  flood,  and  he  set  the  rainbow  as  a  token  of  such 
covenant.  (Gen.  9:12-13.)  To  Abraham  he  gave  the  covenant  of  circumcision  to  remain  in  force  with  the 
chosen  lineage  until  it  was  fulfilled  in  Christ.  (Gen.  17:11-14;  Moro.  8:8.)  To  Lehi  the  covenant  was 
vouchsafed  that  America  should  be  a  land  of  inheritance  for  his  seed  forever.  (2  Ne.  1.)  A  similar  promise 
came  to  the  saints  this  day.  (D.  &  C.  38:20.)  As  part  of  the  great  Abrahamic  covenant,  a  special  land 
inheritance  was  offered  Israel.  (Gen.  17.)  The  Book  of  Mornion  is  a  new  covenant  binding  upon  the 
Latter-day  Saints,  that  is,  having  received  this  ancient  record  as  a  divine  book,  they  are  bound  to  confomi 
to  its  teachings  and  follow  its  counsels.  (D.  &  C.  84:57.) 

To  remember  and  keep  the  covenants  is  a  standing  obligation  resting  upon  the  Lord's  people.  (D.  &  C. 
33:14;  35:24;  42:13,  78;  97:8.)  nothing  is  ever  appointed  or  required  of  any  of  the  saints  which  is 
"contrary  to  the  church  covenants."  (D.  &  C.  28:12;  68:24;  107:63.)  All  gospel  beaching  is  to  be 
"according  to  the  covenants."  (D.  &  C.  107:89.)  Those  who  keep  their  covenants  have  the  Lord's  promised 
given  with  "an  immutable  covenant"  that  all  things  shall  work  together  for  their  good.  (D.  &  C.  98:3.) 
Every  member  of  the  Church  should  subscribed  without  any  mental  reservation  whatever,  to  this  revealed 
statement:  "And  this  shall  be  our  covenant  -  that  we  will  walk  in  all  the  ordinances  of  the  Lord."  (D.  &  C. 
136:2-4.)  "Blessed  are  they  who  have  kept  the  covenant  and  observed  the  commandment,  for  they  shall 
obtain  mercy.  (D.  &  C.  54:6.) 

Covetousness 

(Covetousness  ) 

See  DESIRES,  TEN  COMMANDMENTS,  WICKEDNESS. 

1.  To  covet  is  to  have  an  eager,  extreme  and  ungodly  desire  for  something.  The  presence  of 
covetousness  in  a  human  soul  shows  that  such  person  has  not  overcome  the  world  and  is  not  living  by 
gospel  standards  of  conduct.  Coveting  is  such  a  serious  offense,  and  it  is  so  imperative  that  man  overcome 
all  tendencies  thereto,  that  the  Lord  condemned  it  in  the  Ten  Commandments.  (Ex.  20: 17;  Mosiah  13:24.) 

Many  other  revelations  also  condemn  covetousness.  "Thou  shall  not  covet  thy  neighbor's  wife;  thou 
shall  not  covet  thine  own  property."  (D.  &  C.  19:25-26;  88:123;  136:20.)  "Beware  of  covetousness:  for  a 
man's  life  consisteth  not  in  the  abundance  of  the  things  which  he  possesseth."  (Luke  12:15.)  In 
commanding  men  to  repent  "of  all  their  covetous  desires,"  the  Lord  asked,  "What  is  property  unto  me? 
saith  the  Lord."  (D.  &  C.  117:4,  8.)  For  leaders  in  his  earthly  kingdom  the  Lord  seeks  men  who  hate 
covetousness.  (Ex.  18:21.) 

Covetousness  on  the  part  of  the  saints  in  the  early  days  of  this  dispensation  was  one  of  the  reasons  the 
Lord  permitted  persecutions  to  come  upon  them.  (D.  &  C.  98:20;  101:6;  104:4,  52-53.)  The  covetous  shall 
not  inherit  the  kingdom  of  God.  (1  Cor.  6:9-1 1;  Eph.  5:5.) 

2.  Paul  used  the  term  covet  in  an  approved  and  righteous  sense  in  connection  with  his  counsel  relative 
to  the  gifts  of  the  Spirit.  To  signify  the  intense,  eager  desire  the  saints  should  have  to  attain  these  gifts,  he 
commanded:  "Covet  earnestly  the  best  gifts"  (1  Cor.  12:31)  and,  "Covet  to  prophesy."  (1  Cor.  14:39) 

Creation 

(Creation  ) 

See  ANNIHILATION,  CREATOR,  DAY,  EARTH,  EARTHS,  ELEMENTS. 

To  create  is  to  organize.  It  is  an  utterly  false  and  uninspired  notion  to  believe  that  the  world  or  any 
other  thing  was  created  out  of  nothing  or  that  any  created  thing  can  be  destroyed  in  the  sense  of 
annihilation.  "The  elements  are  eternal."  (D.  &  C.  93:33.) 

Joseph  Smith,  in  the  King  FoUett  sernion,  said:  "You  ask  the  learned  doctors  why  they  say  the  world 
was  made  out  of  nothing;  and  they  will  answer,  'Doesn't  the  Bible  say  He  created  the  world?'  And  they 
infer,  from  the  word  create,  that  it  must  have  been  made  out  of  nothing.  Now,  the  word  create  came  from 


121 


the  word  baurau,  which  does  not  mean  to  create  out  of  nothing;  it  means  to  organize;  the  same  as  a  man 
would  organize  materials  and  build  a  ship.  Hence  we  infer  that  God  had  materials  to  organize  the  world 
out  of  chaos  -  chaotic  matter,  which  is  element,  and  in  which  dwells  all  the  glory.  Element  had  an 
existence  from  the  time  he  had.  The  pure  principles  of  element  are  principles  which  can  never  be 
destroyed;  they  may  be  organized  and  reorganized  but  not  destroyed.  They  had  no  beginning,  and  can 
have  no  end."  (Teachings,  pp.  350-352.) 

Christ,  acting  under  the  direction  of  the  Father,  was  and  is  the  Creator  of  all  things.  (D.  &  C.  38:1-4; 
76:22-24;  John  1:1-3;  Col.  1:16-17;  Heb.  1:1-3;  Moses  1;  2;  3.)  That  he  was  aided  in  the  creation  of  this 
earth  by  "many  of  the  noble  and  great"  spirit  children  of  the  Father  is  evident  from  Abraham's  writings. 
Unto  those  superior  spirits  Christ  said:  "We  will  go  down,  for  there  is  space  there,  and  we  will  take  of 
these  materials,  and  we  will  make  an  earth  whereon  these  may  dwell."  (Abra.  3:22-24.)  Michael  or  Adam 
was  one  of  these.  Enoch,  Noah,  Abraham,  Moses,  Peter,  James,  and  John,  Joseph  Smith,  and  many  other 
"noble  and  great"  ones  played  a  part  in  the  great  creative  enterprise.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1 ,  pp. 
74-75.) 

This  earth  was  not  the  first  of  the  Lord's  creations.  An  infinite  number  of  worlds  have  come  rolling 
into  existence  at  his  command.  Each  is  an  earth;  many  are  inhabited  with  his  spirit  children;  each  abides 
the  particular  law  given  to  it;  and  each  will  play  its  part  in  the  redemption,  salvation,  and  exaltation  of  that 
infinite  host  of  the  children  of  an  Almighty  God.  The  Lord  has  said  that  his  work  and  glory  is  to  bring  to 
pass  immortality  and  eternal  life  for  his  children  on  all  the  inhabited  worlds  he  has  created.  (Moses  1 :27- 
40;  7:29-36;  D.&C.  88:17-26.) 

Such  details  of  the  creative  process  and  of  the  order  of  events  in  it  as  have  been  revealed  pertain  only 
to  this  earth.  (Moses  1:35.)  In  the  temple  we  receive  the  clearest  understanding  of  what  took  place  and 
how  it  was  accomplished.  Abraham  has  left  us  an  account  of  the  planning  and  decisions  of  the  Creators  "at 
the  time  that  they  counseled  among  themselves  to  form  the  heavens  and  the  earth."  (Abra.  4;  5.) 

In  the  books  of  Moses  and  Genesis  we  have  revealed  accounts  of  the  actual  physical  creation  of  the 
earth.  The  2nd  chapter  of  Moses  and  the  1  st  chapter  of  Genesis  give  the  events  which  occurred  on  the 
successive  creative  days.  (Ex.  20:8-11.)  Then  the  3rd  chapter  of  Moses  and  the  2nd  chapter  of  Genesis  - 
by  way  of  interpolation,  simplification,  and  parenthetical  explanation  -  recount  the  added  truth  that  all 
things  were  created  spiritually  "before  they  were  naturally  upon  the  face  of  the  earth." 

There  is  no  revealed  account  of  the  spirit  creation,  only  this  explanatory  interpolation  that  all  things 
had  been  created  in  heaven  at  a  previous  time.  That  this  prior  spirit  creation  occurred  long  before  the 
temporal  or  natural  creation  is  evident  from  the  fact  that  spirit  men,  men  who  themselves  were  before 
created  spiritually,  were  participating  in  the  natural  creation.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation  vol.  1,  pp.  72-78.) 

Creator 

(Creator  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CREATION,  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  WORD  OF  GOD. 

Both  the  Father  and  the  Son  bear  the  title.  Creator.  (Moses  1;  2;  3;  Teachings,  p.  190.)  The  creative 
work  itself  is  actually  done  by  the  Son,  as  he  is  directed  by  and  uses  the  power  of  the  Father.  Hence  the 
scriptures  speak  of  Christ  as  the  Creator  of  this  world  and  of  worlds  without  number.  (Moses  7:29;  John 
1:1-3;  Col.  1:16-17;  Heb.  1:1-3;  D.  &  C.  38:1-4;  76:22-24.)  In  his  creation  of  this  earth  he  was  assisted  by 
Michael  and  other  noble  and  great  spirits.  (Abra.  3:22-24.) 

Creeds 

(Creeds  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  APOSTLES  CREED,  ATHANASIAN  CREED,  NICENE  CREED. 

From  the  earliest  era  of  apostate  Christianity,  the  leaders  of  the  then  existing  church  -  no  longer 
finding  revelation  available  and  incapable  of  speaking  by  the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  so  as  to  have  the 
resultant  record  vouchsafed  as  authoritative  scripture  -  sought  other  ways  of  settling  religious  and 
philosophical  disputes  and  of  establishing  authoritative  doctrine.  By  the  4th  century  formal  documents 
called  creeds  had  been  fonnulated,  adopted  by  councils,  and  the  dogmas  expressed  in  them  imposed  upon 
the  church,  insofar  as  the  political  power  of  the  moment  was  able  to  enforce  such  an  imposition. 


122 


These  creeds  -  modified  and  changed  from  time  to  time  to  suit  the  whims  and  views  of  various 
emperors,  philosophers,  and  politically  powerfiil  segments  of  the  apostate  church  -  eventually  became  the 
accepted  standards  and  guides  in  religious  matters.  They  are  considered  authoritative  declarations  of 
belief  Numerous  versions  have  been  preserved  to  this  day  which  form  in  large  part  the  present  doctrinal 
foundation  upon  which  the  Catholic  and  protestant  churches  rest. 

The  most  charitable  thing  that  can  be  said  of  them  is  that  they  are  man  made.  Neither  their  authors,  the 
councils  which  adopted  them,  nor  those  who  presently  accept  them,  make  any  claim  that  revelation  or 
inspiration  was  present  in  their  foraiulation  and  promulgation,  although  attempts  are  made  to  show  that 
the  various  articles  in  them  confonn  to  the  teachings  of  the  scriptures. 

Actually  the  spirit  which  imposed  them  on  the  people  in  early  days  was  from  beneath.  Joseph  Smith, 
writing  by  way  of  inspiration  concerning  the  persecution,  tyranny,  and  oppression  imposed  upon  the  saints 
in  his  day  said  that  such  was  "supported  and  urged  on  and  upheld  by  the  influence  of  that  spirit  which  hath 
so  strongly  riveted  the  creeds  of  the  fathers,  who  have  inherited  lies,  upon  the  hearts  of  the  children,  and 
filled  the  world  with  confiision."  (D.  &  C.  123:7.) 

The  major  creeds,  in  large  measure,  deal  with  the  Godhead;  they  describe  the  members  of  that  holy 
trinity  as  being  three-in-one,  incomprehensible,  unknowable,  uncreated,  incorporeal,  and  without  body, 
parts,  or  passions.  Names  of  the  members  of  the  Godhead  are  applied  to  vague  forces  or  essences  that 
have  little  resemblance  to  the  tme  Beings  whom  men  are  commanded  to  worship. 

In  prophetic  vision  Jeremiah  foresaw  this  forsaking  of  the  tmth  about  God  and  recorded  that  those  in 
the  latter-days  who  would  return  to  the  truth  would  say:  "Surely  our  fathers  have  inherited  lies,  vanity,  and 
things  wherein  there  is  no  profit."  Then  he  summed  up  what  men  had  done  in  their  creeds  by  saying: 
"Shall  a  man  make  gods  unto  himself  and  they  are  no  gods?"  (Jer.  16:19-20.) 

When  the  Father  and  the  Son  appeared  to  Joseph  Smith  to  usher  in  the  dispensation  of  the  fiilness  of 
times,  the  young  prophet  asked  which  of  all  the  sects  was  right  and  which  he  should  join.  In  answer  he 
was  told  to  "join  none  of  them,  for  they  were  all  wrong;  and  the  personage  who  addressed  me,"  he 
explained,  "said  that  all  their  creeds  were  an  abomination  in  his  sight."  (Jos.  Smith  2:19.) 

"I  cannot  believe  in  any  of  the  creeds  of  the  different  denominations,"  the  prophet  once  said,  "though 
all  of  them  have  some  tmth.  I  want  to  come  up  into  the  presence  of  God,  and  leam  all  things;  but  the 
creeds  set  up  stakes,  and  say,  'Hitherto  shalt  thou  come,  and  no  fiirther,'  which  1  cannot  subscribe  to." 
(Teachings,  p.  327.)  Each  creed,  he  said  on  another  occasion,  "was  conceived  in  ignorance,  and  brought 
forth  in  folly  -  a  cobweb  of  yesterday!"  (Teachings,  p.  203.) 

Cremation 

(Cremation  ) 

See  DEATH,  FUNERALS,  GRAVES. 

Cremation  of  the  dead  is  no  part  of  the  gospel;  it  is  a  practice  which  has  been  avoided  by  the  saints  in 
all  ages.  The  Church  today  counsels  its  members  not  to  cremate  their  dead.  Such  a  procedure  would  find 
gospel  acceptance  only  under  the  most  extraordinary  and  unusual  circumstances.  Wherever  possible  the 
dead  should  be  consigned  to  the  earth,  and  nothing  should  be  done  that  is  destructive  of  the  body;  that 
should  be  left  to  nature,  "for  dust  thou  art,  and  unto  dust  shalt  thou  return."  (Gen.  3:19.) 

Crime 

(Crime  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Critics 

(Critics  ) 

See  HIGHER  CRITICISM. 

Cross 

(Cross  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CRUCIFIED  ONE,  CRUCIFIXION,  SIGN  OF  THE  CROSS. 


123 


1.  Among  the  Assyrians,  Persians,  Plioenicians  of  Carthage,  Egyptians,  Greeks,  and  Romans,  the  cross 
was  an  instrument  of  execution.  From  earliest  times  the  eventual  crucifixion  and  death  of  our  Lord  upon 
the  cross  was  revealed  to  holy  prophets.  (Moses  7:  55;  1  Ne.  11:33;  19:10-13;  2  Ne.  6:9;  10:3-7;  25:13; 
Mosiah  3:9:  15:7.)  The  gospel  authors  detail  many  of  the  events  and  circumstances  incident  thereto.  (Matt. 
26;  27;  28;  Mark  14;  15;  16;  Luke  22;  23;  24;  John  18;  19;  20;  21.)  And  after  his  resurrection,  our  Lord 
said  that  the  very  reason  he  came  into  the  world  was  to  fulfil  the  will  of  the  Father  in  being  lifted  up  upon 
the  cross.  (3  Ne.  27:13-15.) 

2.  Because  of  its  association  with  our  Lord,  the  cross  has  come  to  have  symbolic  meanings  for  those 
who  profess  belief  in  his  atoning  blood.  Paul  properly  used  the  cross  of  Christ  to  identify  to  the  mind  the 
whole  doctrine  of  the  atonement,  reconciliation,  and  redemption.  (1  Cor.  1:17-18;  Gal.  6:12-14;  Eph.  2:  8- 
21;  Philip.  2:5-9;  3:18;  CoL  1:20;  2:14;  Heb.  12:2.) 

In  succeeding  centuries,  the  churches  which  came  into  being  through  an  intenningling  of  pagan 
concepts  with  the  true  apostolic  Christianity  developed  the  practice  of  using  symbolic  crosses  in  the 
architecture  of  their  buildings  and  as  jewelry  attached  to  the  robes  of  their  priests.  Frequently  this  practice 
of  dwelling  on  the  personal  death  struggle  of  our  Lord  has  caused  these  churches  to  put  sculptured 
representations  of  Christ  on  their  crosses,  thus  forming  so  called  cmcifixes.  All  this  is  inliannonious  with 
the  quiet  spirit  of  worship  and  reverence  that  should  attend  a  true  Christian's  remembrance  of  our  Lord's 
sufferings  and  death.  In  fact,  the  revealed  symbolism  to  bring  these  things  to  the  attention  of  tme 
worshipers  is  found  in  the  ordinance  of  the  sacrament. 

3.  Growing  out  of  the  crucifixion  of  Christ  is  the  concept  that  any  great  affliction  or  trial  that  comes 
upon  the  saints  does  in  itself  constitute  a  cross  they  must  bear  as  part  of  their  obligation  to  overcome  the 
world.  Thus  the  saints  -  knowing  that  Christ  "for  the  joy  that  was  set  before  him  endured  the  cross, 
despising  the  shame,  and  is  set  down  at  the  right  hand  of  the  throne  of  God"  (Heb.  12:2)  -  are  themselves 
strengthened  to  withstand  all  trials  and  persecutions  which  come  upon  them  in  the  gospel  cause.  Such 
afflictions  or  trials  are  regarded  as  crosses  which  test  Christian  patience  or  virtue.  (2  Ne.  9:18;  Jac.  1:8.) 

4.  Similarly  the  gospel  cause  commands  every  man  to  take  up  his  cross  and  follow  him  who  carried  his 
own  cross  to  Golgotha.  That  is,  the  saints  are  to  carry  the  cross  of  service  and  consecration,  the  cross  of 
devotion  and  obedience.  "If  any  man  will  come  after  me,  let  him  deny  himself,  and  take  up  his  cross  and 
follow  me,"  our  Lord  said.  "And  now  for  a  man  to  take  up  his  cross,  is  to  deny  himself  all  ungodliness, 
and  every  worldly  lust  and  keep  my  commandments."  (Inspired  Version,  Matt.  16:25-26.) 

Cross  of  Christ 

(Cross  of  Christ  ) 
See  CROSS. 

Crowns 

(Crowns  ) 

See  EXALTATION,  KING,  KINGS,  PRIESTESSES,  PRIESTS,  THRONES. 

Those  who  gain  exaltation  in  the  highest  heaven  of  the  celestial  world  shall  wear  crowns.  Perhaps 
literal  crowns  may  be  worn  on  occasion  -  emblematic  of  their  victory  over  the  world  and  signifying  that 
they  rule  and  reign  as  kings  and  queens  in  the  eternal  house  of  Israel.  But  at  all  times  they  will  be 
"crowned  with  honor,  and  glory,  and  immortality,  and  eternal  life."  (D.  &  C.  75:5.) 

In  the  gospel  sense,  a  crown  is  the  sign  and  symbol  of  eternal  exaltation  and  dominion,  of  godhood  in 
the  kingdom  of  God.  Our  Lord  has  been  seen  in  vision  wearing  "a  golden  crown"  (Rev.  14:14;  6:2;  19: 12), 
and  those  sun'ounding  the  throne  of  Deity  have  been  seen  similarly  identified.  (Rev.  4:4,  10.)  Paul  speaks 
of  such  persons  as  having  "an  incorruptible"  crown  (1  Cor.  9:25)  and  as  inheriting  "a  crown  of 
righteousness"  (2  Tim.  4:8);  James  says  they  "shall  receive  the  crown  of  life,  which  the  Lord  hath 
promised  to  them  that  love  him"  (Jas.  1:12);  John  records  a  similar  affirmation  (Rev.  2:10);  and  Peter 
speaks  of  receiving  "a  crown  of  glory  that  fadeth  not  away."  (1  Pet.  5:4.)  The  crowns  so  spoken  of  are 
crowns  of  eternal  life  (D.  &  C.  66:12),  of  eternal  lives  (D.  &  C.  132:55),  of  celestial  glory.  (D.  &  C. 
101:65.) 


124 


By  keeping  the  commandments  and  enduring  in  righteousness  to  the  end  the  saints  overcome  the 
world  and  gain  crowns  of  glory  in  eternity.  Hence  the  counsel:  "Hold  that  fast  which  thou  hast,  that  no 
man  take  thy  crown. "  (Rev.  3:11.) 

Crucified  One 

(Crucified  One  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CROSS,  CRUCIFIXION. 

Clirist  is  the  Crucified  One  -  a  title  used  by  Christians  generally  when  they  desire  to  point  attention  to 
the  horrible  and  painful  death  by  crucifixion  which  he  suffered  on  the  cross. 

Crucifix 

(Crucifix  ) 
See  CROSS. 

Crucifixion 

(Crucifixion  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CROSS,  CRUCIFIED  ONE,  PASSION  OF  CHRIST. 

Few  if  any  fonns  of  execution  are  or  could  be  more  painfLil  and  agonizing  than  that  of  crucifixion  -  a 
fonn  of  taking  life  in  which  the  condemned  person  has  his  hands  and  feet  nailed  or  bound  to  a  cross  of 
execution,  after  which  he  is  left  to  suffer  inexpressible  pain  and  torture  until  the  spirit  finally  leaves  the 
mangled  and  broken  body.  When  crucified  persons  were  nailed  rather  than  bound  to  the  cross,  the  nails 
ordinarily  were  driven  through  the  feet  and  wrists  (or  both  hands  and  wrists)  so  that  the  weight  of  the  body 
could  be  sustained.  Our  Lord  was,  of  course,  nailed  rather  than  tied  to  the  cross.  (Isa.  22:21-25.) 

Crucifixion  was  the  fonn  of  death  chosen  from  the  beginning  for  Clirist,  that  in  his  death,  having 
descended  below  all  things,  he  might  in  his  resuiTection  ascend  above  all  things.  (D.  &  C.  88:6;  122:8; 
Eph.  4:9-10.)  Long  before  his  earthly  ministry,  holy  prophets  foresaw  his  crucifixion  on  the  cross.  (Moses 
7:  55;  1  Ne.  19: 10-13;  2  Ne.  6:9;  10:3-5;  25: 13;  Mosiah  3:9;  15:7.) 

After  his  resurrection  our  Lord  showed  his  disciples  in  Jerusalem  and  the  host  of  Nephite  Saints  on 
this  continent  the  nail  marks  in  his  hands  and  in  his  feet.  (Luke  24:36-43;  3  Ne.  1 1: 14-19.)  At  the  Second 
Coming  these  same  wounds  will  stand  as  a  witness  to  the  Jews  that  he  is  the  Cmcified  One,  their  King 
whom  they  rejected  in  the  meridian  of  time.  (D.  &  C.  45:51-52;  Zech.  12:  10;  13:6.) 


Cruelty 

(Cruelty  ) 

See  PERSECUTION. 

Crying 

(Crying  ) 
See  WEEPING. 

Crystal  Balls 

(Crystal  Balls  ) 
See  PEEP  STONES. 

Cults 

(Cults  ) 
See  SECTS. 


125 


Cumorah 

(Cumorah  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  MORMON,  GOLD  PLATES. 

Both  the  Nephite  and  Jaredite  civilizations  fought  their  final  great  wars  of  extinction  at  and  near  the 
Hill  Cumorah  (or  Ramah  as  the  Jaredites  termed  it),  which  hill  is  located  between  Palmyra  and 
Manchester  in  the  western  part  of  the  state  of  New  York.  It  was  here  that  Moroni  hid  up  the  gold  plates 
from  which  the  Book  of  Mormon  was  translated.  (Monn.  6;  Ether  15.)  Joseph  Smith,  Oliver  Cowdery,  and 
many  of  the  early  bretliren,  who  were  familiar  with  all  the  circumstances  attending  the  coming  forth  of  the 
Book  of  Monnon  in  this  dispensation,  have  left  us  pointed  testimony  as  to  the  identity  and  location  of 
Cumorah  or  Ramah.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  232-241.) 

Cursings 

(Cursings  ) 

See  ANATHEMA,  BLASPHEMY,  OATHS,  OBEDIENCE,  WOES. 

Just  as  obedience  and  righteousness  bring  blessings,  so  wickedness  and  rebellion  result  in  cursings.  (D. 
&  C.  104:1-8.)  "Instead  of  blessings,  ye,  by  your  own  works,  bring  cursings,  wrath,  indignation,  and 
judgments  upon  your  own  heads,  by  your  follies,  and  by  all  your  abominations,  which  you  practise  before 
me,  saith  the  Lord."  (D.  &  C.  124:48.)  As  Moses  explained  in  great  detail  to  ancient  Israel,  the  curses 
flowing  from  disobedience  pertain  to  both  temporal  and  spiritual  matters.  Famine,  pestilence,  plague, 
disease,  slavery,  poverty,  war,  and  death  are  all  sent  of  God  as  curses  upon  Israel  for  failure  to  keep  the 
commandments.  (Deut.  27;  28;  29;  30) 

Cursings  are  the  opposite  of  blessings,  and  the  greater  the  opportunity  given  a  people  to  earn  blessings, 
the  more  severe  will  be  the  cursings  heaped  upon  them,  if  they  do  not  measure  up  and  gain  the  proffered 
rewards.  Failure  to  pay  tithing,  for  instance,  brings  condemnation  upon  the  covenant  people,  whereas  the 
people  of  the  world  -  not  being  specifically  obligated  to  keep  this  law  -  do  not  suffer  the  same  penalties  for 
non-tithe  paying.  (Mai.  3:7-12.)  "Hearken  and  hear,  O  ye  my  people,  saith  the  Lord  and  your  God,  ye 
whom  I  delight  to  bless  with  the  greatest  of  all  blessings,  ye  that  hear  me;  and  ye  that  hear  me  not  will  I 
curse,  that  have  professed  my  named  with  the  heaviest  of  all  cursings."  (D.  &  C.  4 1 : 1 .) 

Those  who  persecute  the  saints  shall  be  cursed  with  the  damnation  of  hell.  (D.  &  C.  121:11-25.)  To 
those  on  his  left  hand  the  Lord  shall  say:  "Depart  from  me,  ye  cursed,  into  everlasting  fire,  prepared  for 
the  devil  and  his  angels."  (D.  &  C.  29:28,  41;  Matt.  25:40.) 

Cursings  as  well  as  blessings  may  be  administered  by  the  power  and  authority  of  the  priesthood  (D.  & 
C.  124:93),  but  the  Lord's  earthly  agents  are  sent  forth  primarily  to  bless  and  not  to  curse,  and  no  curse 
should  ever  be  decreed  except  by  direct  revelation  from  the  Lord  commanding  such  to  be  done.  The  tnie 
spirit  of  the  gospel  is  exemplified  in  the  counsel,  "Love  your  enemies,  bless  them  that  curse  you,  do  good 
to  them  that  hate  you,  and  pray  for  them  which  despitelully  use  you,  and  persecute  you."  (Matt.  5:44.) 
"Bless,  and  curse  not."  (Rom.  12:14.) 

President  Joseph  F.  Smith  explained,  when  speaking  of  the  priesthood:  "It  is  the  same  power  and 
priesthood  that  was  committed  to  the  disciples  of  Christ  while  he  was  upon  the  earth,  that  whatsoever  they 
should  bind  on  earth  should  be  bound  in  heaven,  and  that  whatsoever  they  should  loose  on  earth  should  be 
loosed  in  heaven,  and  whosoever  they  blessed  should  be  blessed,  and  if  they  cursed,  in  the  spirit  of 
righteousness  and  meekness  before  God,  God  would  confirm  that  curse;  but  men  are  not  called  upon  to 
curse  mankind;  that  is  not  our  mission;  it  is  our  mission  to  preach  righteousness  to  them.  It  is  our  business 
to  love  and  to  bless  them,  and  to  redeem  them  from  the  fall  and  from  the  wickedness  of  the  world.  This  is 
our  mission  and  our  special  calling.  God  will  curse  and  will  exercise  his  judgment  in  those  matters. 
'Vengeance  is  mine,'  saith  the  Lord,  and  'I  will  repay.'  (Rom.  12:19.)  We  are  perfectly  willing  to  leave 
vengeance  in  the  hands  of  God  and  let  him  judge  between  us  and  our  enemies,  and  let  him  reward  them 
according  to  his  own  wisdom  and  mercy."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  p.  140.) 

To  curse  in  unrighteousness  is  in  itself  a  serious  crime.  Tlirough  Moses  the  Lord  decreed:  "He  that 
curseth  his  father,  or  his  mother,  shall  surely  be  put  to  death."  (Ex.  21:17;  Lev.  20:9;  Prov.  20:20;  Matt. 
15:4;  Mark  7:10.) 


126 


(D  ) 

Damnation 

(Damnation  ) 

See  DEVIL,  ETERNAL  DAMNATION,  FIRE  AND  BRIMSTONE,  HELL,  KINGDOMS  OF 
GLORY,  RESURRECTION,  SALVATION,  SEM,  SONS  OF  PERDITION,  SPIRIT  PRISON, 
SPIRITUAL  DEATH,  UNPARDONABLE  SIN. 

The  opposite  of  salvation  is  damnation,  and  just  as  there  are  varying  degrees  and  kinds  of  salvation,  so 
there  are  degrees  and  kinds  of  damnation.  There  is  a  "greater  damnation"  (Matt.  23;  14)  and,  obviously,  a 
lesser  damnation.  Literally,  to  be  damned  is  to  be  condemned,  and  the  scriptures  speak  of  the  damned  as: 
1.  Those  who  are  thrust  down  to  hell  to  await  the  day  of  the  resurrection  of  damnation;  2.  Those  who  fail 
to  gain  an  inheritance  in  the  celestial  kingdom  or  kingdom  of  God;  3.  Those  who  become  sons  of 
perdition;  and  4.  Those  who  fail  to  gain  exaltation  in  the  highest  heaven  within  the  celestial  world,  even 
though  they  do  gain  a  celestial  mansion  in  one  of  the  lower  heavens  of  that  world. 

Accordingly,  we  find  the  Lord  saying  of  the  wicked  and  those  who  persecute  his  saints  that,  "a 
generation  of  vipers  shall  not  escape  the  damnation  of  hell."  (D.  &  C.  121:23;  Matt.  22:33.)  The 
disobedient  are  damned  (D.  &  C.  42:60;  Hela.  12:26;  3  Ne.  26:5);  likewise  those  who  reject  Christ  (D.  & 
C.  49:5);  those  who  do  not  believe  the  gospel  (D.  &  C.  68:9;  Mark  16:16);  those  who,  having  believed,  are 
not  baptized  (D.  &  C.  84:74;  1 12:29);  and  those  who  having  been  baptized  do  not  endure  in  faith  unto  the 
end.  "If  they  will  not  repent  and  believe  in  his  name,  and  be  baptized  in  his  name,  and  endure  to  the  end, 
they  must  be  damned;  for  the  Lord  God,  the  Holy  One  of  Israel,  has  spoken  it."  (2  Ne.  9:24.)  Believers  in 


127 


the  doctrines  of  modem  Christendom  will  reap  damnation  to  their  souls  (Morm.  8;  Moro.  8),  as  will  also 
members  of  the  Church  who  partake  unwoilhily  of  the  sacrament.  (3  Ne.  18:28-29;  1  Cor.  11:  29.)  The 
rejection  of  any  covenant,  the  gospel,  celestial  maiTiage,  or  any  other,  assures  the  rebellious  person  of 
damnation.  (D.  &  C.  132:  4,  6,  27.) 

It  is  very  evident  that  church  membership  alone  will  not  keep  an  individual  from  one  degree  of 
damnation  or  another.  It  was  of  his  saints,  members  of  his  kingdom  or  Church  on  earth,  that  the  Lord  said: 
"Behold,  it  is  not  meet  that  I  should  command  in  all  things;  for  he  that  is  compelled  in  all  things,  the  same 
is  a  slothfiil  and  not  a  wise  servant;  wherefore  he  receiveth  no  reward.  Verily  I  say,  men  should  be 
anxiously  engaged  in  a  good  cause,  and  do  many  things  of  their  own  free  will,  and  bring  to  pass  much 
righteousness,  for  the  power  is  in  them,  wherein  they  are  agents  unto  themselves.  And  inasmuch  as  men 
do  good  they  shall  in  nowise  lose  their  reward.  But  he  that  doeth  not  anything  until  he  is  commanded,  and 
receiveth  a  commandment  with  doubtful  heai1,  and  keepeth  it  with  slothfiilness,  the  same  is  dainned."  (D. 
&C.  58:26-29.) 

Dancing 

(Dancing  ) 

See  MUTUAL  IMPROVEMENT  ASSOCIATIONS,  RECREATION. 

Two  extreme  and  opposite  views  are  held  by  people  of  the  world  with  reference  to  dancing.  In  some 
sects  of  Christendom  even  the  most  circumspect  and  wholesome  dancing  is  banned  as  immoral  and 
ungodly;  in  other  circles,  dancing  is  so  twisted  and  perverted  as  to  make  it  a  vulgar  caricature  of  the 
wholesome  recreational  pursuit  that  should  result  from  friendly  association  between  the  sexes. 

Under  proper  circumstances  and  supervision  dancing  is  a  wholesome,  edifying,  and  clean  amusement 
having  the  specific  approval  of  the  Lord.  By  the  mouth  of  Brigham  Young  the  Lord  revealed:  "If  thou  ai1 
merry,  praise  the  Lord  with  singing,  with  music,  with  dancing,  and  with  a  prayer  of  praise  and 
thanksgiving."  (D.  &  C.  136:28.)  "To  every  thing  there  is  a  season,  and  a  time  to  every  purpose  under  the 
heaven:  ...  A  time  to  weep,  and  a  time  to  laugh;  a  time  to  mourn,  and  a  time  to  dance."  (Eccles.  3:1-8.) 

Dances  should  be  properly  conducted,  supervised,  and  chaperoned.  Church  standards  of  dress  and 
conduct  must  prevail.  It  is  unwise  to  dance  a  whole  evening  (or  a  major  part  of  it)  with  the  same  person. 
Dating  by  the  very  young  and  immature  is  discouraged.  Attendance  at  public  dances  as  distinguished  from 
those  sponsored  by  the  Church,  schools,  or  other  private  organizations  often  lead  to  disastrous 
consequence.  Prolonging  dances  past  midnight  when  the  next  day  is  the  Sabbath  or  to  the  early  hours  of 
the  morning  on  any  day  should  not  be  pennitted.  Tobacco  and  liquor  have  no  place  at  a  proper  dance. 
Church  dances  should  be  opened  and  closed  with  prayer. 

Dark  Ages 

(Dark  Ages  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL,  DARKNESS. 

That  period  of  about  1000  years  which  lasted  from  the  fall  of  the  Roman  Empire  to  the  age  of  the 
Renaissance  is  called  the  Dark  Ages.  During  this  near-millennium  the  light  of  learning  and  truth  almost 
went  out.  Progress  was  nil.  Men  and  nations  sank  into  illiteracy  and  ignorance. 

Why  should  such  universal  retrogression  take  place?  Historians  struggle  without  success  to  find  an 
explanation.  Plainly  and  simply  put,  the  fact  is  that  the  pall  of  darkness  that  overcast  the  earth  during  all 
those  years  was  part  of  the  great  apostasy  from  the  truth.  The  gospel  brings  light  and  truth,  fosters 
learning,  encourages  education,  promises  scientific  research,  grants  freedom  of  thought  and  word  -  all  for 
the  very  reason  that  the  gospel  is  true  and  has  nothing  to  fear  either  from  eiTor  or  from  any  new  truth  that 
may  be  learned  or  discovered.  But  when  churches,  governments,  or  organizations  of  any  nature  come  into 
power,  which  are  founded  on  falsehood  and  error  rather  than  on  truth,  such  organizations  must  impose 
restraints  upon  learning  and  education,  otherwise  men  might  become  enlightened  and  end  up  throwing  off 
their  shackles. 

The  hold  of  Lucifer  is  always  more  secure  when  truth  and  light  are  rejected,  when  men  forget  how  to 
read  and  write,  and  when  they  can  be  held  in  bondage  to  those  who  practice  priestcrafts.  It  was  not  until 
the  age  of  the  Renaissance  that  light,  truth,  and  learning  again  began  to  prevail  on  earth  (Progress  of  Man, 
pp.  178-195.) 


128 


Darkness 

(Darkness  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  DARK  AGES,  DEVIL,  LIGHT,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST, 

In  the  gospel  sense,  darkness  -  the  opposite  of  light  -  reigns  where  there  is  ignorance,  iniquity,  and 
apostasy.  Light  is  of  God,  darkness  of  the  devil;  Christ  is  the  true  light,  Lucifer  the  fountain  of  gross 
darkness  and  apostasy.  "I  am  the  light  which  shineth  in  darkness,  and  the  darkness  comprehendeth  it  not," 
our  Lord  said.  (D.  &  C.  6:21;  John  1:5.)  "God  is  light,  and  in  him  is  no  darkness  at  all."  (I  John  1:5.) 

Where  the  true  gospel  of  Clii'ist  is,  there  is  light;  and  where  that  gospel  is  not  found,  darkness  reigns. 
"The  whole  world  lieth  in  sin,  and  groaneth  under  darkness  and  under  the  bondage  of  sin, .  .  .  because  they 
come  not  unto  me,"  the  Lord  said.  (D.  &  C.  84:49-54.)  "Darkness  covereth  the  earth,  and  gross  darkness 
the  minds  of  the  people,"  (D.  &  C.  1 12:23.)  The  kingdom  of  the  devil  is  "fall  of  darkness,"  (Rev.  16:  10.) 
And  men  "love  darkness  rather  than  light,  because  their  deeds  are  evil."  (D.  &  C.  10:21;  John  3:19.)  But 
when  men  repent  and  heed  the  call  of  Christ,  they  thereby  come  out  of  darkness  into  his  mareelous  light." 
(I  Pet.  2:9;  1  Thess.  5:4;  1  John  2:9.) 

By  following  Christ  men  have  power  to  chase  darkness  from  their  midst  and  to  come  to  the  falness  of 
the  light,  (D.  &  C.  50:23-29.)  "I  am  the  light  of  the  World:  he  that  foUoweth  me  shall  not  walk  in 
darkness,  but  shall  have  the  light  of  life."  (John  8:12.)  "Yet  a  little  while  is  the  light  with  you.  Walk  while 
ye  have  the  light,  lest  darkness  come  upon  you:  for  he  that  walketh  in  darkness  knoweth  not  whither  he 
goeth.  I  am  come  a  light  into  the  world,  that  whosoever  believeth  on  me  should  not  abide  in  darkness." 
(John  12:35,  46.) 

If  after  receiving  the  truth,  men  then  apostatize  and  tarn  to  unrighteousness,  the  darkness  that 
envelopes  them  is  deeper  than  it  was  before  they  came  into  the  light.  If  "the  light  that  is  in  thee  be 
darkness!"  (Matt.  6:22-23;  Luke  11:33-36;  D.  &  C.  88:67.)  Similarly,  though  they  do  not  apostatize,  the 
saints  who  do  not  magnify  their  callings  "are  walking  in  darkness  at  noon-day."  Further:  "If  you  keep  not 
my  commandments,  the  love  of  the  Father  shall  not  continue  with  you,  therefore  you  shall  walk  in 
darkness."  (D.  &  C.  95:6,  12.) 

Daughters  of  God 

(Daughters  of  God  ) 

See  ADOPTION,  CELESTLAL  MARRLA.GE,  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  EXALTATION, 
FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER,  GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  PRE-EXISTENCE, 
SALVATION,  SERVANTS  OF  GOD,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

All  women  are  the  daughters  of  God  because  of  their  pre-existent  birth  as  female  spirits.  However,  the 
designation  daughters  of  God  as  used  in  the  revelations,  has  a  far  more  pointed  meaning  than  this.  Just  as 
men  who  pursue  a  steadfast  course  toward  exaltation  become  the  sons  of  God  while  in  this  life,  so  women 
who  walk  hand-in-hand  in  obedience  with  them  become  the  daughters  of  God.  (D.  &  C.  25:1;  76:24; 
Mosiah  5:7.) 

The  temple  ordinances,  including  celestial  marriage,  precede  attainment  of  that  membership  in  the 
household  of  God  which  makes  one  a  daughter.  Those  who  are  adopted  as  daughters  in  this  life  will,  if 
they  continue  faithfal,  gain  exaltation  in  the  world  to  come.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  64-65.) 

Day 

(Day  ) 

See  CREATION,  LAST  DAY,  LAST  DAYS,  NIGHT,  SABBATH,  SEASONS,  TIME. 

1.  One  period  of  the  earth's  revolution  on  its  axis  (24  hours)  is  called  a  day.  (Gen.  7:24.)  Hebrew  days 
were  calculated  "from  even  unto  even"  (Lev.  23:32),  meaning  from  sunset  to  sunset.  The  Lord's  day  is  the 
first  day  of  the  week.  (D.  &  C.  59:9-14.) 

2.  That  period  between  dawn  and  dark  is  the  day  as  distinguished  from  the  night.  (Gen.  8:22;  Ps.  19: 
2.)  "Are  there  not  twelve  hours  in  the  day?"  (John  1 1:9.) 


129 


3.  A  day  is  a  specified  age,  time,  or  period.  (Job  19:25.)  "Now  is  the  time  and  the  day  of  your 
salvation.  .  .  .  For  behold,  this  life  is  the  time  for  men  to  prepare  to  meet  God."  (Alma  34:31-32.)  We  are 
fast  approaching  "the  day  when  the  Lord  shall  come."  (D.  &  C.  1:10.) 

4.  The  Mosaic  and  Abrahamic  accounts  of  the  creation  recite  that  this  earth  was  created  in  six  days  and 
that  on  the  7th  the  Lord  rested.  (Gen.  1;  2;  Moses  2;  3;  Abra.  4;  5.)  Several  revelations  throw  light  upon 
the  meaning  of  the  term  day  as  it  is  used  in  connection  with  the  Lord's  great  creative  enterprises.  The  Lord 
told  Abraham,  "by  the  Urim  and  Thummim,  that  Kolob  was  after  the  manner  of  the  Lord,  according  to  its 
times  and  seasons  in  the  revolutions  thereof:  that  one  revolution  was  a  day  unto  the  Lord,  after  his  manner 
of  reckoning,  it  being  one  thousand  years  according  to  the  time  appointed  unto  that  whereon  thou  standest. 
This  is  the  reckoning  of  the  Lords  time,  according  to  the  reckoning  of  Kolob."  (Abra.  3:4.) 

Following  this  revealed  definition  of  a  day  unto  the  Lord,  Abraham  recorded  the  events  of  the 
successive  days  of  the  creation  of  the  earth.  Then  he  wrote:  "Now  I,  Abraham,  saw  that  it  was  after  the 
Lord's  time,  which  was  after  the  time  of  Kolob;  for  as  yet  the  Gods  had  not  appointed  unto  Adam  his 
reckoning."  (Abra.  5:13.)  Thus  the  celestial  day  (which  was  used  in  the  creation)  was  1000  years  in  length 
measured  in  terms  of  time  as  it  is  reckoned  on  this  earth.  This  accords  with  Peter's  recitation  that  "one  day 
is  with  the  Lord  as  a  thousand  years,  and  a  thousand  years  as  one  day"  (2  Pet.  3:8),  and  also  with  revealed 
time-periods  as  these  have  been  made  known  through  Joseph  Smith.  (D.  &  C.  77.) 

5.  That  period  of  time  between  the  loss  of  the  true  Church  in  the  early  part  of  the  Christian  Era  and  its 
restoration  in  modem  times  is  scripturally  measured  in  what  have  been  termed  prophetic  days.  Jolin 
specified  that  this  period  of  prolonged  apostate  darkness  would  prevail  for  1260  days  (Rev.  12:6),  that  is 
for  42  months  (Rev.  13:5),  or  in  other  words  "for  a  time,  and  times,  and  half  a  time."  (Rev.  12:14;  Dan. 
7:25.)  Obviously  these  1260  days  ended  when  the  Church  was  restored  in  the  latter-days.  Interesting 
attempts  have  been  made  by  some  scholars  to  identify  the  exact  period  covered  by  these  42  months.  (J.  M. 
Sjodahl  The  Reign  of  Antichrist,  pp.  70-71.) 


Day  of  Burning 

(Day  of  Burning  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 


Day  of  Indignation 

(Day  of  Indignation  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 


Day  of  Judgment 

(Day  of  Judgment  ) 
See  JUDGMENT  DAY. 

Day  of  Pentecost 

(Day  of  Pentecost  ) 

See  EASTER,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST,  HOLY  GHOST,  PASSOVER,  TONGUES. 

In  ancient  Israel  "the  feast  of  weeks"  (Ex.  34:22;  Deut.  16:10)  or  "the  feast  of  haivest"  (Ex.  23:16),  or 
"the  day  of  the  firstfruits"  (Num.  28:26),  was  celebrated  50  days  after  the  Passover.  This  occasion,  from 
the  Greek  word  Pentekoste  (meaning  50th)  was  known  as  the  day  of  Pentecost.  It  was  on  this  day  of 
Jewish  celebration,  in  the  year  our  Lord  was  resurrected,  that  the  promised  endowment  of  the  Holy  Spirit 
was  first  enjoyed  in  the  Cliristian  Era.  Some  sects  of  Christendom  observe  Pentecost  or  Whitsuntide  as  a 
solemn  feast  seven  weeks  or  50  days  after  Easter,  counting  both  Easter  and  Pentecost  in  the  50. 

During  his  mortal  ministry  our  Lord  gave  his  disciples  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  which  is  the  right  to 
the  constant  companionship  of  that  member  of  the  Godhead  based  on  faithfulness.  (John  20:22.)  But  as 
long  as  Jesus  was  with  them,  the  actual  enjoyment  of  the  gift  was  witliheld.  (John  7:39;  14:26;  15:26-27; 


130 


16:7-15;  Acts  1:8.)  Fulfilment  of  the  promise  came  on  the  day  of  Pentecost;  with  miraculous  majesty 
attending,  the  gift  of  tongues  and  of  interpretation  was  poured  out  upon  a  great  multitude  and  many 
conversions  were  made.  (Acts  2:1-17.) 

This  occasion  is  falsely  considered  by  the  sectarian  world  generally  to  be  the  beginning  of  the 
Christian  Church.  In  reality  the  Church  had  existed  in  previous  dispensations,  but  even  as  pertaining  to  the 
meridian  of  time,  the  Church  had  been  an  organized  and  formal  body  during  the  lifetime  of  the  Master. 

Pentecostal  outpourings  of  the  Spirit  have  occurred  many  times  in  many  dispensations.  One  of  these 
great  latter-day  Pentecostal  periods  was  in  connection  with  the  dedication  of  the  Kirtland  Temple.  For  a 
period  of  weeks,  the  visions  of  eternity  were  opened  to  many,  angels  visited  in  the  congregations  of  the 
saints,  the  Lord  himself  was  seen  by  many,  and  tongues  and  prophecy  were  multiplied.  (History  of  the 
Church,  vol.  2,  pp.  379-436.)  On  Sunday,  March  27,  1836,  in  the  dedicatory  service  itself,  an  almost  exact 
repetition  of  the  events  of  the  New  Testament  day  of  Pentecost  took  place.  "Brother  George  A.  Smith 
arose  and  began  to  prophesy,"  the  prophet  recorded,  "when  a  noise  was  heard  like  the  sound  of  a  mshing 
mighty  wind,  which  filled  the  Temple,  and  all  the  congregation  simultaneously  arose,  being  moved  upon 
by  an  invisible  power;  many  began  to  speak  in  tongues  and  prophesy;  others  saw  glorious  visions;  and  I 
beheld  the  Temple  was  filled  with  angels,  which  fact  1  declared  to  the  congregation.  The  people  of  the 
neighborhood  came  running  together  (hearing  an  unusual  sound  within,  and  seeing  a  bright  light  like  a 
pillar  of  fire  resting  upon  the  Temple),  and  were  astonished  at  what  was  taking  place."  (History  of  the 
Church,  vol.  2,  p.  428.) 

Day  of  Redemption 

(Day  of  Redemption  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Day  of  Rest 

(Day  of  Rest  ) 
See  SABBATH. 

Day  of  the  Lord 

(Day  of  the  Lord  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Day  of  Transfiguration 

(Day  of  Transfiguration  ) 
See  TIMES  OF  REFRESHING. 

Day  of  Vengeance 

(Day  of  Vengeance  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Day  of  Visitation 

(Day  of  Visitation  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Day  of  Wrath 

(Day  of  Wrath  ) 

See  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Deaconesses 

(Deaconesses  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  DEACONS. 


131 


In  some  branches  of  modem  Christendom  a  woman  who  is  chosen  or  assigned  to  assist  in  church  work 
is  called  a  deaconess.  In  reality  there  is  no  such  office  either  in  the  priesthood  or  in  the  Church,  and  the 
designation  is  not  so  much  as  found  in  the  scriptures.  Its  usage  by  some  Christian  churches  of  the  day  is  on 
of  the  evidences  of  the  great  apostasy. 

Deacons 

(Deacons  ) 

See  AARONIC  PRIESTHOOD,  DEACONESSES,  LEVITES,  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIESTHOOD 
OFFICES,  PRIESTHOOD  QUORUMS,  QUORUM  PRESIDENTS. 

One  of  the  ordained  offices  in  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  is  that  of  a  deacon.  (D.  &  C.  20:60.)  This  office, 
the  lowest  in  the  priesthood  hierarchy  (D.  &  C.  88: 127),  is  an  appendage  to  the  lesser  priesthood.  (D.  &  C. 
84:30.)  Deacons  are  "appointed  to  watch  over  the  church,  to  be  standing  ministers  unto  the  church."  (D.  & 
C.  84:1 1 1.)  They  are  to  assist  the  teachers  in  all  their  duties  (which  includes  home  teaching),  and  are  "to 
warn,  expound,  exhort,  and  teach,  and  invite  all  to  come  unto  Christ,"  although  they  can  neither  "baptize, 
administer  the  sacrament,  or  lay  on  hands."  (D.  &  C.  20:57-60.)  Among  other  things,  it  is  the  practice  of 
the  Church  to  assign  them  to  pass  the  sacrament,  perform  messenger  service,  act  as  ushers,  keep  church 
facilities  in  good  repair,  go  home  teaching,  and  perform  special  assignments  at  the  direction  of  the 
bishopric.  Many  of  their  assigned  functions  are  comparable  to  those  perforaied  by  the  Levites  of  old. 
(Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  1 11-1 14.) 

It  is  the  practice  of  the  Church  in  this  dispensation  -  a  practice  dictated  by  the  needs  of  the  present  day 
ministry  and  confirmed  by  the  inspiration  of  the  Spirit  resting  upon  those  who  hold  the  keys  of  the 
kingdom  -  to  confer  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  upon  worthy  young  men  who  are  12  years  of  age  and  to 
ordain  them  to  the  office  of  a  deacon  in  that  priesthood.  Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  this  is  the  lowest 
priesthood  office,  it  is  yet  a  high  and  holy  one  in  God's  kingdom.  In  the  meridian  of  time  the  needs  of  the 
ministry  were  such  that  adult  brethi'en  were  ordained  deacons. 

"The  deacons,"  Paul  wrote,  must  "be  grave,  not  doubletongued,  not  given  to  much  wine,  not  greedy  of 
filthy  lucre;  Holding  the  mystery  of  the  faith  in  a  pure  conscience.  And  let  these  also  first  be  proved;  then 
let  them  use  the  office  of  a  deacon,  being  found  blameless.  Even  so  must  their  wives  be  grave,  not 
slanderers,  sober,  faithfiil  in  all  things.  Let  the  deacons  be  the  husbands  of  one  wife,  ruling  their  children 
and  their  own  houses  well.  For  they  that  have  used  the  office  of  a  deacon  well  purchase  to  themselves  a 
good  degree,  and  great  boldness  in  the  faith  which  is  in  Christ  Jesus."  (1  Tim.  3:8-13.) 

Dead  Works 

(Dead  Works  ) 

See  GOOD  WORKS,  SALVATION. 

Dead  works  are  those  unauthorized  religious  acts  which  men  do  in  the  false  hope  of  gaining  salvation 
through  their  performance.  They  are  works  without  life,  works  which  never  gain  the  ratifying  seal  of 
approval  from  the  Spirit  and  which  do  not  lead  to  eternal  life.  They  are  not  of  God.  All  apostate 
ordinances  and  performances  are  of  this  sort. 

After  the  law  given  to  Moses  was  fiilfilled  in  Christ,  every  ordinance  or  ritual  imitative  of  what  legal 
administrators  had  done  in  righteousness  when  the  law  was  in  force  became  a  dead  work.  Ordinances  - 
such  as  baptism  (though  it  may  imitate  the  true  mode,  immersion)  -  are  dead  works  when  performed  by 
sectarian  churches.  (D.  &  C.  22.)  Believing  in  and  relying  on  infant  baptism  is  "putting  trust  in  dead 
works."  (Moro.  8:23.)  The  religious  performances  of  those  outside  the  true  Church  of  Christ  are  dead 
works,  from  which  they  are  commanded  to  repent.  (Heb.  6: 1;  9:14.) 

Deafness 

(Deafness  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  SPIRITUALITY. 

Spiritual  deafness  describes  the  state  of  those  who  are  lacking  in  spirituality,  whose  spirit  ears  are  not 
attuned  to  the  whisperings  of  the  still  small  voice  of  the  Spirit.  Similarly,  spiritual  blindness  is  the 


132 


identifying  mark  whicli  singles  out  those  who  are  unable  to  see  the  hand  of  God  manifest  in  the  affairs  of 
men.  Such  have  "unbelief  and  blindness  of  heart"  (D.&  C.  58:15);  they  are  "hard  in  their  hearts,  and  blind 
in  their  minds."  (3  Ne.  2: 1.) 

Of  the  unbelieving  Jews  our  Lord  said,  "They  seeing  see  not;  and  hearing  they  hear  not,  neither  do 
they  understand....  For  this  people's  heart  is  waxed  gross,  and  their  ears  are  dull  of  hearing,  and  their  eyes 
they  have  closed;  lest  at  any  time  they  should  see  with  their  eyes,  and  hear  with  their  ears,  and  should 
understand  with  their  heart,  and  should  be  converted,  and  I  should  heal  them."  (Matt.  13:10-17.)  "And  wo 
unto  the  deaf  that  will  not  hear;  for  they  shall  perish.  Wo  unto  the  blind  that  will  not  see;  for  they  shall 
perish  also."  (2  Ne.  9:31-32.) 

The  gathering  of  Israel  in  the  last  days  shall  consist  in  bringing  together  "the  blind  people  that  have 
eyes,  and  the  deaf  that  have  ears,"  that  is,  the  spiritually  blind  and  deaf  shall  come  to  a  knowledge  of  the 
things  of  God  and  they  shall  see  and  hear.  (Isa.  43.)  In  large  pai1  the  opening  of  the  eyes  of  the  blind  and 
the  unstopping  of  the  ears  of  the  deaf  shall  take  place  by  means  of  the  Book  of  Monnon.  "And  in  that  day 
shall  the  deaf  hear  the  words  of  the  book,  and  the  eyes  of  the  blind  shall  see  out  of  obscurity,  and  out  of 
darkness."  (Isa.  29:18.) 

Death 

(Death  ) 

See  ANNIHILATION,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  FUNERALS, 
MILLENNIUM,  MORTALITY,  MOURNING,  RESURRECTION,  SPIRITUAL  DEATH, 
TRANSLATED  BEINGS. 

There  is  no  such  thing  as  death  in  the  sense  of  annihilation,  in  the  sense  that  matter  ceases  to  exist  or 
that  living  things  cease  to  have  a  conscious  identity.  Death  is  merely  a  change  from  one  status  or  sphere  of 
existence  to  another.  In  a  sense  the  spirit  children  of  God  die  (as  peilaining  to  their  life  in  the  presence  of 
the  Father)  when  the  transition  from  the  pre-existent  sphere  to  this  life  is  made.  That  is,  they  die  as 
pertaining  to  their  pre-mortal  life,  but  they  are  bom  as  pertaining  to  mortality. 

When  the  scriptures  speak  of  death,  however,  they  ordinarily  mean  the  natural  or  temporal  death.  (D. 
&  C.  29:42-43;  Alma  11:  42;  12:16,  24;  42:8;  Morm.  9:13.)  This  death  consists  in  the  separation  of  the 
eternal  spirit  from  the  mortal  body  so  that  the  body  is  left  to  go  back  to  the  dust  or  element  from  which  it 
was  created  (meaning  organized),  and  the  spirit  is  left  to  sojourn  in  a  world  of  waiting  spirits  imtil  the  day 
of  the  resun-ection.  (Rev.  20:13;  2  Ne.  9:10-15.) 

In  the  case  of  translated  beings  and  the  righteous  persons  who  shall  live  during  the  millennial  era, 
death  and  the  resurrection  shall  take  place  instantaneously.  They  shall  be  changed  from  mortality  to 
immortality  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  the  spirit  never  having  occasion  to  separate  from  the  body,  and  in 
their  cases  this  change  is  called  death.  (D.  &  C.  63:49-52;  3  Ne.  28.)  But  it  is  not  death  according  to  the 
most  common  usage  of  the  word.  (D.  &  C.  101:29-31;  Isa.  65:20.) 

"Death  hath  passed  upon  all  men,  to  fulfil  the  merciful  plan  of  the  great  Creator."  (2  Ne.  9:6.)  It  is  one 
of  the  most  important  and  desirable  events  that  can  transpire  in  the  eternal  existence  of  the  spirit  offspring 
of  Him  who  ordained  the  great  plan  of  mercy  of  which  it  is  a  part.  It  is  just  as  important  to  die  as  to  be 
bom,  for  the  spirit  to  leave  the  body  as  for  it  to  enter  that  same  body.  Mortality  is  a  necessary  prelude  to 
immortality;  it  is  by  passing  the  test  of  this  life  that  men  obtain  eternal  life  in  the  world  to  come.  If  there 
had  been  no  creation,  there  could  have  been  no  fall.  If  there  had  been  no  fall,  there  could  have  been  no 
birth  into  mortality.  If  there  were  no  mortality,  there  would  be  no  death.  And  without  death  there  would  be 
no  resurtection,  and  hence  no  immortality  or  eternal  life.  Thus  to  do  away  with  death  would  fmstrate  the 
whole  plan  of  redemption.  (2  Ne.  9:6-16.) 

Death  began,  as  far  as  this  earth  is  concerned,  after  and  as  a  result  of  the  fall  of  Adam.  There  was  no 
death  for  man  or  for  any  form  of  life  until  after  Adam  transgressed.  (2  Ne.  2:22;  Doctrines  of  Salvation, 
vol.  1,  pp.  107-120.)  Death  will  cease,  as  far  as  this  earth  is  concerned,  when  every  person  and  created 
thing  has  been  raised  in  immortality  and  when  the  earth  itself  has  become  an  immortal  sphere.  (D.  &  C. 
29:22-29;  77:1-3;  88:16-32;  130:9.) 

By  faith  the  dead  are  sometimes  raised,  meaning  that  the  spirit  is  called  back  to  inliabit  again  the 
mortal  body.  (3  Ne.  7:19;  19:4;  4  Ne.  5;  1  Kings  17:17-23;  Matt.  9:  8-26;  Mark  5:21-43;  Luke  7:11-17,  2; 
8:41-56;  John  11:1-46;  Acts  9:  6-43;  20:9-12.)  Such  persons  pass  through  the  natural  or  temporal  death 


133 


twice.  In  due  course,  also,  all  men  will  be  raised  from  the  dead  and  live  in  an  immortal  state.  (Alma  11:41; 
12:8.) 

There  is  no  fear  of  death  in  the  hearts  of  the  righteous.  True,  they  properly  seek  to  live  as  long  as  the 
Lord  will  pennit  them  so  to  do,  when  the  time  of  departure  comes  they  go  in  peace.  But  with  the  wicked  it 
is  not  so,  for  "the  sting  of  death  is  sin."  (1  Cor.  15:56.)  "Those  that  die  in  me  shall  not  taste  of  death,"  the 
Lord  says,  "for  it  shall  be  sweet  unto  them;  And  they  that  die  not  in  me,  wo  unto  them,  for  their  death  is 
bitter."  (D.  &  C.  42:46-47;  Alma  40:23-26.) 

Debates 

(Debates  ) 

See  CONTENTION. 

Except  under  very  unusual  circumstances,  debates  play  no  part  in  the  approved  system  of  presenting 
the  message  of  salvation  to  the  world  or  of  persuading  members  of  the  Church  to  accept  a  particular 
doctrine  or  view.  Almost  always  a  debate  entrenches  each  contestant  and  his  sympathizers  more  firaily  in 
the  views  already  held.  "Debates,  envyings,  wraths,  strifes,  backbitings,  whisperings,  swellings,  tumults"  - 
all  these  Paul  describes  as  evil.  (2  Cor.  12:20;  Rom.  1:29.) 

Rather,  the  Lord  has  directed,  the  elders  are  to  "declare  glad  tidings,"  that  is,  explain,  expound,  and 
teach  the  message  of  the  restoration.  "And  thou  shalt  do  it  with  all  humility,"  he  directs,  "trusting  in  me, 
reviling  not  against  revilers.  And  of  tenets  thou  shalt  not  talk."  (D.  &  C.  19:29-31.)  There  are  to  be  no 
arguments  about  peculiar  doctrinal  concepts  that  people  may  have;  the  elders  are  simply  to  explain  their 
message  and  bear  testimony  of  its  truthfulness. 

If  a  situation  arises  in  which  the  elders  cannot  in  honor  refuse  a  challenge  to  debate  an  issue,  as  when 
by  withdrawing  from  the  discussion  they  would  lose  their  investigators,  then  it  may  be  proper  to  go  ahead 
and  engage  in  the  debate  or  discussion,  hi  such  instances,  if  the  elders  are  as  informed  as  they  should  be, 
they  always  come  off  victorious.  The  truth  is  with  the  saints,  and  truth  will  stand  of  its  own  self. 

Debt 

(Debt  ) 

See  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  USURY. 

1 .  Speaking  of  the  eternal  plan  of  salvation,  all  men  are  and  ever  will  be  indebted  to  Christ  for  all  that 
they  have  and  are.  As  King  Benjamin  said:  "In  the  first  place,  he  hath  created  you,  and  granted  unto  you 
your  lives,  for  which  ye  are  indebted  unto  him.  And  secondly,  he  doth  require  that  ye  should  do  as  he  hath 
commanded  you;  for  which  if  ye  do,  he  doth  immediately  bless  you;  and  there  fore  he  hath  paid  you.  And 
ye  are  still  indebted  unto  him,  and  are  and  will  be,  forever  and  ever."  (Mosiah  2:23-24.) 

In  lesser  degrees,  men  are  indebted  for  various  great  blessings  to  their  parents,  to  the  church  officers 
who  serve  them,  to  the  missionaries  who  brought  them  the  gospel,  to  friends  who  succor  them  in  time  of 
need,  to  the  martyrs  of  freedom,  and  to  all  those  who  have  poured  out  their  strength  and  energy  in  marking 
this  wicked  world  a  better  place  in  which  to  live. 

2.  Speaking  of  financial  indebtedness  to  other  men,  the  standing  counsel  of  the  Church  is  that  the 
saints,  ever  and  always,  should  seek  to  be  free  from  debt. 

Financially  indebted  persons  usually  are  yoked  down  with  the  burden  of  interest  payments.  President 
J.  Reuben  Clark,  Jr.,  said  in  a  General  Conference  of  the  Church:  "Interest  never  sleeps  nor  sickens  nor 
dies;  it  never  goes  to  the  hospital;  it  works  on  Sundays  and  holidays;  it  never  takes  a  vacation;  it  never 
visits  nor  travels;  it  takes  no  pleasure;  it  is  never  laid  off  work  nor  discharged  from  employment;  it  never 
works  on  reduced  hours;  it  never  has  short  crops  nor  droughts;  it  never  pays  taxes;  it  buys  no  food;  it 
wears  no  clothes;  it  is  unhoused  and  without  home  and  so  has  no  repairs,  no  replacements,  no  shingling, 
plumbing,  painting,  or  whitewashing;  it  has  neither  wife,  children,  father,  mother,  nor  kinfolk  to  watch 
over  and  care  for;  it  has  no  expense  of  living;  it  has  neither  weddings  nor  births  nor  deaths;  it  has  no  love, 
no  sympathy;  it  is  as  hard  and  soulless  as  a  granite  cliff.  Once  in  debt,  interest  is  your  companion  every 
minute  of  the  day  and  night;  you  cannot  shun  it  or  slip  away  from  it;  you  cannot  dismiss  it;  it  yields 
neither  to  entreaties,  demands,  or  orders;  and  whenever  you  get  in  its  way  or  cross  its  course  or  fail  to 
meet  its  demands,  it  crushes  you."  (Conf.  Rep.,  Apr.,  1938,  p.  103.) 


134 


President  Joseph  F.  Smith  gave  this  direction  as  to  how  to  get  out  of  debt:  "One  of  the  best  ways  that  I 
know  of  to  pay  my  obligations  to  my  brother,  my  neighbor,  or  business  associate,  is  for  me  first  to  pay  my 
obUgations  to  the  Lord.  I  can  pay  more  of  my  debts  to  my  neighbors,  if  I  have  contracted  them,  after  I 
have  met  my  honest  obligations  with  the  Lord,  than  I  can  by  neglecting  the  latter;  and  you  can  do  the 
same.  If  you  desire  to  prosper,  and  to  be  free  men  and  women  and  a  free  people,  first  meet  your  just 
obligations  to  God,  and  then  meet  your  obligations  to  your  fellowmen."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp. 
259-260.) 

Deceitfulness 

(Deceitfulness  ) 
See  LIARS. 

Deceivings 

(Deceivings  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Deception 

(Deception  ) 
See  LIARS. 


Decrees 

(Decrees  ) 

See  COMMANDMENTS. 

Dedication 

(Dedication  ) 
See  DEVOTION. 

Dedication  of  Buildings 

(Dedication  of  Buildings  ) 

See  DEDICATION  OF  GRAVES,  MEETINGHOUSES,  PRAYER,  TEMPLES. 

It  is  the  practice  of  the  Church  to  dedicate  to  the  Lord  all  temples,  meetinghouses,  schools,  welfare 
buildings,  and  other  structures  which  are  prepared  for  use  in  carrying  out  the  great  programs  of  the 
Church.  Not  infrequently  individual  members  of  the  Church  also  dedicate  to  the  cause  of  righteousness 
their  own  homes,  and  occasionally  even  their  business  enterprises. 

The  essential  part  of  any  dedicatory  service  is  the  formal  prayer  of  dedication.  In  general  the  purpose 
to  hallow  and  consecrate  the  building  for  the  particular  purpose  for  which  it  was  constructed.  Temples  and 
meetinghouses,  being  houses  of  worship,  are  given  to  the  Lord  as  his  houses.  Dedication  of  private  homes 
normally  includes  petitions  for  special  blessings  upon  the  members  of  the  family  and  covenants  on  their 
part  to  serve  the  Lord  and  use  the  means  at  their  disposal  for  the  rolling  forth  of  his  work.  No  building  is 
ever  dedicated  unless  it  is  free  from  debt. 


Dedication  of  Graves 

(Dedication  of  Graves  ) 

See  CREMATION,  DEATH,  FUNERALS,  GRAVES,  MOURNING. 

It  is  the  accepted  practice  of  the  Church  -  based  on  precedent  and  guided  by  the  spirit  of  revelation  in 
those  whom  God  has  chosen  to  lead  the  Church  to  dedicate  the  graves  of  faithlul  saints  who  depart  this 
life.  Dedication  of  graves  is  an  ordinance  of  the  gospel  and  is  perfonned  in  the  name  of  Christ  and  in  the 


135 


authority  of  the  Melchizedek  priesthood.  The  dedicatory  prayer  should  contain  such  expressions  of 
thanksgiving,  such  words  of  comfort  to  the  bereaved,  such  assurances  (or  petitions)  for  tire  protecting  care 
of  Divine  providence  over  the  grave  as  tire  Spirit  may  indicate  to  the  one  performing  the  dedication. 

Graveside  prayers,  involve  the  exercise  of  the  Melchizedek  priesthood,  and  which  merely  recite 
expressions  of  thanksgiving  and  request  such  petitions  as  seem  proper,  are  sometimes  offered  instead  of 
dedicatory  prayers.  If  bodies  are  cremated  -  fiineral  services  may  of  course  be  held,  but  the  disposition  of 
the  ashes  would  normally  make  unnecessary  the  offering  of  either  a  dedicatory  or  grave  prayer. 

Dedicatory  Prayers 

(Dedicatory  Prayers  ) 
See  PRAYER. 

Degrees  of  Glory 

(Degrees  of  Glory  ) 

See  KINGDOMS  OF  GLORY. 

Deism 

(Deism  ) 

See  ATHEISM,  GOD,  HENOTHEISM,  MONOTHEISM,  POLYTHEISM,  THEISM. 

Deism  is  the  partial  acceptance  of  God,  that  is,  deists  profess  to  believe  in  him  as  the  Creator  of  the 
world  and  the  final  judge  of  men,  but  they  reject  the  idea  that  he  rules  over  or  guides  men  during  the 
interval  between  the  creation  and  the  judgment.  Deists  assert  a  disbelief  in  Christianity. 

Deity 

(Deity  ) 

See  GOD,  FALSE  GODS. 

As  commonly  used  by  Christian  peoples.  Deity  means  God,  with  no  attempt  being  made  to  distinguish 
between  the  personages  of  the  Father,  Son,  or  Holy  Ghost.  The  word  deity  itself  connotes  a  condition  of 
divinity,  or  of  divine  nature  or  rank.  References  to  other  than  the  true  and  living  God  are  ordinarily 
couched  in  such  expressions  as  pagan  deities,  false  deities,  or  tribal  deities. 

Deliverer 

(Deliverer  ) 

See  CHRIST,  KING,  MESSIAH,  REDEEMER, 

SAVIOR.  Christ  is  the  Deliverer  (2  Sam.  22:1-4;  Ps.  18:1-3;  40:17;  70:5),  a  designation  akin  to  Savior 
or  Redeemer.  Some  references  to  him  as  the  Deliverer  lay  stress  on  temporal  deliverance  from  present 
enemies  (Ps.  144:1-2),  and  this  seems  to  have  been  the  concept  frnnly  lodged  in  the  popular  mind  in  the 
day  of  his  mortal  ministry.  What  the  ancient  Jews  failed  to  realize  was  that  any  temporal  deliverance 
effected  by  him  was  but  symbolical  of  the  far  greater  spiritual  redemption  to  be  effected  when  the  great 
Deliverer  through  his  atoning  sacrifice  turned  away  ungodliness  from  those  in  Jacob  who  accepted  him  as 
their  Redeemer.  (Isa.  59:20-21;  Rom.  1 1:25-26.) 

Delusion 

(Delusion  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  HALLUCINATIONS. 

Almost  the  whole  modem  world  is  enveloped  in  a  state  of  apostasy,  darkness,  and  delusion.  This  is  the 
day  of  which  Paul  wrote:  "God  shall  send  them  strong  delusion,  that  they  should  believe  a  lie:  That  they 
all  might  be  damned  who  believed  not  the  tmth,  but  had  pleasure  in  unrighteousness."  (2  Thess.  2: 11-12.) 


136 


Modem  delusion  is  not  limited  to  what  is  generally  classified  as  the  religious  field;  it  is  found  in 
social,  philosophical,  political,  and  governmental  realms,  and  in  the  speculative  and  theoretical  parts  of 
modem  sciences.  Every  false  belief  no  matter  where  found,  is  a  delusion;  every  belief  and  philosophy  of 
whatever  nature  that  leads  men  away  from  God,  the  gospel,  and  the  principles  of  freedom  which  appertain 
to  these,  is  a  delusion. 

Demigod 

(Demigod  ) 
See  GOD. 

By  adding  the  prefix  demi,  meaning  half,  to  the  word  God  gives  us  the  title  demigod,  leaning  literally 
half-god.  Accordingly  in  pagan  religions  a  demigod  is  assumed  to  be  a  divine  or  semi-divine  being  who  is 
the  offspring  of  a  deity  and  a  mortal.  The  interesting  thing  about  this  is  that  there  are  so  many  pagan 
legends  in  which  gods  are  supposed  to  have  cohabited  with  mortals  with  offspring  of  one  kind  or  another 
being  brought  forth.  Obviously  these  beliefs,  encountered  among  apostate  peoples,  had  their  origin  in  the 
true  account,  first  revealed  to  Adam,  that  God  in  due  course  would  father  his  Only  Begotten  in  the  flesh. 


Democracy  in  the  Church 

(Democracy  in  the  Church  ) 
See  COMMON  CONSENT. 


Demons 

(Demons  ) 

See  DEVIL,  DEVILS,  WAR  IN  HEAVEN. 

Devils  are  demons,  the  spirit  beings  cast  out  of  heaven  for  rebellion.  (Rev.  12:7-9.)  "We  are 
surrounded  by  demons,"  the  wicked  Nephites  cried,  "yea,  we  are  encircled  about  by  the  angels  of  him  who 
hath  sought  to  destroy  our  souls."  (Hela.  13:37.)  Demonism  is  belief  in  demons;  a  demoniac  is  one  thought 
to  be  possessed  of  an  evil  spirit. 

Denominations 

(Denominations  ) 
See  SECTS. 


Dentists 

(Dentists  ) 

See  PHYSICIANS. 

Dependent  Branches 

(Dependent  Branches  ) 
See  BRANCHES. 

Depression 

(Depression  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 


Deseret 

(Deseret  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  MORMON,  JAREDITES. 

Deseret  is  the  Jaredite  name  for  honey  bee.  (Ether  2:3.)  Brigham  Young  and  his  followers  first  named 
their  new  intermountain  empire  the  territory  of  Deseret  after  this  unique  Book  of  Mormon  name.  The 


137 


name  has  since  been  applied  to  many  businesses  and  enterprises  in  the  Utah  area,  and  the  beehive,  as 
symbol  of  industry,  is  part  of  the  great  seal  of  the  state  of  Utah. 

Deseret  Industries 

(Deseret  Industries  ) 
See  WELFARE  PLAN. 

One  of  the  agencies  of  the  Church  Welfare  plan,  Deseret  Industries  is  a  business  enterprise  designed  to 
provide  employment  and  aid  in  the  econoinic  rehabilitation  and  suppoil  of  persons  who  have  suffered 
economic  reverses,  commercial  iteins  are  manufactured,  repaired,  and  sold  on  the  retail  market  through 
various  Deseret  Industry  stores. 


Deseret  Sunday  School  Union 

(Deseret  Sunday  School  Union  ) 
See  SUNDAY  SCHOOL. 

Desire  of  All  Nations 

(Desire  of  All  Nations  ) 

See  CHRIST,  DESIRES,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Christ  is  the  Desire  of  All  Nations.  "For  thus  saith  the  Lord  of  hosts;  Yet  once,  it  is  a  little  while,  and  I 
will  shake  the  heavens,  and  the  earth,  and  the  sea,  and  the  dry  land;  And  I  will  shake  all  nations,  and  the 
desire  of  all  nations  shall  come."  (Hag.  2:5-9;  Heb.  12:25-29.)  This  prophecy  has  reference  to  the  Second 
Coming  of  Christ.  It  is  true  that  there  may  be  a  few  righteous  saints  in  all  nations  who  will  be  looking 
forward  to  the  return  of  their  Lord,  but  the  nations  of  peoples  as  a  whole  will  not  have  any  such  desires. 
The  ineaning  of  the  promise,  as  the  marginal  reading  shows,  is  that  our  Lord's  return  will  bring  desirable 
things  for  the  nations. 

Desires 

(Desires  ) 

See  COVETOUSNESS,  DESIRE  OF  ALL  NATIONS. 

In  the  eternal  perspective,  inen  are  rewarded  according  to  their  desires.  Righteous  desires  lead  to  peace 
here  and  salvation  hereafter;  lustful  desires  guarantee  sorrow,  remorse  of  conscience  and  final  damnation. 
(2  Chron.  15:1-15;  Ps.  37:4;  Eph.  2:3;  Alma  29:4-5;  41:5-6.) 

The  whole  doctrine  of  salvation  for  the  dead  is  based  on  the  principle  that  men  will  be  judged 
according  to  the  desires  of  their  hearts;  that  is,  if  in  this  life  they  do  not  have  opportunity  to  live  a  law  and 
gain  a  blessing,  yet  by  virtue  of  certain  vicarious  performances  the  blessing  will  be  gained  by  those  whose 
desires  are  right.  (Teachings,  p.  107.) 

Desolations 

(Desolations  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Despair 

(Despair  ) 

See  CHEERFULNESS,  HOPE,  INIQUITY,  REJOICING. 

Despair  is  a  feeling  of  hopelessness  and  futility,  a  feeling  that  there  is  no  chance  for  continued 
progression  or  forgiveness,  or  salvation.  The  Spirit  of  the  Lord  sheds  forth  cheerfiilness  and  hope;  the 
spirit  of  the  devil  casts  men  into  despair  and  despondency.  "And  if  ye  have  no  hope  ye  must  needs  be  in 


138 


despair;  and  despair  cometh  because  of  iniquity."  (Moro.  10:22.)  Tliough  the  saints  may  be  perplexed  they 
are  not  in  despair.  (2  Cor.  4:8.) 


Despondency 

(Despondency  ) 
See  DESPAIR. 

Destiny 

(Destiny  ) 

See  FOREORDINATION. 

Destroyer 

(Destroyer  ) 

See  ABADDON,  APOLLYON,  DESTRUCTION  OF  THE  SOUL,  DEVIL. 

This  name  for  Satan  signifies  that  his  great  labor  is  to  destroy  the  souls  of  men.  Incident  thereto  he 
rejoices  in  bringing  to  pass  temporal,  spiritual,  and  mental  ruin  and  waste  of  all  degrees.  William  W. 
Phelps,  in  daylight  vision,  saw  the  destroyer  riding  in  power  upon  the  face  of  the  Missouri  River;  and 
thereupon  the  Lord  revealed  to  the  Prophet  the  perils  to  be  wrought  upon  the  waters  in  the  last  days  by  the 
destroyer.  (D.  &  C.  61.) 

Destruction  of  the  Soul 

(Destruction  of  the  Soul  ) 

See  ANNIHILATION,  DESTROYER,  HELL,  SOUL,  SPIRITUAL  DEATH. 

Souls  of  the  wicked  are  destroyed,  meaning  that  they  enter  the  wide  gate  and  traverse  the  broad  way 
leading  to  hell.  (Matt.  7:13-14;  10:28;  Rom.  9:22;  Philip.  3:19;  1  Thess.  1:9;  2  Pet.  2:1;  3:16;  Alma  5:7; 
12:6,  16,  36;  3  Ne.  14:13-14.)  The  destruction  of  the  soul  consists  in  the  inheritance  of  spiritual  death  in 
hell  and  not  in  the  annihilation  of  the  spirit.  There  is  no  such  thing  in  all  the  economy  of  God  as  a  soul  or 
spirit  ceasing  to  exist  as  such  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  227-228.) 

By  definition,  "the  death  of  the  spirit  is  for  the  spirit  to  die  as  to  things  pertaining  to  righteousness  and 
consequently  reap  the  damnation  of  hell.  (2  Ne.  9:10-12.)  Utter  spiritual  ruin  is  thus  imposed  upon  the 
soul;  it  is  a  lost  soul,  one  that  has  not  filled  the  measure  of  its  creation.  Lucifer's  self-imposed  mission  is  to 
destroy  the  souls  of  men  (D.  &  C.  10:27),  and  his  own  ultimate  destruction  will  come  when  he  and  his 
angels  are  cast  into  the  lake  of  fire.  (D.  &  C.  19:3;  2  Ne.  9:16.) 

Devil 

(Devil  ) 

See  ABADDON,  ADVERSARY,  AGENCY,  ANGEL  OF  THE  BOTTOMLESS  PIT,  APOLLYON, 
BEELZEBUB,  BELIAL,  CAIN,  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL,  COMMON  ENEMY,  DEMONS, 
DESTROYER,  DEVILS,  DRAGON,  EVIL  ONE,  GOD  OF  THIS  WORLD,  HELL,  LUCIFER,  MASTER 
MAHAN,  PERDITION,  PRINCE  OF  DEVILS,  PRINCE  OF  POWER  OF  THE  AIR,  PRINCE  OF  THIS 
WORLD,  SATAN,  SERPENT,  SON  OF  THE  MORNING,  SONS  OF  BELIAL,  SONS  OF  PERDITION, 
SPIRITUAL  DEATH,  TEMPTER. 

The  devil  (literally  meaning  slanderer)  is  a  spirit  son  of  God  who  was  bom  in  the  morning  of  pre- 
existence.  (D.  &  C.  76:25-26.)  Endowed  with  agency,  the  free  power  of  choice,  he  chose  the  evil  part  from 
the  beginning,  thus  placing  himself  in  eternal  opposition  to  the  divine  will.  He  was  "a  liar  from  the 
beginning."  (D.  &  C.  33:25.) 

Obviously  he  gained  for  himself  great  executive  and  administrative  ability  and  had  a  sufficiently 
compelling  personality  to  influence  for  ill  a  myriad  host  of  other  spirit  offspring  of  the  Father.  His  position 


139 


was  one  of  great  power  and  authority.  He  was  "an  angel  of  God"  who  "became  a  devil,  having  sought  that 
which  was  evil  before  God."  (2  Ne.  2:17;  D.  &  C.  76:25.) 

When  the  plan  of  salvation  was  presented  -  the  plan  whereunder  the  spirit  children  of  the  Father  would 
be  enabled  to  gain  tangible  bodies  and,  if  faithfiil  in  all  things  progress  to  a  like  status  with  their  Father  - 
and  when  the  need  for  a  Redeemer  was  explained,  Satan  offered  to  come  into  the  world  as  the  Son  of  God 
and  be  the  Redeemer.  "Behold,  here  am  I,  send  me,"  he  said.  "I  will  be  thy  Son."  But  then,  as  always,  he 
was  in  opposition  to  the  fiill  plan  of  the  Father,  and  so  he  sought  to  amend  and  change  the  terms  of 
salvation;  he  sought  to  deny  men  their  agency  and  to  dethrone  God.  "I  will  redeem  all  mankind,  that  one 
soul  shall  not  be  lost,  and  surely  I  will  do  it;  wherefore  give  me  thine  honor,"  he  continued.  (Moses  4: 1-4.) 

With  the  rejection  of  his  offer  and  the  choosing  of  the  Beloved  Son  to  be  the  Redeemer,  Satan  made 
open  warfare  against  the  Lord.  "Wherefore,  because  that  Satan  rebelled  against  me,  and  sought  to  destroy 
the  agency  of  man,  which  I,  the  Lord  God,  had  given  him,  and  also,  that  I  should  give  unto  him  mine  own 
power;  by  the  power  of  mine  Only  Begotten,  I  caused  that  he  should  be  cast  down;  And  he  became  Satan, 
yea,  even  the  devil,  the  father  of  all  lies,  to  deceive  and  to  blind  men,  and  to  lead  them  captive  at  his  will, 
even  as  many  as  would  not  hearken  unto  my  voice."  (Moses  4:3-4.)  "A  third  part  of  the  hosts  of  heaven" 
joined  the  rebellion;  "And  they  were  thrust  down,  and  thus  came  the  devil  and  his  angels."  (D.  &  C.  29:36- 
38;  Rev.  12:4-9;  Abra.  3:27-28.) 

Those  thus  cast  out  are  denied  bodies  forever.  They  are  sons  of  perdition,  and  with  Lucifer,  their 
father,  they  are  in  eternal  opposition  to  all  righteousness.  By  them  all  men  are  tempted,  enticed,  and 
encouraged  to  leave  the  paths  of  truth,  walk  in  darkness,  and  become  carnal,  sensual,  and  devilish.  (Moses 
6:49.)  This  opposition  is  used  by  the  Lord,  as  part  of  his  plan,  to  test  and  try  men.  In  mortality  the 
overcoming  of  opposition  is  an  essential  part  of  progression  and  advancement.  (2  Ne.  2.) 

One  of  Satan's  greatest  aims,  as  he  works  his  nefarious  schemes  among  men,  is  to  get  them  "to 
worship  him."  (Moses  1:12;  6:49.)  His  success  in  this  venture  is  phenomenal.  As  the  god  of  this  world,  he 
has  the  support  and,  though  they  may  not  consciously  realize  it,  the  adoration  and  worship  of  all  those 
who  live  after  the  manner  of  the  world.  God  our  Father  is  worshiped  in  and  through  compliance  with  his 
commandments  and  in  no  other  way.  The  same  is  true  of  Satan. 

As  the  organization  through  which  formal  adoration  may  be  given  him  Satan  has  founded  his  own 
church,  the  church  of  the  devil,  the  "church  which  is  most  abominable  above  all  other  churches.  (1  Ne.  13; 
14;  Rev.  17;  18.)  Nephi  says:  "I  beheld  this  great  and  abominable  church;  and  I  saw  the  devil  that  he  was 
the  foundation  of  it."  (1  Ne.  13:6.)  Of  those  adhering  to  this  apostate  organization  John  says,  "They 
worshipped  the  dragon"  (Rev.  13:4),  that  is,  the  devil.  False  worship  is  worship  of  devils,  as  Paul  said, 
"The  things  which  the  Gentiles  sacrificed  they  sacrifice  to  devils,  and  not  to  God:  and  1  would  not  that  ye 
should  have  fellowship  with  devils."  (1  Cor.  10:20;  Rev.  2:9;  9:  20.) 

Satan's  influence  is  also  manifest  in  the  world  through  governmental  powers,  particularly  those  in 
which  dictatorship  and  compulsion  are  the  rule.  Political  philosophies,  as  those  which  spread  communistic 
and  socialistic  ideologies,  are  his  propaganda  vehicles.  Those  educational  philosophies  which  deny  Christ, 
and  the  divine  origin  of  man  as  an  offspring  of  God,  are  spawned  and  sponsored  by  Satan.  Secret 
combinations,  evil  oath-bound  organizations,  criminal  gangs,  and  groups  of  every  sort  which  run  counter 
to  the  principles  of  the  gospel  of  salvation  are  organizations  founded,  sponsored,  and  used  by  the  devil. 

Unfortunately,  because  even  the  worst  and  most  evil  organizations  have  some  truth  and  good  in  them 
(otherwise  they  could  not  continue  to  prosper  even  under  worldly  conditions),  even  some  of  the  "very 
elect"  are  deceived  to  the  point  that  they  support  aims  and  programs  of  these  devil-bom  groups.  But  "God 
hath  said  a  man  being  evil  cannot  do  that  which  is  good;  For  behold,  a  bitter  fountain  cannot  bring  forth 
good  water;  neither  can  a  good  fountain  bring  forth  bitter  water;  wherefore,  a  man  being  a  servant  of  the 
devil  cannot  follow  Christ;  and  if  he  follow  Christ  he  cannot  be  a  servant  of  the  devil,"  (Moro.  7:5-20.) 

In  decrying  the  teachings  of  false  ministers,  "false  apostles,  deceitful  workers,"  Paul  said,  "Satan 
himself  is  transformed  into  an  angel  of  light.  Therefore  it  is  no  great  thing  if  his  ministers  also  be 
transformed  as  the  ministers  of  righteousness;  whose  end  shall  be  according  to  their  works."  (2  Cor. 
ll:13-15;2Ne.  9:9.) 

Korihor  is  an  illustration  of  such  false  ministers.  After  being  confounded  by  Alma,  he  said:  "Behold, 
the  devil  hath  deceived  me;  for  he  appeared  unto  me  in  the  forai  of  an  angel,  and  said  unto  me:  Go  and 
reclaim  this  people,  for  they  have  all  gone  astray  after  an  unknown  God.  And  he  said  unto  me:  There  is  no 
God;  yea,  and  he  taught  me  that  which  I  should  say.  And  I  have  taught  his  words;  and  I  taught  them 
because  they  were  pleasing  unto  the  carnal  mind;  and  I  taught  them,  even  until  I  had  much  success, 


140 


insomuch  that  I  verily  believed  that  they  were  true;  and  for  this  cause  I  withstood  the  truth,  even  until  I 
have  brought  this  great  curse  upon  me."  (Alma  30:53.) 

As  part  of  the  testing  incident  to  mortal  existence,  man  for  the  moment  has  forgotten  the  great  truths 
which  were  commonplace  to  him  in  pre-existence.  Thus  Satan's  power  over  men  is  a  result  of  his  superior 
knowledge.  He  does  not,  however,  have  intelligence.  "Light  and  truth,"  which  is  intelligence,  "forsake  that 
evil  one."  (D.  &  C.  93:37.) 

Shortly,  when  the  millennial  era  amves,  Satan  will  be  bound,  and  for  a  thousand  years  he  will 
"deceive  the  nations  no  more."  Thereafter,  he  will  "be  loosed  a  little  season"  (Rev.  20:2-3)  to  gather 
together  the  hosts  of  hell  preparatory  to  "the  battle  of  the  great  God,"  as  a  result  of  which  he  "and  his 
armies  shall  be  cast  away  into  their  own  place,  that  they  shall  not  have  power  over  the  saints  any  more  at 
all."  (D.  &C.  88:114.) 

In  eternity,  "they  who  are  filthy  shall  be  filthy  still;  wherefore,  they  who  are  filthy  are  the  devil  and  his 
angels;  and  they  shall  go  away  into  everlasting  fire,  prepared  for  them;  and  their  torment  is  as  a  lake  of  fire 
and  brimstone,  whose  flame  ascendeth  up  forever  and  ever  and  has  no  end."  (2  Ne.  9: 16.) 

Devilishness 

(Devilishness  ) 

See  CARNALITY,  CORRUPTION,  DEVIL,  FALLEN  MAN,  MORTALITY,  SENSUALITY. 

All  forms  of  wickedness,  all  rebellion  and  evil,  are  sponsored  by  the  devil.  Any  degree  of  wickedness 
is  a  degree  of  devilishness.  "He  that  committeth  sin  is  of  the  devil."  (I  John  3:8;  Moro.  7:17.)  Any  persons 
over  whom  the  devil  has  power,  who  subject  themselves  to  him,  who  submit  to  his  enticements  (following 
the  carnal  and  sensual  allurements  of  the  world),  are  devilish.  Such  was  the  status  of  Adam  after  his 
spiritual  death  and  before  he  was  bom  again  to  righteousness.  When  "he  partook  of  the  forbidden  fruit  and 
transgressed  the  commandment,  he  became  subject  to  the  will  of  the  devil,  because  he  yielded  unto 
temptation."  (D.  &  C.  29:40.) 

Abinadi  defined  the  status  of  the  wicked  by  saying:  "They  are  carnal  and  devilish,  and  the  devil  has 
power  over  them;  yea,  even  that  old  serpent  that  did  beguile  our  first  parents,  which  was  the  cause  of  their 
fall;  which  was  the  cause  of  all  mankind  becoming  carnal,  sensual,  devilish,  knowing  evil  from  good, 
subjecting  themselves  to  the  devil."  (Mosiah  16:3.) 

Devils 

(Devils  ) 

See  DEMONS,  DEVIL,  EVIL  SPIRITS,  FALSE  SPIRITS,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  PRINCE  OF  DEVILS, 
SONS  OF  BELIAL,  SONS  OF  PERDITION. 

Devils  are  the  spirit  beings  who  followed  Lucifer  in  his  war  of  rebellion  in  pre-existence.  They 
comprise  one-third  of  those  spirit  children  of  the  Father  who  were  destined  to  pass  through  a  mortal 
probation  on  this  earth.  (D.  &  C.  29:36-41;  Rev.  12:3-9.)  They  were  cast  down  to  earth,  and  have  been 
forever  denied  physical  bodies,  a  fact  which  causes  them  to  seek  habitation  in  the  bodies  of  other  persons. 
By  the  power  of  faith  and  the  authority  of  the  priesthood,  devils  are  frequently  cast  out  of  such  afflicted 
persons.  (Mark  1:23-34;  16:15-17.) 

As  followers  of  Satan,  who  is  Perdition,  they  are  sons  of  Perdition;  they  are  demons,  angels  of  the 
devil,  his  evil  ministers  and  servants.  (2  Ne.  9:9.)  Their  ultimate  destiny  is  to  go  away  into  everlasting  fire 
where  "their  toraient  is  as  a  lake  of  fire  and  brimstone,  whose  flame  ascendeth  up  forever  and  ever  and  has 
no  end."  (2  Ne.  9:16;  D.  &  C.  29:28.) 

Devolution 

(Devolution  ) 
See  EVOLUTION. 

Devolution  is  the  opposite  of  evolution;  in  the  biological  sense  it  means  the  degeneration  of  species. 
According  to  God's  law  there  is  no  such  thing  as  the  development  of  higher  foims  of  life  from  lower 
orders  of  creation  anymore  than  lower  orders  degenerate  from  higher.  In  each  instance  living  things  bring 


141 


forth  after  their  own  kind  (Moses  2),  each  fonn  of  life  remaining  "in  the  sphere"  in  which  God  created  it. 
(Moses  3:9.) 

Speaking  of  the  degrees  of  civilization  and  decency  found  within  nations  in  successive  ages,  it  is  clear 
that  there  have  been  instances  of  great  national  devolution  or  degeneracy.  The  American  Indians,  in  their 
tribal  and  degenerate  state,  were  the  descendants  of  the  highly  civilized  Nephite  civilization  that  prevailed 
on  the  American  continent  for  nearly  200  years  after  the  ministry  of  Christ  in  the  Western  Hemisphere. 
So-called  cave  men  and  the  like  were  all  degenerate  descendants  of  the  highly  civilized  men  who  peopled 
the  eaifh  beginning  with  Adam,  the  father  of  civilization. 

Devotion 

(Devotion  ) 

See  CONSECRATION,  OBEDIENCE,  RIGHTEOUSNESS,  WORSHIP,  ZEAL. 

True  devotion  consists  in  a  man  loving  and  worshiping  Deity  with  all  his  heai1,  and  with  all  his  might, 
mind,  and  strength.  It  presupposes  that  he  will  keep  the  commandments,  walk  uprightly,  serve  in  the 
Church  with  an  eye  single  to  the  glory  of  God,  and  put  first  in  his  life  the  things  of  God's  kingdom.  True 
devotion  to  the  end  gives  an  absolute  guarantee  of  eternal  salvation. 

Devoutness 

(Devoutness  ) 
See  DEVOTION. 

Diaries 

(Diaries  ) 

See  JOURNALS. 

Dictatorship 

(Dictatorship  ) 
See  KINGCRAFT. 

Diligence 

(Diligence  ) 

See  DEVOTION,  DUTY,  ENDURANCE  TO  THE  END,  OBEDIENCE,  WORK,  ZEAL. 

To  endure  to  the  end  requires  diligence  -  that  is,  pure  dogged  detennination,  perseverance,  application 
to  duty,  zeal,  industry,  heed  to  counsel.  Continuing  diligence  in  church  service  is  a  mark  of  testimony, 
conversion,  and  spiritual  stability.  "Be  ye  doers  of  the  word,  and  not  hearers  only."  (Jas.  1:22.) 

Disaster 

(Disaster  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Discerning  of  Spirits 

(Discerning  of  Spirits  ) 
See  FALSE  SPIRITS. 

Discernment 

(Discermnent  ) 

See  EVIL,  FALSE  SPIRITS,  GIFTS  OF  THE  SPIRIT,  GOOD,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST. 

To  all  men  in  some  degree  and  to  the  faithful  saints  in  particular  is  given  the  spirit,  gift,  and  power  of 
discernment.  This  ability  is  conferred  upon  people  generally  by  the  operations  of  the  light  of  Christ  (Moro. 


142 


7:12-18),  but  in  addition  the  faithful  saints  receive  discerning  power  through  revelation  from  the  Holy 
Ghost.  (D.  &C.  63:41.) 

In  its  most  important  aspect,  discernment  is  used  to  distinguish  between  good  and  evil  (Moro.  7:12- 
18),  between  the  righteous  and  the  wicked  (D.  &  C.  101:95;  Mai.  3:18;  3  Ne.  24:18),  between  the  false  or 
evil  spirits  and  those  spirits  who  truly  manifest  the  things  of  God.  (D.  &  C.  46:23;  1  Cor.  12:10.)  In  its 
fullest  manifestation  the  gift  of  the  discerning  of  spirits  is  poured  out  upon  presiding  officials  in  God's 
kingdom;  they  have  it  given  to  them  to  discern  all  gifts  and  all  spirits,  lest  any  come  among  the  saints  and 
practice  deception.  (D.  &  C.  46:27.) 

There  is  no  perfect  operation  of  the  power  of  discernment  without  revelation.  Thereby  even  "the 
thoughts  and  intents  of  the  heart"  are  made  known.  (D.  &  C.  33:1;  Heb.  4:12.)  Where  the  Saints  are 
concerned  -  since  they  have  received  the  right  to  the  constant  companionship  of  the  Holy  Ghost  -  the  Lord 
expects  them  to  discern,  not  only  between  the  righteous  and  the  wicked,  but  between  false  and  true 
philosophies,  educational  theories,  sciences,  political  concepts,  and  social  schemes.  Unfortunately,  in 
many  instances,  even  good  men  hearken  to  "the  tradition  of  their  fathers"  (D.  &  C.  93:39)  and  rely  on  the 
learning  of  the  world  rather  than  the  revelations  of  the  Lord,  so  that  they  do  not  enjoy  the  full  play  of  the 
spirit  of  discernment. 

Disciples 

(Disciples  ) 

See  APOSTLES,  BELIEVERS,  BRETHREN,  PROPHETS,  SAINTS, 

1 .  Anyone  who  believes  the  doctrine,  teachings,  or  philosophy  of  another  and  who  follows  that  teacher 
is  his  disciple.  He  stands  as  a  learner,  a  devotee  of  the  one  whose  concepts  he  accepts.  Thus  we  read  of  the 
disciples  of  John  the  Baptist  (Mark  2:18;  Luke  11:1;  John  1:35;  3:25),  of  Moses  (John  9:28),  and  of  the 
Pharisees.  (Mark  2: 18.) 

2.  All  the  saints  ftom  the  day  of  Adam  to  the  present  have  been  disciples  of  Christ.  (Isa.  8:16;  Matt. 
27:57;  John  19:38;  Acts  9:36;  11:26.)  Those  who  believe  the  false  doctrines  of  Christendom  consider 
themselves  to  be  true  disciples  yet  by  their  false  beliefs  and  evil  works  they  are  not  so  classed  by  Him 
whose  judgment  shall  prevail. 

Scriptural  tests  establishing  true  discipleship  include:  1.  Believing  the  true  doctrines  of  Christ  (Ether 
4:10-12);  2.  Obeying  the  principles  of  the  gospel  (John  8:31);  3.  Having  "love  one  to  another"  (John 
13:35);  4.  Accepting  the  message  and  aiding  the  work  of  the  missionaries  (D.  &  C.  84:87-91);  and  5. 
Bringing  forth  works  of  righteousness  (John  15:4-8.) 

3.  The  apostolic  ministers  chosen  to  labor  among  the  Jews,  and  also  those  who  rendered  similar 
service  among  the  Nephites  are  called  "the  twelve  disciples."  (Matt.  20: 17;  3  Ne.  19:4.) 

Discipline 

(Discipline  ) 

See  CHASTENING. 

Discourse 

(Discourse  ) 
See  SERMONS. 

Diseases 

(Diseases  ) 

See  DEATH,  HEALINGS,  HEALTH,  PHYSICIANS,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  WORD  OF 
WISDOM. 

Since  the  fall,  man's  body  has  been  subject  to  sickness  and  disease,  these  being  essential  parts  of  the 
probationary  experiences  that  go  with  mortality.  We  may  suppose  that  for  the  first  2000  years  of  man's 
sojourn  on  earth  that  diseases  and  bodily  illness  were  far  less  prevalent  than  has  been  the  case  since. 
During  that  early  period  man  enjoyed  a  higher  degree  of  physical  perfection  than  he  does  now;  his  body 
was  then  so  constituted  as  to  resist  plague,  infection,  and  corruption,  and  to  live  for  near  1000  years. 
(Moses  6;  D.  &  C.  107:43-53.) 


143 


But  since  the  day  in  wliicli  man's  age  was  set  by  tlie  Lord  at  tlireescore  and  ten  (Ps.  90:10),  disease 
gernis  and  physical  ills  have  been  more  effective  in  their  attacks.  Both  the  Bible  and  the  Book  of  MoiTnon 
give  many  accounts  of  diseases  and  of  heaUngs  by  the  power  of  faith.  During  the  dark  ages  disease 
frequently  reached  plague  proportions. 

These  same  ills  are  still  with  us,  and  as  medical  science  provides  a  cure  for  one  affliction  another  takes 
its  place.  Indeed,  one  of  the  final  great  signs  of  the  times,  an  event  just  preceding  the  Second  Coming,  is 
that  "an  overflowing  scourge,  ...  a  desolating  sickness  shall  cover  the  land."  (D.  &  C.  45:31.)  During  the 
millennium  however,  disease  will  be  utterly  banned  from  the  earth;  man's  body  will  then  be  changed  so 
that  no  germ  or  plague  can  affect  it;  and  there  will  be  no  death  as  we  now  know  it.  (D.  &  C.  101 :23-31.) 

Disease  comes  both  because  of  failure  to  obey  the  laws  of  health  and  because  of  failure  to  keep  the 
other  commandments  of  God.  Righteous  persons  frequently  become  ill  and  suffer  bodily  afflictions  simply 
because  they  have  been  exposed  to  disease,  and  the  contaminating  geims  have  power  over  their  bodies. 
Sometimes  by  faith  the  righteous  escape  plagues  that  are  sweeping  the  land;  and  often,  having  become 
sick,  the  gift  of  healing  restores  the  obedient  to  fiill  physical  well-being. 

But  when  the  Lord's  people  rebel,  he  sends  diseases  upon  them.  To  disobedient  Israel  came  this  curse: 
"The  Lord  will  smite  thee  with  the  botch  of  Egypt,  and  with  the  emerods,  and  with  the  scab,  and  with  the 
itch,  whereof  thou  canst  not  be  healed.  The  Lord  shall  smite  thee  with  madness,  and  blindness  and 
astonishment  of  heart....  The  Lord  will  make  thy  plagues  wonderful,  and  the  plagues  of  thy  seed,  even 
great  plagues,  and  of  long  continuance,  and  sore  sicknesses,  and  of  long  continuance.  Moreover  he  will 
bring  upon  thee  all  the  diseases  of  Egypt  which  thou  wast  afraid  of;  and  they  shall  cleave  unto  thee.  Also 
every  sickness,  and  every  plague,  which  is  not  written  in  the  book  of  this  law,  them  will  the  Lord  bring 
upon  thee,  until  thou  be  destroyed,  (Deut.  28:27-28,  59-61;  Mosiah  17:16;  Alma  15:3-5.)  On  the  other 
hand,  the  promise  was  that  by  obedience  all  this  would  be  avoided.  (Ex.  15:26;  Deut.  7: 15;  28.) 

Disfellowshipment 

(Disfellowshipment  ) 

See  CHURCH  COURTS,  EXCOMMUNICATION. 

Transgi'essions  which  do  not  seem  in  mercy  and  justice  to  wan'ant  excommunication  may  properly 
result  in  the  lesser  punishment  of  disfellowshipment.  Under  these  circumstance  the  transgressor  retains  his 
membership  in  the  Church,  but  the  hand  of  fellowship  is  withdrawn,  and  the  offender  is  denied  full 
participation  in  the  Church  and  the  full  blessings  of  the  gospel.  He  is  not  admitted  to  priesthood  meetings 
or  to  an  assembly  of  church  officers.  He  cannot  hold  any  office  in  the  Church  or  exercise  his  priesthood  in 
any  way.  He  may  attend  the  public  meetings  of  the  Church  (the  same  as  a  nonmember  may),  but  he  is  not 
entitled  to  speak,  pray,  partake  of  the  sacrament  or  otherwise  participate  in  any  meeting.  Following 
repentance  and  conforaiity  to  the  standards  of  the  Church,  a  disfellowshiped  person  may  again  receive  the 
full  blessings  of  the  Church. 

Dishonesty 

(Dishonesty  ) 
See  LIARS. 

Disobedience 

(Disobedience  ) 

See  CHILDREN  OF  DISOBEDIENCE,  OBEDIENCE,  REBELLION. 

Nonconfonnity  to  divine  standards  of  personal  righteousness  constitutes  disobedience.  All  men  are 
either  obedient  or  disobedient;  they  either  keep  the  commandments  or  fail  to  do  so;  either  neglect  or 
refusal  to  confonn  to  gospel  standards  classifies  a  person  as  a  rebel. 

Disobedience  is  of  the  devil,  "That  wicked  one  cometh  and  taketh  away  light  and  truth,  through 
disobedience,  from  the  children  of  men,  and  because  of  the  traditions  of  their  fathers."  (D.  &  C.  93:39.)  By 
disobedience  men  gain  membership  in  the  kingdom  of  the  devil,  as  he  operates  it  on  earth,  in  the  spirit 
world,  and  among  the  resun'ected  rebels  of  eternity.  The  most  violent  and  destructive  of  all  disobedience 
is  the  complete  and  open  rebellion  against  light  and  truth  which  makes  a  person  a  son  of  perdition.  Those 


144 


who  love  darkness  rather  than  hght,  their  deeds  being  evil,  "receive  their  wages  of  whom  they  list  to 
obey."  (D.  &  C.  29:45.) 

Dispensation  of  the  Fulness  of  Times 

(Dispensation  of  the  Fulness  of  Times  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  DISPENSATIONS,  GOSPEL, 
JOSEPH  SMITH  THE  PROPHET,  KEYS  OF  THE  KINGDOM,  NEW  AND  EVERLASTING 
COVENANT,  PRIESTHOOD,  RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  REVELATION,  SECOND 
COMING  OF  CHRIST,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

The  final  great  dispensation  of  the  gospel  is  known  as  the  dispensation  of  the  fiilness  of  times,  or  in 
other  words  the  time  of  the  fulness  of  times,  or  the  dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  dispensations.  That  is,  as 
rivers  flow  into  an  ocean,  all  the  dispensations  of  the  past  flow  into  this  final  great  dispensation.  It  is  the 
time,  age,  or  era  which  is  made  up  of  all  the  dispensations  of  the  earth's  history.  It  is  the  age  in  which  the 
Lord  will  "gather  together  in  one  all  things  in  Christ,  both  which  are  in  heaven,  and  which  are  on  earth." 
(Eph.  1:10;  D.&C.  27:13.) 

Every  key,  power,  and  authority  ever  dispensed  from  heaven  to  men  on  earth,  which  is  necessary  for 
their  eternal  salvation,  has  already  been  restored  in  this  dispensation.  (D.  &  C.  110:11-16;  112:14-32; 
128:18-21.)  All  of  the  knowledge  that  has  ever  been  revealed  (plus  some  held  in  resei've  to  be  revealed 
initially  in  the  last  days)  will  in  due  course  come  to  light  in  this  final  dispensation.  (D.  &  C.  101:32-34; 
121:26-32;  124:41;  128:18.) 

Dispensations 

(Dispensations  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS,  DISPENSATION  OF  THE 
FULNESS  OF  TIMES,  GOSPEL,  NEW  AND  EVERLASTING  COVENANT,  PRIESTHOOD, 
REVELATION. 

Gospel  dispensations  are  those  periods  of  time  during  which  the  Lord  reveals  or  dispenses  the 
doctrines  of  the  gospel  to  men  so  that  reliance  need  not  be  placed  on  past  ages  for  this  saving  knowledge. 
If  the  priesthood  and  keys  have  not  come  down  by  proper  descent  from  a  previous  dispensation,  these  also 
must  necessarily  be  confen'ed  upon  men  again  by  the  opening  of  the  heavens. 

Since  the  gospel,  "the  power  of  God  unto  salvation"  (Rom.  1:16),  was  first  revealed  to  Adam,  we 
speak  of  the  Adamic  dispensation  as  the  first  from  the  standpoint  of  time.  (Moses  5:57-59.)  Thereafter,  the 
saving  knowledge  and  powers  of  the  gospel,  as  Paul  expressed  it,  were  "revealed  Irom  faith  to  faith" 
(Rom.  1:17),  that  is  from  era  of  faith  to  era  of  faith  or  from  dispensation  to  dispensation. 

In  the  providences  of  the  Almighty,  Adam  stands  at  the  head  of  all  dispensations,  he  being  the 
presiding  high  priest  (under  Christ)  over  all  the  earth.  (Teachings,  pp.  157-158.)  "Adam  holds  the  keys  of 
the  dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  times;  i.e.,  the  dispensation  of  all  the  times  have  been  and  will  be 
revealed  through  him  Irom  the  beginning  to  Christ,  and  from  Christ  to  the  end  of  the  dispensations  that  are 
to  be  revealed.  This,  then,  is  the  nature  of  the  priesthood;  every  man  holding  the  presidency  of  his 
dispensation,  and  one  man  holding  the  presidency  of  them  all,  even  Adam;  and  Adam  receiving  his 
presidency  and  authority  from  the  Lord."  (Teachings,  pp.  167-169.)  It  appears  that  Abel,  acting  under  the 
direction  of  his  father  Adam,  held  the  keys  of  the  first  dispensation.  (Teachings,  p.  169.) 

When  we  speak  of  the  great  gospel  dispensations,  we  general]y  have  in  mind  those  given  to  Adam, 
Enoch  (Moses  6;  7),  Noah  (Moses  8),  Abraham  (Abra.  2:6-11;  Gal.  3:6-8,  18)  Moses  (D.  &  C.  84:17-28); 
the  apostles  in  the  meridian  of  time  (Matt.  16:18-19;  18:18;  D.  &  C.  27:12-13;  128:20),  and  to  Joseph 
Smith  and  his  associates,  (D.  &  C.  112:14-32.)  The  keys  and  powers  exercised  by  the  Lord's  prophets  in 
each  of  these  ancient  dispensations  have  been  conferred  upon  men  in  this  final  dispensation,  for  in  "the 
lulness  of  times,"  the  Lord  says,  "I  will  gather  together  in  one  all  things,  both  which  are  in  heaven,  and 
which  are  on  earth."  (D.  &  C.  27:13;  Eph.  1:10.) 

But  there  have  also  been  many  other  gospel  dispensations  in  the  course  of  the  Lord's  dealings  with  his 
children.  It  is  very  evident  that  Jolm  the  Baptist  (Luke  7:24-30;  John  1:19-37;  D.  &  C.  84:26-28),  the 
Jaredites  (Ether  1:41-43;  3:6-16),  the  Nephites  (1  Ne.  2:2-4),  Lehi  and  Nephi  who  lived  at  the  time  of  the 
coming  of  the  Savior  (Hela.  10:3-17;  11:19-23;  3  Ne.  7:15-19;  9:15-22;  11:7-40),  and  the  Ten  Tribes 


145 


whom  Christ  visited  after  his  resurrection  (3  Ne.  16: 1-4)  all  had  dispensations  of  the  gospel.  (Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  l,pp.  160-164.) 

We  know  that  Esaias,  Gad,  Jeremy,  Elihu,  Caleb,  and  Jethro  all  lived  between  Abraham  and  Moses 
and  all  enjoyed  the  fulness  of  the  blessings  of  the  gospel.  (D.  &  C.  84:6-13.)  What  peoples  they  ministered 
to  and  whether  they  had  dispensations  of  the  gospel  are  truths  yet  to  be  revealed.  Paul  spealcs  of  having  a 
dispensation  of  the  gospel  (1  Cor.  9:17;  Eph.  3:2;  Col.  1:25),  but  apparently  this  is  only  in  the  sense  that 
present  day  apostles  have  received  one,  in  that  the  Lord  has  given  them  revelation  of  his  mind  and  will, 
and  in  that  they  hold  the  keys  of  the  dispensation  in  which  they  live.  (D.  &  C.  1 12: 14-32.) 

Disputations 

(Disputations  ) 
See  CONTENTION. 

Dissenters 

(Dissenters  ) 
See  APOSTASY. 

Dissentions 

(Dissentions  ) 
See  CONTENTION. 

District  Presidency 

(District  Presidency  ) 

See  DISTRICT  PRESIDENTS. 

District  Presidents 

(District  Presidents  ) 

See  DISTRICTS,  MISSIONS,  STAKE  PRESIDENTS. 

Presiding  officers  in  foreign  mission  districts  are  district  presidents.  They  hold  the  keys  of  their 
ministry,  are  assisted  by  two  counselors  (thus  forming  a  district  presidency)  and  are  comparable  to  stake 
presidents  in  their  sphere  of  service.  In  the  stake  missions,  those  chosen  to  preside  over  areas  of  the 
mission  and  to  supervise  the  proselyting  labors  of  their  fellow  missionaries  are  also  called  district 
presidents. 

Districts 

(Districts  ) 

See  BRANCHES,  CHURCH  ORGANIZATION,  MISSIONS,  STAKES. 

Missions  are  divided  into  ecclesiastical  areas  called  districts.  In  stake  and  regional  missions  these  areas 
are  merely  locales  in  which  the  proselyting  work  is  carried  forward.  In  foreign  missions  they  are 
comparable  to  stake  areas  and  are  presided  over  by  a  district  president.  The  church  programs  normally 
carried  on  in  the  stakes  are,  insofar  as  possible,  made  available  to  the  saints  living  in  the  districts. 

Temple  districts  are  church  areas  made  up  of  a  number  of  stakes  and/or  missions  whose  members  are 
asked  to  perform  their  temple  ordinances  in  an  assigned  temple. 

Divination 

(Divination  ) 

See  FORTUNE  TELLING,  NECROMANCY,  OCCULTISM,  PROPHECY,  SORCERY, 
WITCHCRAFT. 


146 


True  religion  provides  for  a  revelation  of  future  events  by  prophets  sent  of  God.  False  religions  - 
whose  ministers  have  no  communion  with  Deity  -  frequently  imitate  the  true  practice  by  engaging  in 
divination.  This  practice  is  an  attempt  to  foretell  the  fliture  by  auguries,  omens,  presages,  or  forebodings. 
Among  primitive  peoples  it  frequently  meant  interpreting  dreams  or  other  signs  or  seeking  peculiarities  in 
the  entrails  of  sacrificial  victims.  A  diviner  is  one  who  attempts  to  foretell  the  future  by  divination. 
Soothsayers  act  by  the  "spirit  of  divination."  (Acts  16:16-18.)  The  Lord's  people  are  commanded  not  to 
engage  in  divination  of  any  sort.  (Deut.  18:9-14.) 

Diviners 

(Diviners  ) 

See  DIVINATION. 

Divinity 

(Divinity  ) 
See  GODHOOD. 

Divorce 

(Divorce  ) 

See  CANCELLATION  OF  SEALINGS,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  CIVIL  MARRIAGE. 

In  the  gospel  view  all  marriages  should  be  eternal,  and  divorce  should  never  enter  the  picture.  But 
since  all  men  -  as  a  result  of  apostasy  and  iniquity  are  not  living  (and  in  their  present  states  cannot  live)  the 
full  and  perfect  gospel  law,  the  Lord  pennits  divorce  and  allows  the  dissolution  of  the  marriage  union. 
Under  the  law  of  Moses,  divorce  was  permitted  because  the  people  were  not  able  to  live  the  high  gospel 
standard  which  would  abolish  it.  (Lev.21:7,  14;  Deut.  24:1-4.) 

As  revealed  both  to  the  Jews  and  to  the  Nephites  the  terms  of  the  perfect  marriage  system  include  this 
teaching:  "It  hath  been  written,  that  whosoever  shall  put  away  his  wife,  let  him  give  her  a  writing  of 
divorcement.  Verily,  verily,  I  say  unto  you,  that  whosoever  shall  put  away  his  wife,  saving  for  the  cause  of 
fornication,  causeth  her  to  coirunit  adultery;  and  whoso  shall  maiTy  her  who  is  divorced  committeth 
adultery."  (3  Ne.  12:31-32;  Matt.  5:31-32.) 

When  the  Pharisees  raised  the  divorce  issue  to  tempt  him,  our  Lord  taught  them  the  eternity  of  the 
marriage  covenant,  ("What  therefore  God  hath  joined  together,  let  not  man  put  asunder"),  told  them  that 
Moses  permitted  divorce  because  of  the  hardness  of  their  hearts,  but  explained  that  from  the  beginning  it 
had  not  been  so  ordained.  Then  it  appears  he  went  into  the  house  and  gave  special  and  added  instruction  to 
"his  disciples."  For  them  the  law  was:  "Whosoever  shall  put  away  his  wife,  and  marry  another,  committeth 
adultery  against  her.  Add  if  a  woman  shall  put  away  her  husband,  and  be  married  to  another,  she 
committeth  adultery."  (Mark  10:2-12.)  Also  to  his  disciples  he  said:  "All  men  cannot  receive  this  saying, 
save  they  to  whom  it  is  given....  He  that  is  able  to  receive  it,  let  him  receive  it."  (Matt.  19:3-12;  Doctrines 
of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  80-85.) 

Even  in  the  Church  today  the  saints  do  not  abide  by  the  full  and  perfect  law.  It  is  somewhat  as  it  was  in 
the  days  of  Moses;  divorce  is  permitted  because  of  the  hardness  of  the  hearts  of  the  people,  and  the  Lord 
permits  his  agents  to  exercise  the  power  to  loose  as  well  as  the  power  to  bind.  Under  our  circumstances 
divorced  persons  who  remarry  are  not  always  guilty  of  the  crimes  they  would  be  if  the  highest  gospel 
standards  were  in  force. 

Doctors 

(Doctors  ) 

See  PHYSICIANS. 

Doctrine 

(Doctrine  ) 

See  ARTICLES  OF  FAITH,  CREEDS,  GOSPEL,  SALVATION,  SERMONS,  TRUTH. 

Doctrines  are  teachings.  They  are  classified  as  true  or  false.  True  doctrines  come  from  God,  the  source 
and  fountain  of  all  truth,  and  are  the  teachings  and  concepts  found  in  the  gospel.  False  doctrines  are  from 


147 


beneath.  Their  effect  is  to  pervert,  change,  and  alter  revealed  truth,  so  that  by  obeying  false  directions  men 
will  fall  short  of  salvation  in  the  celestial  world. 

Tme  doctrines  are  always  found  in  the  Lord's  true  Church  because  the  channel  of  communication 
between  God  and  his  people  is  open.  False  doctrines  abound  in  churches  which  deny  contemporary 
revelation  and  consequently  have  no  sure  way  of  checking  various  views  and  concepts  to  see  if  they 
conform  to  the  mind  and  will  of  Deity.  There  is,  of  course,  much  truth  in  all  churches,  but  those  churches 
which  do  not  have  the  fulness  of  the  gospel,  have  much  error  and  falsehood  intemiingled  with  such  tmths 
as  they  happen  to  have.  And  the  fulness  of  salvation  can  come  to  those  only  who  believe  and  conform  to 
the  fulness  of  the  Lord's  revealed  doctrines. 

Gospel  doctrine  is  synonymous  with  the  truths  of  salvation.  It  comprises  the  tenets,  teachings,  and  true 
theories  found  in  the  scriptures;  it  includes  the  principles,  precepts,  and  revealed  philosophies  of  pure 
religion;  prophetic  dogmas,  maxims,  and  views  are  embraced  within  its  folds;  the  Articles  of  Faith  are  part 
and  portion  of  it,  as  is  every  inspired  utterance  of  the  Lord's  agents 

The  doctrines  of  salvation  are  recorded  in  the  scriptures  (2  Tim.  3:14-17.)  The  Book  of  Mormon  has 
come  forth  in  this  day  so  that  men  might  "learn  doctrine."  (Isa.  29;24;  2  Ne.  27:35.)  The  Bible  and  the 
Book  of  Mornion  "shall  grow  together,  unto  the  confounding  of  false  doctrines."  (2  Ne.  3:12.)  So  that  the 
"tme  points"  of  the  Lord's  doctrine  might  be  known  again,  the  gospel  has  been  restored  (D.  &  C.  10:62); 
and  these  true  points  of  doctrine  are  now  found  in  the  tme  Church.  (D.  &  C.  11:16.)  The  tme  doctrine  of 
Christ  is  that  all  men  must  come  unto  him,  gain  faith,  repent,  be  baptized,  receive  the  Holy  Ghost,  and 
endure  in  faith  to  the  end  in  order  to  gain  salvation.  (2  Ne.  31:17-21;  3  Ne.  11:29-41;  D.  &  C.  10:67; 
68:25.) 

Conversion  to  the  tmth  comes  by  accepting  tme  doctrine.  (1  Ne.  15:  15;  3  Ne.  21:6.)  Those  so 
converted  are  expected  to  "speak  ...  by  doctrine"  (1  Cor.  14:6);  to  "teach  one  another  the  doctrine  of  the 
kingdom"  (D.  &  C.  88:77);  to  "be  perfected  in  the  understanding  of  their  ministry,  in  theory,  in  principle, 
and  in  doctrine"  (D.  &  C.  97:14);  to  "act  in  doctrine"  (D.  &  C.  101:  78);  and  to  leam  more  doctrine  by 
revelation  from  heaven.  (D.  &  C.  121:45-46.) 

In  the  final  analysis  the  tmth  of  doctrine  can  only  be  known  by  revelation  gained  as  a  result  of 
obedience.  "My  doctrine  is  not  mine,  but  his  that  sent  me,"  our  Lord  proclaimed.  "If  any  man  will  do  his 
will,  he  shall  know  of  the  doctrine,  whether  it  be  of  God,  or  whether  I  speak  of  myself"  (John  7:16-17.) 

Apostles  and  prophets  have  been  set  in  the  Church  for  the  purpose  of  teaching  and  identifying  tme 
doctrine,  lest  men  be  "tossed  to  and  fro,  and  carried  about  with  every  wind  of  doctrine."  (Eph.  4: 1 1-14.)  If 
a  church  has  no  prophets  and  apostles,  then  it  has  no  way  of  knowing  whether  its  doctrines  are  tme  or 
false.  "Whosoever  transgresseth,  and  abideth  not  in  the  doctrine  of  Christ,  hath  not  God.  He  that  abideth  in 
the  doctrine  of  Christ,  he  hath  both  the  Father  and  the  Son."  (2  John  9.) 

False  doctrine  is  of  the  devil  (1  Tim.  4:1;  D.  &  C.  10:63;  46:7),  and  men  who  preach  it  do  so  "for  the 
sake  of  riches  and  honor."  (Alma  I:  16.)  There  is  no  salvation  in  believing  or  teaching  false  doctrines.  "In 
vain  they  do  worship  me,  teaching  for  doctrines  the  commandments  of  men."  (Matt.  15:9;  Mark  7:7;  Jos. 
Smith  2:19.)  An  apostate  age  is  identified  as  one  in  which  men  "will  not  endure  sound  doctrine."  (2  Tim. 
4:3.) 

Apostasy  is  bom  of  the  teaching  of  false  doctrine.  Nephi  described  our  present  religious  world  by 
saying,  "There  shall  be  many  which  shall  teach  ...  false  and  vain  and  foolish  doctrines,"  and  by  specifying 
that  "Because  of  pride,  and  because  of  false  teachers,  and  false  doctrine,  their  churches  have  become 
comipted."  Speaking  of  the  whole  world,  he  said:  "They  have  all  gone  astray  save  it  be  a  few,  who  are  the 
humble  followers  of  Clirist;  nevertheless,  they  are  led,  that  in  many  instances  they  do  err  because  they  are 
taught  by  the  precepts  of  men."  Then  he  added  this  awful  interdiction:  "And  all  those  who  preach  false 
doctrines,  wo,  wo,  wo  be  unto  them,  saith  the  Lord  God  Almighty,  for  they  shall  be  thmst  down  to  hell!" 
(2  Ne.  28:8-15.) 

Doctrine  and  Covenants 

(Doctrine  and  Covenants  ) 

See  ARTICLE  ON  MARRLAGE,  BIBLE,  BOOK  OF  COMMANDMENTS,  BOOK  OF  MORMON, 
COVENANTS,  DOCTRINE,  LECTURES  ON  FAITH,  LOST  SCRIPTURE,  MANIFESTO,  PEARL  OF 
GREAT  PRICE,  REVELATION,  SCRIPTURE,  STANDARD  WORKS,  URIM  AND  THUMMIM. 


148 


That  volume  of  latter-day  scripture  which  contains  selections  from  the  revelations  given  to  Joseph 
Smith  and  his  successors  in  the  Presidency  of  the  Church  is  called  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  Certain 
parts  of  these  revelations  were  published  in  Independence,  Missouri,  in  1833  under  the  title  Book  of 
Commandments,  but  mob  violence  destroyed  the  printing  press  and  stopped  the  work  at  that  time.  By 
1835,  however,  a  new  and  enlarged  selection  of  revelations  had  been  made  by  the  Prophet,  and  the  first 
edition  of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  came  off  the  press. 

Thereafter,  of  course,  written  revelations  continued  to  be  received.  After  the  saints  came  west.  Elder 
Orson  Pratt  was  commissioned  and  directed  by  the  First  Presidency  to  prepare  an  up-to-date  edition  of  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants  for  publication.  This  volume  the  one  now  in  use,  containing  additional  revelations 
and  being  divided  into  sections  and  verses,  was  first  published  in  1876. 

As  now  constituted  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  contains  136  sections  or  chapters  to  which  are 
appended  an  Official  Declaration  commonly  called  the  Manifesto.  Most  of  these  sections  came  to  Joseph 
Smith  by  direct  revelation,  the  recorded  words  being  those  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  himself.  (D.  &  C.  29.) 
The  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  was  manifest  in  the  receipt  of  all  the  revelations.  Some  came  by  the 
whisperings  of  the  Spirit  to  the  Prophet  (D.  &  C.  20);  some  were  received  by  means  of  the  Urim  and 
Thummim  (D.  &  C.  3);  others  are  the  recorded  words  of  angelic  ministrants  (D.  &  C.  2);  others  are 
accounts  of  visions  (D.  &  C.  76);  a  few  are  inspired  epistles  of  the  Prophet  (D.  &  C.  128);  a  few  others 
contain  inspired  items  of  instmction  (D.  &  C.  131);  one  is  an  article  setting  forth  church  beliefs  relative  to 
governments  and  laws  in  general  (D.  &  C.  134);  one  is  an  inspired  announcement  of  the  martyrdom  of  the 
Prophet  and  patriarch  (D.  &  C.  135);  and,  since  its  adoption  in  1890,  the  Official  Declaration  (or 
Manifesto)  of  President  Wilford  Woodruff  has  been  published  in  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants. 

Early  editions  of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  also  contained  the  Lectures  on  Faith  and  an  article  on 
maiTiage  by  Oliver  Cowdery.  These  items  were  not  revelations,  were  never  so  considered,  and  are  no 
longer  published  in  the  same  volume  as  the  revelations.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  192-202.) 

Perhaps  no  other  book  is  of  such  great  worth  to  the  saints  as  is  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  It  is  their 
book,  the  voice  of  God  in  their  day.  The  revelations  therein  are  true,  and  men  are  commanded  to  search 
them.  (D.  &C.  1:37-39.) 

But  all  of  the  written  revelations  received  in  this  day  are  not  in  this  volume.  The  revelations  setting 
forth  the  temple  ordinances  and  other  sacred  matters  are  not  published  to  the  world.  Many  revelations 
were  received  by  the  Prophet  for  individuals,  and  these  are  not  included  in  the  published  record.  There  are 
some  accounts  of  visions  and  revelations  recorded  in  the  History  of  the  Church  which  are  not  published 
with  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  On  January  21,  1836,  for  instance,  the  Prophet  saw  in  vision  the  Father 
and  the  Son  in  the  celestial  kingdom  and  heard  the  voice  of  God  make  the  great  proclamation  relative  to 
salvation  for  the  dead.  (Teachings,  p.  107.)  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  and  others  of  the  Presidents  of  the 
Church  have  received  written  revelations  since  the  day  of  the  Prophet  which  have  been  accepted  by  their 
brethren  but  never  ordered  published  with  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp.  472- 
477.) 

Doctrine  of  Elias 

(Doctrine  of  Ellas  ) 
See  ELIAS. 


Dogmas 

(Dogmas  ) 
See  DOCTRINE. 

Dole 

(Dole  ) 

See  ALMSGIVING,  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  EMPLOYMENT,  IDLENESS,  WORK. 

Attempts  to  gain  one's  temporal  livelihood  by  means  of  a  dole  -  that  is,  through  charitable  gifts  of 
money  or  food  -  either  from  the  government,  the  Church,  or  some  other  social  organization,  violate  the 
divine  command  that  men  should  work  for  what  they  get  and  that  the  idler  should  not  eat  the  bread  nor 


149 


wear  the  garment  of  the  laborer.  (Gen.  3:19;  D.  &  C.  42:  42)  The  practice  of  supporting  the  poor  by  means 
of  a  dole  is  not  the  Lord's  way  of  caring  for  their  temporal  needs. 

Doomsday 

(Doomsday  ) 

See  JUDGMENT  DAY. 

Door 

(Door  ) 

See  DOOR  OF  THE  SHEEP. 

Door  of  the  Sheep 

(Door  of  the  Sheep  ) 

See  CHRIST,  GOOD  SHEPHERD,  KEEPER  OF  THE  GATE,  PERSONIFICATION;  WAY, 
TRUTH,  AND  LIFE. 

Christ  is  the  door  or  the  Door  of  the  Sheep.  By  so  designating  himself,  he  teaches  that  no  one  can  enter 
his  sheepfold  either  in  time  or  in  eternity  without  his  approval  He  personally  stands  ever  on  guard  to  reject 
the  ungodly.  (2  Ne.  9:41-43.)  He  is  the  Way.  "By  me  if  any  man  enter  in,  he  shall  be  saved,  and  shall  go  in 
and  out,  and  find  pasture,"  he  said.  (John  10:7-9.) 

Douay  Version  of  the  Bible 

(Douay  Version  of  the  Bible  ) 

See  KEMG  JAMES  VERSION  OF  THE  BIBLE. 

Doubt 

(Doubt  ) 

See  BELIEF,  FAITH. 

Where  the  gospel  is  concerned,  doubt  is  an  inclination  to  disbelieve  the  truths  of  salvation,  a  hesitancy 
to  accept  the  revealed  will  of  the  Lord;  it  is  a  state  of  uncertainty  in  mind  with  reference  to  the  doctrines  of 
the  gospel.  Faith  and  belief  are  of  God;  doubt  and  skepticism  are  of  the  devil. 

There  is  no  excuse  for  not  knowing  and  believing  true  principles  for  the  Lord  has  ordained  the  way 
whereby  all  may  come  to  a  knowledge  of  the  truth.  Doubt  comes  from  failure  to  keep  the  commandments. 
"O  then  despise  not,  and  wonder  not,  but  hearken  unto  the  words  of  the  Lord,  and  ask  the  Father  in  the 
name  of  Jesus  for  what  things  soever  ye  shall  stand  in  need.  Doubt  not,  but  be  believing,  and  begin  as  in 
times  of  old,  and  come  unto  the  Lord  with  all  your  heart,  and  work  out  your  own  salvation  with  fear  and 
trembling  before  him."  (Morm.  9:27;  Matt.  21:21.) 

Dragon 

(Dragon  ) 

See  DEVIL,  SERPENT. 

Dragons  belong  to  the  serpent  family;  they  are  fabulous  monsters  -  often  represented  as  winged 
serpents  breathing  fire.  Traditionally  fierce  and  relentless  in  combat,  it  is  possible  that  later-age  concepts 
of  them  grew  from  memories  of  the  pre-flood  dinosaurs,  hi  any  event,  the  terni  dragon  was  applied  with 
great  propriety  by  John  to  Satan.  (Rev.  12;  13:2-4;  16:13;  20:2.)  As  the  fiercest  and  most  dreaded  of 
serpents,  the  name  is  certainly  appropriate  for  the  most  fierce  and  relentlessly  wicked  of  all  beings. 

Dreams 

(Dreams  ) 

See  HOLY  GHOST,  REVELATION,  TRANCES,  VISIONS. 


150 


An  inspired  dream  is  a  vision  given  to  a  person  while  lie  sleeps.  "Behold,  I  have  dreamed  a  dream;  or, 
in  other  words,  I  have  seen  a  vision,"  Lehi  said.  (1  Ne.  10:2.)  All  inspired  dreams  are  visions,  but  all 
visions  are  not  dreams.  Visions  are  received  in  hours  of  wakefulness  or  of  sleep  and  in  some  cases  when 
the  recipient  has  passed  into  a  trance;  it  is  only  when  the  vision  occurs  during  sleep  that  it  is  termed  a 
dream.  (Isa.  29:17;  Dan.  2;  7;  1  Ne.  1:16;  Alma  30:20.) 

As  with  other  visions,  inspired  dreams  foretell  future  events  (Gen.  37:5;  40:5,  8;  41:15);  the  Lord 
appears  to  men  in  dreams  (Gen.  28:10-22;  31:24;  1  Kings  3:5;  1  Ne.  2:1-2;  3:2);  angels  appear  and 
minister  to  faithful  persons  in  their  dreams  (Gen.  31:11;  Matt.  1:20;  2:13,  19);  prophetic  warnings  are 
given  by  this  means  (Ether  9:3)  and  symbolic  representations  portrayed  in  dreams  teach  marvelous  truths. 
(1  Ne.  8;  9;  10;  15:21.)  Inspired  dreams  are  the  fruit  of  faith  they  are  not  given  to  apostate  peoples.  (1 
Sam.  20:6,  15.) 

Drugs 

(Drugs  ) 

See  WORD  OF  WISDOM. 

Druidism 

(Druidism  ) 

See  GHOSTS,  MAGIC,  SORCERY,  WITCHCRAFT. 

Druidism  is  one  of  the  ancient  apostate  religions  which,  as  far  as  is  known,  specialized  in  magic, 
conjuration,  and  the  like.  It  prevailed  during  the  dark  ages  in  Britain,  Ireland,  and  Gaul. 

Drunkenness 

(Drunkenness  ) 

See  WORD  OF  WISDOM. 

Drunkenness,  or  intoxication  in  any  degree,  is  an  evil  abomination  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord.  "Cease 
drunkenness,"  is  his  decree.  (D.  &  C.  136:  24.)  "Strong  drinks  are  not  for  the  belly,  but  for  the  washing  of 
your  bodies."  (D.  &  C.  89:7.)  The  Second  Coming  shall  catch  the  drunkards  unawares  to  their  destruction. 
(Luke  21:34.)  They  shall  not  be  saved  in  the  kingdom  of  God,  unless,  as  is  the  case  where  all  evils  and 
abominations  are  concerned,  they  repent  and  walk  soberly  and  uprightly  before  the  Lord.  (Gal.  5:19-21.) 
In  a  spiritual  sense  drunkenness  means  apostasy.  (Isa.  29:9-10;  Rev.  17:2;  18:3.) 

Dust 

(Dust  ) 

See  DEATH,  ELEMENTS,  GRAVES. 

Those  natural  elements  that  make  up  the  physical  earth  are  sometimes  referred  to  in  the  scriptures  as 
dust.  Thus  Adam  was  created  from  the  dust  of  the  ground  meaning  that  the  physical  body  which  he 
received  was  created  from  the  elements  of  the  earth.  (Gen.  2:7;  Moses  3:7;  Abra.  5:7;  D.  &  C.  77:12.) 
Similarly  all  men  are  created  from  the  dust  of  the  earth;  that  is,  the  elements  organized  into  a  mortal  body 
are  assembled  together  through  the  birth  process.  (Moses  6:69.) 

Figuratively,  dust  means  the  grave  or  death  as  in  such  expressions  as:  "By  the  sweat  of  thy  face  shall 
thou  eat  bread,  until  thou  shalt  return  unto  the  ground  -  for  thou  shall  surely  die  -  for  out  of  it  wast  thou 
taken:  for  dust  thou  wast,  and  unto  dust  shalt  thou  return."  (Moses  4:25;  Gen.  3:19.)  "Sleep  in  the  dust." 
(D.  &  C.  63:51;  Job  7:21.)  David's  Messianic  prophecy  foretelling  our  Lord's  death,  says  he  should  be 
brought  "into  the  dust  of  death"  (Ps.  22:15),  though,  as  elsewhere  prophesied  (Ps.  16:10),  the  body  of  the 
Lord  did  not  see  corruption,  that  is,  did  not  go  back  to  the  dust  in  the  literal  sense. 

The  Book  of  Mormon  is,  of  course,  repeatedly  referred  to  in  the  scriptures  as  a  voice  from  the  dust. 
(Isa.  29:4;  2  Ne.  3:19-20;  26:15-16;  27:9;  33:13;  Morm.  8:23-26;  Moro.  10:27.)  Such  statements  as, 
"Awake!  and  arise  from  the  dust"  (2  Ne.  1:14,  21,  23;  Mosiah  4:2),  are  figures  of  speech,  signifying  that 


151 


those  addressed  should  rise  above  carnal,  petty,  groveling  things  and  stand  forth  in  the  strength  of  the 
Spirit  as  men  of  character.  Similar  prophetic  calls  to  Jemsalem  to  shake  herself  from  the  dust  (2  Ne.  8:25; 
3  Ne.  20:37;  Moro.  10:31)  are  calls  for  her  to  come  back  from  her  downtrodden  position  of  obscurity  to 
the  high  eminence  she  should  occupy  in  the  eternal  scheme  of  things.  The  Book  of  Mormon  expression 
that  men  are  "less  than  the  dust  of  the  earth,"  as  the  context  shows,  has  reference  to  the  fact  that  the  dust  is 
obedient  to  the  commands  of  the  Creator,  whereas  men  rebel  against  his  will. 

Dust  Storms 

(Dust  Storms  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Duty 

(Duty  ) 

See  DILIGENCE,  OBEDIENCE,  THANKSGIVING. 

In  consequence  of  the  innumerable  blessings  showered  upon  them  by  their  Creator  and  Redeemer, 
men  are  morally  bound  to  conform  their  lives  to  the  divine  will.  It  is  their  duty  to  keep  the 
commandments.  (Eccles.  12:13;  Luke  17:10.) 

By  entering  into  the  various  gospel  covenants  and  accepting  positions  in  the  Church,  they  also  assume 
specific  obligations  and  duties  in  the  performance  of  which  they  are  enabled  to  work  out  their  salvation. 
"Wherefore,  now  let  every  man  learn  his  duty,  and  to  act  in  the  office  in  which  he  is  appointed,  in  all 
diligence."  (D.  &  C  107:99-100.) 


152 


(E  ) 

Earth 

(Earth  ) 

See  CREATION,  DUST,  EARTHS,  ELEMENTS,  WORLD. 


This  earth  or  planet  which  we  inhabit  was  created  as  a  place  where  we  could  gain  our  physical  bodies 
and  undergo  the  probation  of  mortality.  Not  only  does  it  play  an  important  part  in  the  plan  whereunder 
men  may  work  out  their  salvation  but  the  earth  itself  is  subject  to  certain  laws  of  progression  and  salvation 
because  of  which  it  eventually  will  become  a  fit  abode  for  exalted  beings.  This  earth  was  created  as  a 
living  thing,  and  the  Lord  ordained  that  it  should  live  a  celestial  law.  It  was  baptized  in  water  and  will 
receive  the  baptism  of  fire;  it  will  die,  be  resuiTccted  and  attain  unto  a  state  of  celestial  exaltation.  In  the 
course  of  its  eternal  existence,  it  is  destined  to  pass  through  certain  stages  of  existence.  (Doctrine  of 
Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  72-89;  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Voice  of  Warning,  ch.  5.) 

1 .  SPIRIT  EARTH.  -  We  may  suppose,  as  is  the  case  with  all  other  forais  of  life,  that  this  earth  was 
created  first  as  a  spirit,  and  that  it  was  thereafter  clothed  upon  with  tangible,  physical  element.  We  know 
that  the  Creators  planned  all  things  incident  to  the  creation  in  advance;  and  that  all  things  were  created 
"spiritually,  before  they  were  naturally  upon  the  face  of  the  earth."  (Moses  3:5-9;  Abra.  4:3 1;  5:3-5.) 

2.  EDENIC  EARTH.  -  Following  its  physical  creation,  the  earth  was  pronounced  good.  It  was  in  a 
terrestrial  or  paradisiacal  state.  There  was  no  death  either  for  man  or  for  any  form  of  life,  and  "all  the  vast 
creation  of  animated  beings  breathed  naught  but  health,  and  peace,  and  joy."  (2  Ne.  2:22;  Voice  of 
Warning,  pp.  89-91.) 


153 


3.  TELESTIAL  EARTH.  -  When  Adam  fell,  the  earth  fell  also  and  became  a  mortal  sphere,  one  upon 
which  worldly  and  carnal  people  can  live.  This  condition  was  destined  to  continue  for  a  period  of  6,000 
years,  and  it  was  while  in  this  state  that  the  earth  was  baptized  in  water.  (D.  &  C.  77:6-7,  12;  Man:  His 
Origin  and  Destiny,  pp.  415-436,  460-466.) 

4.  TERRESTRIAL  EARTH.  -  "We  believe  ...  that  the  earth  will  be  renewed  and  receive  its 
paradisiacal  glory."  (Tenth  Article  of  Faith.)  Thus,  the  earth  is  to  go  back  to  the  primeval,  paradisiacal,  or 
terrestrial  state  that  prevailed  in  the  days  of  the  Garden  of  Eden.  Accompanying  this  transition  to  its 
millennial  status  the  earth  is  to  be  burned,  that  is,  receive  its  baptism  of  fire.  It  will  then  be  a  new  heaven 
and  a  new  earth,  and  again  health,  peace,  and  joy  will  prevail  upon  its  face.  (D.  &  C.  101:23-32;  Isa. 
65:17-25;  Mai.  3:1-6;  4:1-6;  Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny,  pp.  380-397) 

5.  CELESTIAL  EARTH.  -  Following  the  millennium  plus  "a  little  season"  (D.  &  C.  29:22-25),  the 
earth  will  die,  be  resurrected  and  become  like  a  "sea  of  glass"  (D.  &  C.  130:7),  attain  unto  "its  sanctified, 
immoilal,  and  eternal  state."  (D.  &  C.  77:1-2.)  Then  the  poor  and  the  meek  -  that  is,  the  godfearing  and  the 
righteous  -  shall  inherit  the  eai1h;  it  will  become  an  abiding  place  for  the  Father  and  the  Son  and  celestial 
beings  will  possess  it  forever  and  ever.  (D.  &  C.  88:14-26,  111.) 

Earthquakes 

(Earthquakes  ) 

See  EARTH,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Since  the  earth  has  been  in  its  present  fallen  or  telestial  state,  it  has  been  subject  to  earthquakes.  These 
are  part  of  the  Lord's  plan;  they  come  by  his  power  and  fulfil  his  purposes.  By  them  he  delivers  his 
servants  from  perils,  destroys  the  wicked,  and  leaves  a  sign  that  his  hand  has  been  in  transcendent  events. 
(Hela.  12:7-17.) 

Earthquakes  attended  the  delivery  from  prison  of  Paul  and  Silas  in  the  old  world,  of  Lehi  and  Nephi  in 
the  new.  (Acts  16:25-26;  Hela.  5:27.)  Both  the  crucifixion  and  the  resun'ection  of  our  Lord  were  attested 
by  earthquakes.  (Matt.  27:54;  28:2.)  Among  the  Nephites  the  quakings  and  destructions  at  the  time  of  the 
crucifixion  were  so  extensive  that  the  whole  face  of  the  land  was  changed  and  the  wicked  and  rebellious 
were  destroyed.  (3  Ne.  8;  9:1-14;  10:9-10.) 

Earthquakes  are  given  as  one  of  the  signs  of  the  times;  they  foreshadow  the  Second  Coming.  (Matt. 
24:7;  Mark  13:8;  Luke  21:11;  D.  &  C.  45:33;  87:6.)  By  them  the  testimony  of  the  Lord's  power  is  borne  to 
the  people  of  the  earth.  (D.  &  C.  43:25;  88:89),  and  when  the  glorious  Second  Coming  itself  arrives  there 
will  be  "a  great  earthquake,  such  as  was  not  since  men  were  upon  the  earth,  so  mighty  an  earthquake,  and 
so  great."  (Rev.  16:18-20;  6:12-17;  8:5;  11:12-15,  19;Zech.  14:4-5;  D.  &  C.  133:22-25.) 

Earths 

(Earths  ) 
See  EARTH. 

We  are  blessed  with  the  knowledge  that  ours  is  not  the  only  inhabited  earth.  Rather,  Christ  acting 
under  the  direction  of  the  Father  is  the  Creator  of  worlds  without  number.  Moses  was  pennitted  to  see 
many  of  these  earths,  to  learn  that  they  are  inhabited  by  the  spirit  children  of  the  Father,  and  to  receive  the 
revelation  that  it  is  the  Lord's  work  and  glory  to  bring  to  pass  the  immortality  and  eternal  life  of  the 
inhabitants  of  all  these  earths.  (Moses  1:27-41;  D.  &  C.  76:22-24;  John  1:1-5;  Heb.  1:1-4;  Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  72-74.)  Our  particular  earth,  the  one  to  which  Christ  was  sent  to  work  out  the  infinite 
and  eternal  atonement,  has  seen  greater  wickedness  among  her  inhabitants  than  has  been  the  case  on  any 
earth.  (Moses  7:29-36.) 

Easter 

(Easter  ) 

See  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CHRIST,  CHRISTMAS,  PASSOVER,  RESURRECTION. 

Easter  is  the  church  festival  celebrated  by  Christians  in  commemoration  of  the  resurrection  of  our 
Lord.  The  lone  scriptural  reference  to  it  (Acts  12:4)  should  have  been  translated  Passover  from  the  Greek 


154 


pascha  found  in  the  original.  Tlie  name  Easter  comes  from  tlie  Norse  goddess  Eastre  whose  festival  was 
observed  at  the  vernal  equinox,  hi  325  A.D.  the  Council  of  Nicea  determined  that  Easter  among  Christians 
should  be  celebrated  the  first  Sunday  after  the  fiill  moon  on  or  following  the  vernal  equinox. 

Obviously,  Easter  as  now  celebrated  has  come  into  being  as  a  compromise  between  pagan  and 
apostate  Christian  views,  and  obviously  it  does  not  pretend  to  be  the  anniversary  of  the  actual  resurrection 
of  Christ.  Nonetheless  the  true  saints  gladly  take  it  as  an  appropriate  occasion  on  which  to  tum  their 
attentions  to  the  infinite  and  eternal  atonement  of  Christ  as  such  was  climaxed  by  his  coming  forth  as  the 
firstfmits  of  them  that  slept. 

Ecclesia 

(Ecclesia  ) 
See  CHURCH. 

Economic  Turmoil 

(Economic  Tunnoil  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Eden 

(Eden  ) 

See  GARDEN  OF  EDEN. 

Edification 

(Edification  ) 

See  EDUCATION,  GIFT  OF  THE  HOLY  GHOST,  GOSPEL,  KNOWLEDGE,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST, 
TEACHERS. 

Edification  is  education  in  uplifting  and  enlightening  things.  To  edify  a  person  is  to  teach,  instruct,  and 
benefit  him  in  the  moral  and  religious  fields.  Gospel  principles  and  practices  are  designed  to  mellow  and 
edify  true  believers  so  that  they  may  become  saints  in  very  deed.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  saints  to  "instnict  and 
edify  each  other."  (D.  &  C.  43:8;  84:106,  110;  136:24;  1  Thess.  5:11.) 

Those  who  teach  in  church  organizations  are  specifically  commanded  to  speak  so  that  "all  may  be 
edified."  (D.  &  C.  88:122,  137.)  Quorum  officers  are  to  edify  those  over  whom  they  preside.  (D.  &  C. 
107:85.)  hideed,  apostles,  prophets,  pastors,  evangelists,  teachers,  and  all  church  officers,  have  been 
appointed  of  God,  "For  the  perfecting  of  the  saints,  for  the  work  of  the  ministry,  for  the  edifying  of  the 
body  of  Christ."  (Eph.  4:1 1-16,  29.) 

Things  that  are  edifying  are  of  God  and  lead  to  salvation;  unedifying  things  are  from  beneath  and  lead 
to  damnation.  When  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  is  present,  then  "he  that  preacheth  and  he  that  receiveth, 
understand  one  another,  and  both  are  edified  and  rejoice  together.  And  that  which  doth  not  edify  is  not  of 
God,  and  is  darkness."  (D.  &  C.  50:22-23.)  "Charity  edifietli."  (1  Cor.  8:1.)  "He  that  prophesieth  speaketh 
unto  men  to  edification,  and  exhortation,  and  comfort.  He  that  speaketh  in  an  unknown  tongue  edifieth 
himself;  but  he  that  prophesieth  edifieth  the  church."  (1  Cor.  14:3-4.)  Unfortunately,  there  is  much  in  the 
world  in  the  way  of  teaching,  doctrine,  literature,  music,  art,  and  recreation  that  is  not  edifying  and  in 
consequence  leads  men  away  from  righteousness. 

Education 

(Education  ) 

See  EDIFICATION,  IGNORANCE,  KNOWLEDGE,  RELIGIOUS  EDUCATION,  TEACHERS, 
WISDOM. 

In  the  broad  sense  of  the  word,  the  process  of  living  on  earth,  of  seeking  to  work  out  one's  salvation 
with  fear  and  trembling  before  God,  is  in  itself  a  course  of  education;  it  is  a  system  of  training,  study,  and 
discipline  whereby  the  mental  and  moral  powers  are  schooled  and  prepared  for  graduation  into  the  eternal 
realms. 


155 


Also  in  the  gospel  sense,  education  consists  in  gaining  a  knowledge  of  God  and  the  saving  truths  of  the 
gospel.  No  man  can  be  saved  in  ignorance  of  Jesus  Christ  and  the  laws  of  salvation.  (John  17:3;  D.  &  C. 
131:6.)  Accordingly,  the  saints  are  under  command  to  "teach  one  another  the  doctrine  of  the  kingdoin,"  to 
learn  all  expedient  "things  that  pertain  unto  the  kingdom  of  God,"  and  to  gain  a  knowledge  of  countries, 
kingdoins,  sciences,  arts,  and  every  form  of  learning,  so  that  they  can  both  work  out  their  own  salvation 
and  carry  the  message  of  salvation  to  the  Lord's  other  children.  (D.  &  C.  88:77-81.) 

Education  is  gained  primarily  from  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  by  revelation  and  secondarily  from  study, 
research,  and  investigation.  Those  who  lack  wisdom  are  commanded  to  ask  of  God  who  giveth  liberally  to 
all  the  faithful.  (D.  &  C.  46:7;  Jas.  1:5-7.)  "Let  him  that  is  ignorant  learn  wisdom  by  humbling  himself  and 
calling  upon  the  Lord  his  God,  that  his  eyes  may  be  opened  that  he  may  see,  and  his  ears  opened  that  he 
may  hear;  For  my  Spirit  is  sent  forth  into  the  world  to  enlighten  the  humble  and  contrite,  and  to  the 
condemnation  of  the  ungodly."  (D.  &  C.  136:32-33) 

In  view  of  the  Latter-day  Saint  perspective  of  the  importance  of  education  in  the  eternal  scheme  of 
things,  it  has  inevitably  followed  that  schools,  colleges,  universities,  and  secular  learning  have  prospered 
wherever  the  influence  of  the  saints  has  been  felt.  Many  surveys  and  studies  have  shown  that  there  is  a 
higher  degree  of  literacy  and  high  scholastic  attainment  among  members  of  the  Church  than  among  any 
other  similar  group  in  the  world. 

Ego 

(Ego  ) 

See  SPIRIT  BODIES. 

Egyptus 

(Egyptus  ) 

See  CAIN,  HAM,  NEGROES. 

Two  women  of  note,  a  mother  and  her  daughter,  both  canied  the  name  Egyptus.  The  mother,  a 
descendant  of  Cain,  was  the  wife  of  Ham;  the  daughter  was  the  mother  of  Pharaoh,  the  first  ruler  of  Egypt. 
Abraham  says  that  in  the  Chaldean  tongue  Egyptus  "signifies  that  which  is  forbidden,"  meaning 
apparently  that  Ham  married  outside  the  approved  lineage.  (Abra.  1 :20-27;  Gen.  6:2.) 

Eight  Witnesses 

(Eight  Witnesses  ) 

See  WITNESSES  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON. 

Elder  Brother 

(Elder  Brother  ) 

See  CHRIST,  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  FIRSTBORN,  PRE-EXISTENCE. 

Christ  is  literally  our  Elder  Brother.  Since  all  men  are  the  personal  spirit  children  of  the  Father,  and 
since  Christ  was  the  Firstborn  spirit  offspring,  it  follows  that  he  is  the  Elder  Brother  of  all  men. 

Elders 

(Elders  ) 

See  MELCHIZEDEK  PRIESTHOOD,  MISSIONARIES,  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES, 
PRIESTHOOD  QUORUMS,  QUORUM  PRESIDENTS. 

1 .  In  ancient  times  when  tribal  governmental  affairs  were  more  fully  centered  in  the  family,  and  when 
those  affairs  were  partly  and  sometimes  wholly  regulated  according  to  a  patriarchal  system,  especial 
deference  was  given  to  the  older  men,  and  they  were  refeiTed  to  as  the  elders.  No  special  priesthood 
endowment  or  office  was  involved.  Rather,  the  designation  singled  out  those  whose  maturity,  experience, 
and  judgment  made  them  natural  leaders  whose  counsel  and  direction  was  highly  esteemed. 


156 


People  both  in  and  out  of  the  earthly  kingdom  of  God  designated  their  mature  leaders  and  rulers  as 
elders.  Thus  when  Joseph  went  up  to  bury  his  father,  Jacob,  there  went  with  him  "the  elders  of  his  house, 
and  all  the  elders  of  the  land  of  Egypt."  (Gen.  50:7.)  This  usage  of  the  term  elders  was  common  among  the 
Jews  in  the  meridian  of  time.  There  are  more  than  a  score  of  such  references  in  Matthew,  Mark,  Luke,  and 
Acts.  (Matt.  15:2;  Mark  7:3;  Luke  9:22;  Acts  4:5.) 

2.  One  of  the  ordained  offices  in  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  is  that  of  an  elder.  (D.  &  C.  20:60;  55:2; 
107:7;  Acts  14:23;  Tit.  1:5.)  This  office  grows  out  of  and  is  an  appendage  to  the  higher  priesthood.  (D.  & 
C.  84:29;  107:5.)  As  far  as  we  know,  there  were  no  ordained  elders  in  the  Church  until  the  day  of  Moses, 
just  as  there  was  no  Aaronic  Priesthood  until  that  day. 

There  were,  of  course,  ordained  elders  in  ancient  Israel  (Ex.  24:9-11;  Num.  11:16),  among  the 
Nephites  both  in  their  early  and  latter  history  (Alma  4:7,  16;  6:1;  Moro.  3:1;  4:1;  6:1,  7),  and  among  the 
meridian  saints.  In  New  Testament  usage  the  term  is  a  translation  of  the  Greek  presbyter.  (1  Tim.  5:1,  17, 
19.)  The  ordination  of  elders  in  modem  times  began  with  Joseph  Smith  and  Oliver  Cowdery  on  April  6, 
1830.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  pp.  146-147.) 

Elders  are  ministers  of  Christ;  they  are  called  to  administer  in  spiritual  things  (D.  &  C.  107:12),  "To 
teach,  expound,  exhort,  baptize,  and  watch  over  the  church;  And  to  confirm  the  church  by  the  laying  on  of 
the  hands,  and  the  giving  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  ...  The  elders  are  to  conduct  the  meetings  as  they  are  led  by 
the  Holy  Ghost,  according  to  the  commandments  and  revelations  of  God."  (D.  &  C.  20:42-45;  46:2.)  They 
are  to  preach  the  gospel  (D.  &  C.  53:3),  teach  from  the  scriptures  (D.  &  C.  42:12),  administer  to  the  sick 
(D.  &  C.  42:  43-52;  Jas.  5:14-15),  function  in  the  church  court  system  (D.  &  C.  42:  80),  and  perform  any 
duty  that  can  be  done  by  a  holder  of  the  lesser  priesthood.  (D.  &  C.  20:38-67.) 

3.  Elder  is  the  title  given  all  holders  of  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  whether  the  individuals  concerned 
are  or  have  been  ordained  to  the  office  of  elder  or  not.  (D.  &  C.  20:38;  1  Pet.  5:1;  2  John  1;  3  John  1.) 
Thus  if  a  priest  in  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  had  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  confeiTed  upon  him  and  was 
ordained  a  seventy  or  high  priest,  though  he  would  never  be  ordained  to  the  office  of  an  elder,  yet  he 
would  be  known  by  that  title. 

Elders  Courts 

(Elders  Courts  ) 

See  EXCOMMUNICATION. 

In  the  missions  of  the  Church  where  there  are  no  bishoprics  or  regularly  organized  high  councils  to  try 
transgressors  against  the  Lord's  laws,  the  proper  church  officers  fonn  elders  courts  by  appointing  several 
Melchizedek  Priesthood  holders  so  to  serve.  These  courts  exercise  jurisdiction  similar  to  that  of  high 
councils  in  the  stakes. 

Elders  of  Israel 

(Elders  of  Israel  ) 
See  ELDERS. 

Elect 

(Elect  ) 

See  ELECT  OF  GOD. 

Election  of  Grace 

(Election  of  Grace  ) 

See  AGENCY,  CALLING  AND  ELECTION  SURE,  FOREORDINATION,  GRACE  OF  GOD, 
ISRAEL,  PREDESTINATION,  PRE-EXISTENCE. 

As  part  of  the  new  song  the  saints  will  sing  when  they  "see  eye  to  eye"  and  the  millennial  era  has  been 
ushered  in  will  be  these  words,  "The  Lord  hath  redeemed  his  people,  Israel,  According  to  the  election  of 
grace.  Which  was  brought  to  pass  by  the  faith  And  covenant  of  their  fathers."  (D.  &  C.  84:98-102;  Rom. 
11:1-5.)  This  election  of  gi'ace  is  a  very  fundamental,  logical,  and  important  part  of  God's  dealings  with 


157 


men  through  the  ages.  To  bring  to  pass  the  salvation  of  the  greatest  possible  number  of  his  spirit  children 
the  Lord,  in  general,  sends  the  most  righteous  and  worthy  spirits  to  earth  tlirough  the  lineage  of  Abraham 
and  Jacob.  This  course  is  a  manifestation  of  his  grace  or  in  other  words  his  love,  mercy,  and 
condescension  toward  his  children. 

This  election  to  a  chosen  lineage  is  based  on  pre-existent  worthiness  and  is  thus  made  "according  to 
the  foreknowledge  of  God."  (1  Pet.  1:2.)  Those  so  grouped  together  during  their  mortal  probation  have 
more  abundant  opportunities  to  make  and  keep  the  covenants  of  salvation,  a  right  which  they  earned  by 
pre-existent  devotion  to  the  cause  of  righteousness.  As  part  of  this  election,  Abraham  and  others  of  the 
noble  and  great  spirits  were  chosen  before  they  were  bom  for  the  particular  missions  assigned  them  in  this 
life.  (Abra.  3:22-24;  Rom.  9.) 

As  with  every  basic  doctrine  of  the  gospel,  the  Lord's  system  of  election  based  on  pre-existent 
faithfulness  has  been  changed  and  perverted  by  an  apostate  Christendom.  So  absurd  have  been  the  false 
conclusions  reached  in  this  field  that  millions  of  sincere  though  deceived  persons  have  devoutly  believed 
that  in  accordance  with  the  divine  will  men  were  pre-destined  to  receive  salvation  or  damnation  which  no 
act  on  their  part  could  change.  (Teachings,  p.  189.) 

Actually,  if  the  full  blessings  of  salvation  are  to  follow,  the  doctrine  of  election  must  operate  twice. 
First,  righteous  spirits  are  elected  or  chosen  to  come  to  mortality  as  heirs  of  special  blessings.  Then,  they 
must  be  called  and  elected  again  in  this  life,  an  occurrence  which  takes  place  when  they  join  the  true 
Church.  (D.  &  C.  53:1.)  Finally,  in  order  to  reap  eternal  salvation,  they  must  press  forward  in  obedient 
devotion  to  the  truth  until  they  make  their  "calling  and  election  sure"  (2  Pet.  1),  that  is,  are  "sealed  up  unto 
eternal  life."  (D.  &  C.  131:5.) 

Elect  Lady 

(Elect  Lady  ) 

See  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  ELECTION  OF  GRACE,  ELECT  OF  GOD. 

An  elect  lady  is  a  female  member  of  the  Church  who  has  already  received,  or  who  through  obedience 
is  qualified  to  receive,  the  fulness  of  gospel  blessings.  This  includes  temple  endowments,  celestial 
marriage,  and  the  fulness  of  the  sealing  power.  She  is  one  who  has  been  elected  or  chosen  by  faithfulness 
as  a  daughter  of  God  in  this  life,  an  heir  of  God,  a  member  of  his  household.  Her  position  is  comparable  to 
that  of  the  elders  who  magnify  their  callings  in  the  priesthood  and  thereby  receive  all  that  the  Father  hath. 
(D.&C.  84:38.) 

In  the  early  days  of  this  dispensation  Emma  Smith,  the  Prophet's  wife,  was  in  such  complete  harmony 
with  the  Lord's  program  that  he  forgave  her  of  her  sins  and  addressed  her  as  an  elect  lady.  (D.  &  C.  25:1- 
3;  History  of  the  Church,  vol.  4,  p.  552.)  John  the  Beloved  used  a  similar  salutation  to  ceilain  chosen 
women  in  his  day.  (2  John  1,  13.)  Just  as  it  is  possible  for  the  very  elect  to  be  deceived,  and  to  fall  from 
grace  through  disobedience,  so  an  elect  lady,  by  failing  to  endure  to  the  end,  can  lose  her  chosen  status. 

Elect  of  God 

(Elect  of  God  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  ELECTION  OF  GRACE,  ELECT  LADY,  SAINTS,  SONS  OF 
GOD. 

The  elect  of  God  comprise  a  very  select  group,  an  iimer  circle  of  faithful  members  of  The  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  They  are  the  portion  of  church  members  who  are  striving  with  all  their 
hearts  to  keep  the  fulness  of  the  gospel  law  in  this  life  so  that  they  can  become  inheritors  of  the  fijlness  of 
gospel  rewards  in  the  life  to  come. 

As  far  as  the  male  sex  is  concerned,  they  are  the  ones,  the  Lord  says,  who  have  the  Melchizedek 
Priesthood  conferred  upon  them  and  who  thereafter  magnify  their  callings  and  are  sanctified  by  the  Spirit. 
In  this  way,  "They  become  the  sons  of  Moses  and  of  Aaron  and  the  seed  of  Abraham,  and  the  church  and 
kingdom,  and  the  elect  of  God."  They  keep  "the  oath  and  covenant  which  belongeth  to  the  priesthood," 
and  are  rewarded  with  the  flilness  of  the  Father's  kingdom.  (D.  &  C.  84:33-41.) 

To  gain  this  elect  status  they  must  be  endowed  in  the  temple  of  the  Lord  (D.  &  C.  95:8),  enter  into  that 
"order  of  the  priesthood"  named  "the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  of  marriage"  (D.  &  C.  131:1-4),  and 
overcome  by  faith  until,  as  the  sons  of  God,  they  merit  membership  in  the  Church  of  the  Firstborn.  (D.  & 


158 


C.  76:50-70,  94-96.)  The  elect  of  God  are  the  chosen  of  God;  and  he  has  said:  "There  are  many  who  have 
been  ordained  among  you,  whom  I  have  called  but  few  of  them  are  chosen."  (D.  &  C.  95:5;  121 :34-40.) 

This  is  the  day  in  which  the  Lord  is  gathering  his  elect,  those  who  hear  his  voice  and  harden  not  their 
hearts  (D.  &  C.  29:7),  from  the  four  quarters  of  the  earth  (D.  &  C.  33:6),  so  that  if  they  continue  to  abide 
in  his  word,  they  shall  have  an  eventual  salvation  in  his  presence.  This  is  the  day  of  which  the  Lord  spoke: 
"I  will  bring  forth  a  seed  out  of  Jacob,  and  out  of  Judah  an  inheritor  of  my  mountains:  and  mine  elect  shall 
inherit  it,  and  my  servants  shall  dwell  there."  (Isa.  65:9.)  The  coming  millennial  day  is  one  in  which  the 
"elect  shall  long  enjoy  the  work  of  their  hands"  (Isa.  65:  22),  for  the  earth  and  the  fulness  thereof  shall 
then  be  theirs. 

Elements 

(Elements  ) 

See  CREATION,  DUST,  IMMORTALITY,  MORTALITY,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  SOUL,  SPIRIT 
ELEMENT. 

Those  natural  or  earthy  substances  of  which  the  earth  in  all  its  parts  is  composed  and  which  make  up 
the  physical  or  temporal  bodies  of  all  created  things  are  called  elements.  They  are  of  the  earth,  earthy  (1 
Cor.  15:44-48);  they  are  to  be  distinguished  from  the  more  pure  and  refined  substance  of  which  spirit 
matter  is  composed.  (D.  &  C.  131:  6-7.)  "The  elements  are  eternal,"  the  Lord  says;  and  when  they  are 
organized  into  a  mortal  body,  those  elements  become  the  tabernacle  of  the  eternal  spirit  that  comes  from 
pre-existence.  Also,  "The  elements  are  the  tabernacle  of  God,"  meaning  that  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  will 
dwell  in  the  hearts  of  righteous  men.  In  the  resurrection  "spirit  and  element"  are  inseparably  connected," 
thus  assuring  immortality  to  the  soul.  (D.  &  C.  93:33-35.)  It  follows  that  elements  which  are  mortal  now 
are  destined  to  become  immortal  elements  hereafter. 

One  of  the  signs  of  the  times  is  that  the  elements  (meaning  weather  conditions  and  such  things  as  bring 
about  earthquakes  and  the  like)  shall  be  in  commotion  in  the  last  days.  (D.  &  C.  88:87-92.)  When  the  Lord 
comes,  the  elements  (meaning  the  earth  itself  and  all  that  composes  it)  shall  melt  with  fervent  heat,  and  all 
things  shall  be  made  new.  (D.  &  C.  101:25;  2  Pet.  3:10-12;  3  Ne.  26:3;  Moral.  9:2.)  And  finally,  when  this 
earth  becomes  a  celestial  sphere,  the  natural  elements  of  which  it  is  composed  will  become  immortal  and 
eternal.  (D.  &  C.  77:1;  88:16-32;  130:9.) 

Eleventh  Hour 

(Eleventh  Hour  ) 

See  LAST  DAYS,  RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Based  on  the  common  verity  that  there  are  12  hours  in  the  day  (John  11:9),  the  expression  eleventh 
hour,  used  figuratively  to  apply  to  the  earth's  history,  has  reference  to  the  latter-days.  In  the  vineyard, 
those  who  were  employed  during  the  11th  hour  were  paid  the  same  as  those  whose  services  had 
commenced  with  the  rising  sun.  (Matt.  20:1-16.)  One  application  of  this  parable  is  that  those  called  to 
Christ's  service  in  the  latter-days  will  inherit  equally  with  Adam  and  Abraham  though  those  ancient 
prophets  have  long  since  gone  to  their  exaltation.  (D.  &  C.  132:29-37;  133:54-56.)  In  sending  forth  his 
ministers  in  this  dispensation  the  Lord  said:  "It  is  the  eleventh  hour,  and  the  last  time  that  I  shall  call 
laborers  into  my  vineyard."  (D.  &  C.  33:3.) 

Elias 

(Ellas  ) 

See  AARONIC  PRIESTHOOD,  ELIJAH  THE  PROPHET,  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST,  JOSEPH  SMITH 
THE  PROPHET,  PRIESTHOOD  OF  ELIAS,  RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL. 

Many  scriptures  use  the  term  Elias  in  connection  with  vital  doctrinal  explanations.  Some  of  these 
passages  have  come  to  us  in  garbled  and  fragmentary  form.  Various  of  them  use  the  word  to  mean  wholly 
different  and  divergent  things.  Much  confiision  and  uncertainty  would  be  avoided  if  gospel  students  would 
note  carefiilly  the  distinguishable  differences  in  the  various  usages  of  this  important  though  unusual  word. 
The  following  different  meanings  of  the  designation  Elias  are  of  scriptural  record:  1.  ELIAS  OF 


159 


ABRAHAM'S  DAY.  -  As  part  of  the  restoration  of  all  things,  a  prophet  named  Elias  came  to  Joseph 
Smith  and  Oliver  Cowdery  on  April  3,  1836,  and  committed  unto  them  the  dispensation  of  the  gospel  of 
Abraham.  The  scriptural  account  of  this  glorious  event  specifies:  "Elias  appeared,  and  committed  the 
dispensation  of  the  gospel  of  Abraham,  saying  that  in  us  and  our  seed  all  generations  after  us  should  be 
blessed."  (D.  &  C.  110:12.) 

Now  what  was  the  gospel  of  Abraham?  Obviously  it  was  the  commission,  the  mission,  the  endowment 
and  power,  the  message  of  salvation,  given  to  Abraham.  And  what  was  this?  It  was  a  divine  promise  that 
both  in  the  world  and  out  of  the  world  his  seed  should  continue  "as  innumerable  as  the  stars;  or,  if  ye  were 
to  count  the  sand  upon  the  seashore  ye  could  not  number  them."  (D.  &  C.  132:30;  Gen.  17;  Abra.  2:1-12.) 

Thus  the  gospel  of  Abraham  was  one  of  celestial  marriage  (including  plurality  of  wives);  it  was  a 
gospel  or  commission  to  provide  a  lineage  for  the  elect  portion  of  the  pre-existent  spirits,  a  gospel  to 
provide  a  household  in  eternity  for  those  who  live  the  fulness  of  the  celestial  law.  This  power  and 
commission  is  what  Elias  restored,  and  as  a  consequence,  the  righteous  among  all  future  generations  were 
assured  of  the  blessings  of  a  continuation  of  the  seeds  forever,  even  as  it  was  with  Abraham  of  old.  (D.  & 
C.  132.) 

This  committing  to  man  of  the  gospel  of  Abraham,  of  the  great  commission  which  he  had,  should  not 
be  confiised  with  the  spirit  of  Elias  or  the  doctrine  of  Elias.  The  commission  which  the  man  Elias 
conferred  was  not  an  authorization  either  to  operate  in  the  spirit  of  Elias  or  to  preach  the  gospel.  The  spirit 
of  Elias  had  been  manifest  long  before  the  man  Elias  came.  The  commission  to  preach  the  gospel  was 
restored  by  Peter,  James,  and  John  in  1829,  and  the  gospel  had  been  preached  for  nearly  seven  years 
before  Elias  came.  In  their  mortal  ministry,  Peter,  James,  and  John  had  been  given  this  commission:  "Go 
ye  into  all  the  world,  and  preach  the  gospel  to  every  creature."  (Mark  16:15.)  In  other  words,  the  gospel  of 
Peter,  James  and  John,  their  gi'eat  commission,  was  to  preach  the  gospel  of  salvation.  When  they  came  in 
modem  times  that,  among  other  things,  was  what  they  restored. 

We  have  no  information,  at  this  time,  as  to  the  mortal  life  or  ministry  of  Elias.  Apparently  he  lived  in 
the  days  of  Abraham,  but  whether  he  was  Abraham,  or  Melchizedek,  or  some  other  prophet,  we  do  not 
know. 

2.  ELIAS  A  NAME  FOR  ELIJAH.  -  Elias  is  the  Greek  foim  of  Elijah.  This  leads  to  some  confiision 
and  the  necessity  of  determining  whether  Elijah  or  someone  else  is  meant  in  each  passage  where  the  name 
Elias  appears.  Such  a  determination  is  not  difficult,  however,  when  the  full  doctrine  of  Elias  and  Elijah  is 
understood. 

3.  SPIRIT  AND  DOCTRINE  OF  ELIAS.  -  Joseph  Smith  taught  that  a  preparatory  work,  one  that  lays 
a  foundation  for  a  greater  work,  one  that  goes  before  to  prepare  the  way  for  a  greater  which  is  to  come,  is 
a  work  perfonned  by  the  spirit  of  Elias.  This  principle  is  called  the  doctrine  of  Elias.  The  Prophet 
explained  that  the  spirit  and  doctrine  of  Elias  pertain  to  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  only.  He  used  himself  as 
an  example,  saying  that  he  worked  by  the  spirit  of  Elias  from  the  time  he  received  the  Aaronic  Priesthood 
(which  is  a  preparatory  priesthood)  until  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  was  restored.  In  the  same  way  John 
the  Baptist,  he  explained,  served  in  the  spirit  and  power  of  Elias;  that  is,  as  our  Lord's  forerunner,  sei^ving 
in  the  lesser  priesthood,  he  prepared  the  way  for  a  greater  work. 

Work  done  by  authority  of  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  is  not  performed  in  accordance  with  the  spirit 
of  Elias.  To  distinguish  between  the  spirit  of  Elias  and  a  higher  power,  the  Prophet  said  that  a  man  could 
be  baptized  by  the  spirit  of  Elias,  but  he  could  not  receive  the  Holy  Ghost  by  that  power,  and  "any  man 
that  comes,  having  the  spirit  and  power  of  Elias,  he  will  not  transcend  his  bounds."  (Teachings,  pp.  335- 
341.) 

4.  ELIAS  OF  THE  RESTORATION.  -  According  to  the  plan  and  program  of  the  Lord,  the 
dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  times  is  "the  times  of  restitution  of  all  things,  which  God  hath  spoken  by  the 
mouth  of  all  his  holy  prophets  since  the  world  began."  (Acts  3:21.)  This  restoration  is  to  be  effected  by 
Elias.  Before  the  winding  up  of  the  Lord's  work,  the  promise  is:  "Elias  truly  shall  first  come,  and  restore 
all  things."  (Matt.  17:11.)  With  these  ancient  scriptures  before  us,  these  questions  arise:  Who  is  the 
promised  Elias  who  was  to  come  and  restore  all  things?  Has  this  work  of  restoration  taken  place?  Or  is  it 
something  that  is  yet  fiiture? 

Correcting  the  Bible  by  the  spirit  of  revelation,  the  Prophet  restored  a  statement  of  John  the  Baptist 
which  says  that  Christ  is  the  Elias  who  was  to  restore  all  things.  (Inspired  Version,  John  1:21-28.)  By 
revelation  we  are  also  informed  that  the  Elias  who  was  to  restore  all  things  is  the  angel  Gabriel  who  was 
known  in  mortality  as  Noah.  (D.  &  C.  27:6-7;  Luke  1:5-25;  Teachings,  p.  157.)  From  the  same  authentic 


160 


source  we  also  learn  that  the  promised  Elias  is  John  the  Revelator.  (D.  &  C.  77:  9,  14.)  Thus  there  are 
three  different  revelations  which  name  Elias  as  being  three  different  persons.  What  are  we  to  conclude? 

By  finding  answer  to  the  question,  by  whom  has  the  restoration  been  effected,  we  shall  find  who  Elias 
is  and  find  there  is  no  problem  in  harmonizing  these  apparently  contradictory  revelations.  Who  has 
restored  all  things?  Was  it  one  man?  Certainly  not.  Many  angelic  ministrants  have  been  sent  from  the 
courts  of  glory  to  confer  keys  and  powers,  to  commit  their  dispensations  and  glories  again  to  men  on 
earth.  At  least  the  following  have  come:  Moroni,  John  the  Baptist,  Peter,  James,  and  Jolm,  Moses,  Elijah, 
Elias,  Gabriel,  Raphael,  and  Michael.  (D.  &  C.  13;  110;  128:19-21.)  Since  it  is  apparent  that  no  one 
messenger  has  carried  the  whole  burden  of  the  restoration,  but  rather  that  each  has  come  with  a  specific 
endowment  from  on  high,  it  becomes  clear  that  Elias  is  a  composite  personage.  The  expression  must  be 
understood  to  be  a  name  and  a  title  for  those  whose  mission  it  was  to  commit  keys  and  powers  to  men  in 
this  final  dispensation.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  170-174.) 

5.  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST  AN  ELIAS.  -  No  better  illustration  is  found  in  the  revelations  of  one  who 
acted  in  the  spirit  and  power  of  Elias  -  and  yet  who  expressly  disavowed  any  claim  to  being  the  Elias  who 
was  to  restore  all  things  -  than  that  seen  in  the  ministry  of  John  the  Baptist.  Gabriel  foretold  that  John 
would  go  before  the  Lord  "in  the  spirit  and  power  of  Elias"  (Luke  1:17);  and  the  skeptical  and  unbelieving 
Jews  -  knowing  that  Elijah  was  to  come  again  and  that  Elias  was  to  restore  all  things  -  made  pointed 
inquiry  of  John  to  determine  if  he  claimed  to  flilfil  ancient  predictions  in  this  field. 

"And  this  is  the  record  of  Jolm,  when  the  Jews  sent  priests  and  Levites  from  Jerusalem,  to  ask  him: 
Who  art  thou?  And  he  confessed,  and  denied  not  that  he  was  Elias;  but  confessed,  saying:  I  am  not  the 
Christ.  And  they  asked  him,  saying:  How  then  art  thou  Elias?  And  he  said,  I  am  not  that  Elias  who  was  to 
restore  all  things.  And  they  asked  him,  saying.  Art  thou  that  prophet?  And  he  answered.  No.  ...  And  they 
asked  him,  and  said  unto  him:  Why  baptizest  thou  then,  if  thou  be  not  the  Christ,  nor  Elias  who  was  to 
restore  all  things,  neither  that  prophet?  John  answered  them,  saying:  I  baptize  with  water,  but  there 
standeth  one  among  you,  whom  ye  know  not;  He  it  is  of  whom  I  bear  record.  He  is  that  prophet,  even 
Elias,  who,  coming  after  me,  is  preferred  before  me,  whose  shoe's  latchet  I  am  not  worthy  to  unloose,  or 
whose  place  I  am  not  able  to  fill;  for  he  shall  baptize,  not  only  with  water,  but  with  fire,  and  with  the  Holy 
Ghost."  (Inspired  Version,  John  1:21-28.) 

After  Moses  and  Elijah  (Elias)  had  appeared  on  the  Mount  of  Transfiguration  our  Lord's  "disciples 
asked  him,  saying.  Why  then  say  the  scribes  that  Elias  must  first  come?"  That  is,  the  scribes  knew  that 
Elias  (Elijah)  was  to  precede  the  coming  of  the  Lord,  and  yet  here  Peter,  James,  and  John  had  seen  the 
heavenly  visitant  come  after  the  Lord  had  been  manifest  among  the  people. 

"And  Jesus  answered  and  said  unto  them,  Elias  truly  shall  first  come,  and  restore  all  things,  as  the 
prophets  have  written.  And  again  I  say  unto  you  that  Elias  has  come  already,  concerning  whom  it  is 
written.  Behold,  I  will  send  my  messenger,  and  he  shall  prepare  the  way  before  me;  and  they  knew  him 
not,  and  have  done  unto  him,  whatsoever  they  listed.  Likewise  shall  also  the  Son  of  Man  suffer  of  them. 
But  I  say  unto  you.  Who  is  Elias?  Behold,  this  is  Elias,  whom  I  send  to  prepare  the  way  before  me.  Then 
the  disciples  understood  that  he  spake  unto  them  of  Jolm  the  Baptist,  and  also  of  another  who  should  come 
and  restore  all  things,  as  it  is  written  by  the  prophets."  (Inspired  Version,  Matt.  17:9-14;  Doctrines 
Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  108-1 12.) 

Elijah  the  Prophet 

(Elijah  the  Prophet  ) 

See  CALLING  AND  ELECTION  SURE,  KEYS  OF  THE  KINGDOM,  SALVATION,  SALVATION 
FOR  THE  DEAD,  SAVIORS  ON  MOUNT  ZION,  SEALING  POWER,  SECOND  COMING  OF 
CHRIST,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

For  dramatic  manifestations  and  the  visible  exhibition  of  divine  power,  the  ministry  of  Elijah  the 
Prophet  scarcely  has  an  equal.  He  sealed  the  heavens,  was  fed  by  the  ravens,  extended  the  widow's  barrel 
of  meal  and  cruse  of  oil,  raised  the  dead,  destroyed  the  priests  of  Baal,  called  down  fire  from  heaven  on  at 
least  three  occasions,  fasted  40  days  and  nights,  was  attended  frequently  by  angelic  ministrants,  and 
finally  was  translated  and  taken  up  into  heaven  without  tasting  death.  (1  Kings  17;  18;  2  Kings  1;  2.) 

Centuries  later  Malachi  prophesied  that  Elijah  would  return  before  the  great  and  dreadful  day  of  the 
Lord.  (Mai.  4:5-6.)  With  Moses,  another  translated  being,  he  appeared  to  Peter,  James,  and  John  on  the 
Mount  of  Transfiguration  to  give  those  apostolic  ministers  the  keys  of  the  kingdom.  (Matt.  17:1-13; 


161 


Teachings,  p.  158.)  During  the  night  of  September  21st-22nd,  1823,  Moroni  told  Joseph  Smith  that  the 
Lord  would  soon  reveal  unto  him  the  priesthood  by  the  hand  of  Elijah  the  Prophet  (Jos.  Smith  2:29-39); 
and  on  April  3,  1836,  Elijah  came  (in  fulfillment  of  the  promises  of  Malachi  and  Moroni)  to  Joseph  Smith 
and  Oliver  Cowdery,  in  the  Kirtland  Temple,  and  conferred  upon  them  the  keys  of  the  sealing  power.  (D. 
&C.  110:13-16.) 

Because  Elijah  has  come  in  this  dispensation,  the  fullness  of  salvation  is  again  available  for  the  living 
and  the  dead.  He  "was  the  last  prophet  that  held  the  keys  of  the  priesthood"  in  ancient  Israel,  the  Prophet 
said.  His  latter-day  mission  was  to  "restore  the  authority  and  deliver  the  keys  of  the  priesthood,  in  order 
that  all  the  ordinances  may  be  attended  to  in  righteousness.  .  .  .  Why  send  Elijah?  Because  he  holds  the 
keys  of  the  authority  to  administer  in  all  the  ordinances  of  the  priesthood;  and  without  the  authority  is 
given,  the  ordinances  could  not  be  administered  in  righteousness."  (Teachings,  p.  172.) 

"The  spirit,  power,  and  calling  of  Elijah  is,"  the  Prophet  also  taught,  "that  ye  have  power  to  hold  the 
key  of  the  revelations,  ordinances,  oracles,  powers  and  endowments  of  the  fullness  of  the  Melchizedek 
priesthood  and  of  the  kingdom  of  God  on  the  earth;  and  to  receive,  obtain,  and  perfoim  all  the  ordinances 
belonging  to  the  kingdom  of  God,  even  unto  the  turning  of  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  unto  the  children,  and 
the  hearts  of  the  children  unto  the  fathers,  even  those  who  are  in  heaven.  .  .  . 

"This  is  the  spirit  of  Elijah,  that  we  redeem  our  dead,  and  connect  ourselves  with  our  fathers  which  are 
in  heaven,  and  seal  up  our  dead  to  come  forth  in  the  first  resun'ection;  and  here  we  want  the  power  of 
Elijah  to  seal  those  who  dwell  on  earth  to  those  who  dwell  in  heaven.  This  is  the  power  of  Elijah  and  the 
keys  of  the  kingdom  of  Jehovah."  (Teachings,  pp.  337-338.) 

"How  shall  God  come  to  the  rescue  of  this  generation?"  the  Prophet  asked.  "He  will  send  Elijah  the 
Prophet.  .  .  .  Elijah  shall  reveal  the  covenants  to  seal  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  to  the  children,  and  the 
children  to  the  fathers.  The  anointing  and  sealing  is  to  be  called,  elected,  and  made  sure."  (Teachings,  p. 
323.) 

Elohim 

(Elohim  ) 

See  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  GOD,  JEHOVAH. 

1 .  El,  as  the  Hebrew  word  for  God  or  Divine  Being,  is  used  in  various  Hebrew  word  combinations  to 
identify  Deity  and  to  reveal  particular  things  about  him.  Thus  El  Elyon  means  the  Highest  God,  the 
Possessor  or  Creator  of  heaven  and  earth  (Gen.  14:19);  El  Shaddai  signifies  God  Almighty  (Gen.  17:1);  El 
Elohe  Yisrael  is  the  God  of  Israel  (Gen.  33:20.) 

Elohim  is  the  plural  of  the  Canaanite  El  or  the  Hebrew  Eloah;  consequently,  its  literal  meaning  is 
Gods.  Accordingly,  as  the  Prophet  pointed  out,  such  Old  Testament  passages  as,  "In  the  beginning  God 
(Elohim)  created  the  heaven  and  the  earth"  (Gen.  1:1),  should  more  properly  be  translated,  "In  the 
beginning  the  head  of  the  Gods  brought  forth  the  Gods,"  and  they  created  the  heavens  and  the  earth. 
(Teachings,  pp.  370-371.) 

2.  Elohim,  plural  word  though  it  is,  is  also  use  as  the  exalted  name-title  of  God  the  Eternal  Father,  a 
usage  that  connotes  his  supremacy  and  omnipotence,  he  being  God  above  all  Gods.  (The  Father  and  the 
Son:  A  Doctrinal  Exposition  by  the  First  Presidency  and  the  Twelve,  cited.  Articles  of  Faith,  pp.  465-473; 
1  Cor.  8:6.) 

Elves 

(Elves  ) 
See  GHOSTS. 

Elysium 

(Elysium  ) 
See  PARADISE. 

According  to  Greek  mythology,  Elysium  or  the  Elysian  Fields  is  the  name  given  the  abode  of  the 
blessed  after  death.  This  concept,  found  among  an  apostate  people,  was  obviously  an  outgrowth  of  the  tme 
gospel  doctrine,  taught  from  the  beginning,  relative  to  paradise. 


162 


Emblems 

(Emblems  ) 

See  SYMBOLISMS. 

Emmanuel 

(Emmanuel  ) 
See  IMMANUEL. 

Emperors 

(Emperors  ) 

See  KINGCRAFT. 

Employment 

(Employment  ) 

See  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  DOLE,  IDLENESS,  STEWARDSHIPS,  WORK. 

As  part  of  man's  mortal  probation,  he  is  being  tested  with  reference  to  temporal  things.  The  obligation 
to  earn  his  bread  in  the  sweat  of  his  face  necessitates  employment.  (Gen.  3:19.)  The  gospel  requires  that 
man  work  in  temporal  as  well  as  spiritual  pursuits  to  gain  salvation.  Flocks  and  herds,  farms  and 
vineyards,  industries  and  business  ventures,  are  all  part  and  portion  of  the  gospel  plan;  the  manner  in 
which  man  acts  with  reference  to  them  affects  not  only  his  temporal  well-being  but  his  eternal  salvation. 
"Thou  shall  not  be  idle;  for  he  that  is  idle  shall  not  eat  the  bread  nor  wear  the  garments  of  the  laborer."  (D. 
&  C.  42:42.) 

Provision  is  made  in  the  great  Welfare  Plan  of  the  Church  for  priesthood  quorums  and  other  church 
organizations  to  aid  their  members  in  finding  employment  and  in  bettering  inadequate  existing 
employment. 

Enchantments 

(Enchantments  ) 
See  SORCERY. 
See  BEGINNING. 

Endless 

(Endless  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ETERNAL,  ETERNAL  DAMNATION,  ETERNAL  LIFE,  ETERNITY, 
EVERLASTING,  GOD,  ONE  ETERNAL  ROUND. 

1.  That  which  goes  on  forever  and  has  no  end  is  endless.  For  instance:  The  eternal,  unending  duration 
of  time  is  endless  time;  the  infinite,  limitless  expanse  of  space  is  endless  space.  Similarly  there  is  no  end  to 
matter,  element,  or  any  of  the  attributes  of  perfection  which  make  up  the  personalities  of  exalted  beings.  In 
the  hymn,  "If  You  Could  Hie  to  Kolob,"  Elder  William  W.  Phelps  teaches  very  effectively  the  endless 
nature  of  all  good  things: 

If  you  could  hie  to  Kolob 
In  the  twinkling  of  an  eye. 
And  then  continue  onward 
With  that  same  speed  to  fly. 
D'ye  think  that  you  could  ever. 
Through  all  eternity. 
Find  out  the  generation 
Where  Gods  began  to  be? 


163 


Or  see  the  grand  beginning, 

Where  space  did  not  extend? 

Or  view  the  last  creation, 

Where  Gods  and  matter  end? 

Methinks  the  Spirit  whispers, 

"No  man  has  found  'pure  space,' 

Nor  seen  the  outside  curtains 

Where  nothing  has  a  place." 
The  works  of  God  continue. 

And  worlds  and  lives  abound; 

Improvement  and  progression 

Have  one  eternal  round. 

There  is  no  end  to  matter. 

There  is  no  end  to  space; 

There  is  no  end  to  spirit; 

There  is  no  end  to  race. 
There  is  no  end  to  virtue; 

There  is  no  end  to  might; 

There  is  no  end  to  wisdom; 

There  is  no  end  to  light. 

There  is  no  end  to  union; 

There  is  no  end  to  youth; 

There  is  no  end  to  priesthood; 

There  is  no  end  to  truth. 
There  is  no  end  to  glory; 

There  is  no  end  to  love; 

There  is  no  end  to  being; 

There  is  no  death  above. 

There  is  no  end  to  glory; 

There  is  no  end  to  love; 

There  is  no  end  to  being; 

There  is  no  death  above. 

2.  Endless,  used  as  a  noun  and  not  as  an  adjective,  is  one  of  the  names  of  God  and  signifies  his 
unending,  eternal  continuance  as  the  supreme,  exalted  ruler  of  the  universe.  "Behold,  I  am  the  Lord  God 
Almighty,  and  Endless  is  my  name,"  he  said,  "for  I  am  without  beginning  of  days  or  end  of  years;  and  is 
not  this  endless?"  (Moses  1:3;  7:35.)  "Endless  is  my  name"  he  said  to  the  Prophet  (D.  &  C.  19:10.)  By 
using  his  name  Endless  and  by  combining  it  with  other  terms,  the  Lord  has  revealed  some  very  significant 
truths  in  the  scriptures.  For  instance:  Endless  life  means  God's  life;  "Endless  punishment  is  God's 
punishment."  (D.  &  C.  19:12.) 

Endless  Damnation 

(Endless  Damnation  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Endless  Father 

(Endless  Father  ) 

See  ETERNAL  FATHER. 

Endless  God 

(Endless  God  ) 

See  ETERNAL  GOD. 


164 


Endless  Hell 

(Endless  Hell  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Endless  Life 

(Endless  Life  ) 

See  ETERNAL  LIFE. 

Endless  Punishment 

(Endless  Punishment  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 


Endless  Torment 

(Endless  Torment  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

End  of  the  Earth 

(End  of  the  Earth  ) 
See  EARTH. 

End  of  the  World 

(End  of  the  World  ) 
See  WORLD. 

Endowments 

(Endowments  ) 

See  CALLING  AND  ELECTION  SURE,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  CHURCH  OF  THE 
FIRSTBORN,  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  ETERNAL  LIFE,  ETERNAL  LIVES,  EXALTATION, 
FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER,  GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  SALVATION  FOR  THE 
DEAD,  SEALING  POWER,  SONS  OF  GOD,  TEMPLES,  VICARIOUS  ORDINANCES. 

Certain  special,  spiritual  blessings  given  worthy  and  faithful  saints  in  the  temples  are  called 
endowments,  because  in  and  through  them  the  recipients  are  endowed  with  power  from  on  high.  They 
receive  an  education  relative  to  the  Lord's  purposes  and  plans  in  the  creation  and  peopling  of  the  earth  and 
are  taught  the  things  that  must  be  done  by  man  in  order  to  gain  exaltation  in  the  world  to  come.  They  place 
themselves  in  a  position  to  receive  the  sanctifying  and  cleansing  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  thus  becoming 
clean  and  spotless  before  the  Lord.  So  sacred  and  holy  are  the  administrations  perfonned  that  in  every  age 
when  they  have  been  revealed,  the  Lord  has  withheld  them  from  the  knowledge  of  the  world  and  disclosed 
them  only  to  the  faithfiil  saints  in  houses  and  places  dedicated  and  selected  for  that  purpose.  (D.  &  C. 
95:8-9;  124:25-41;  Luke  24:59.) 

All  temple  ordinances,  except  baptism  for  the  dead,  pertain  to  exaltation  in  the  celestial  kingdom  and 
not  merely  to  admission  to  that  world.  When  the  Prophet  first  administered  the  endowment  in  this 
dispensation  he  said  it  embraced  "all  those  plans  and  principles  by  which  anyone  is  enabled  to  secure  the 
fullness  of  those  blessings  which  have  been  prepared  for  the  Church  of  the  Firstborn."  (Teachings,  p.  237.) 
These  sacred  ordinances  are  administered  for  the  living  and  on  a  proxy  basis  for  the  dead  also.  (Doctrines 
of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  252-257.) 

Elder  James  E.  Talmage,  in  The  House  of  the  Lord,  a  work  published  by  the  Church  in  1912,  gives  the 
following  data  on  endowments  "The  temple  endowment  as  administered  in  modem  temples  comprises 
instruction  relating  to  the  significance  and  sequence  of  past  dispensations,  and  the  importance  of  the 
present  as  the  greatest  and  grandest  era  in  human  history.  This  course  of  instruction  includes  a  recital  of 
the  most  prominent  events  of  the  creative  period,  the  condition  of  our  first  parents  in  the  Garden  of  Eden, 


165 


their  disobedience  and  consequent  expulsion  from  that  blissful  abode,  their  condition  in  the  lone  and 
dreary  world  when  doomed  to  live  by  labor  and  sweat,  the  plan  of  redemption  by  which  the  great 
transgression  may  be  atoned,  the  period  of  the  great  apostasy  the  restoration  of  the  gospel  with  all  its 
ancient  powers  and  privileges  the  absolute  and  indispensable  conditions  of  personal  purity  and  devotion  to 
the  right  in  present  life,  and  a  strict  compliance  with  gospel  requirements.  .  .  . 

"The  ordinances  of  the  endowment  embody  certain  obligations  on  the  part  of  the  individual  such  as 
covenant  and  promise  to  observe  the  law  of  strict  virtue  and  chastity,  to  be  charitable,  benevolent,  tolerant, 
and  pure;  to  devote  both  talent  and  material  means  to  the  spread  of  truth  and  the  uplifting  of  the  race;  to 
maintain  devotion  to  the  cause  of  truth;  and  to  seek  in  every  way  to  contribute  to  the  great  preparation  that 
the  earth  may  be  made  ready  to  receive  her  King,  the  Lord  Jesus.  With  the  taking  of  each  covenant  and  the 
assuming  of  each  obligation  a  promised  blessing  is  pronounced,  contingent  upon  the  faithful  observance 
of  the  conditions. 

"No  jot,  iota,  or  tittle  of  the  temple  rites  is  otherwise  than  uplifting  and  sanctifying.  In  every  detail  the 
endowment  ceremony  contributes  to  covenants  of  morality  of  life,  consecration  of  person  to  high  ideals, 
devotion  to  truth,  patriotism  to  nation,  and  allegiance  to  God.  The  blessings  of  the  House  of  the  Lord  are 
restricted  to  no  privileged  class;  every  member  of  the  Church  may  have  admission  to  the  temple  with  the 
right  to  participate  in  the  ordinances  thereof,  if  he  comes  duly  accredited  as  of  worthy  life  and  conduct." 
(The  House  of  the  Lord,  pp.  99-101.) 

Endowments  for  the  Dead 

(Endowments  for  the  Dead  ) 

See  SALVATION  FOR  THE  DEAD. 

Enduring  to  the  End 

(Enduring  to  the  End  ) 

See  OBEDIENCE,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION,  SALVATION,  STRAIGHT  AND  NARROW  PATH. 
Baptism  is  the  gate  which  puts  the  converted  Christian  on  the  straight  and  narrow  path  which  leads  to 
eternal  life.  To  gain  the  promised  inheritance  in  the  celestial  world  it  is  necessary  to  travel  the  length  of 
the  path,  a  course  of  travel  which  consists  in  obedience  to  the  laws  and  principles  of  the  gospel.  This 
process  is  called  enduring  to  the  end,  meaning  the  end  of  mortal  life.  (D.  &  C.  20:29;  3  Ne.  27: 19-2  L) 

Speaking  to  members  of  the  Church  who  have  already  repented  and  been  baptized,  Nephi  says:  "Ye 
must  press  forward  with  a  steadfastness  in  Clirist,  having  a  perfect  brightness  of  hope,  and  a  love  of  God 
and  of  all  men.  Wherefore,  if  ye  shall  press  forward,  feasting  upon  the  word  of  Christ,  and  endure  to  the 
end,  behold,  thus  saith  the  Father:  Ye  shall  have  eternal  life.  And  now,  behold,  my  beloved  brethren,  this 
is  the  way;  and  there  is  none  other  way  nor  name  given  imder  heaven  whereby  man  can  be  saved  in  the 
kingdom  of  God."  (2  Ne.  31:20-21.) 

Enochian  Dispensation 

(Enochian  Dispensation  ) 
See  DISPENSATIONS. 

Ensign  to  the  Nations 

(Ensign  to  the  Nations  ) 

See  GATHERING  OF  ISRAEL,  RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  ZION. 

Many  ancient  prophecies  foretold  that  in  the  last  days  the  Lord  would  set  up  an  ensign  to  the  nations,  a 
standard  to  which  Israel  and  the  righteous  of  all  nations  might  gather.  (Isa.  5:26;  11:10-12;  18:3;  30:17-26; 
31:9;  49:22;  62:10;  Zech.  9:16.)  This  ensign  is  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant,  the  gospel  of  salvation 
(D.  &  C.  49:9);  it  is  the  great  latter-day  Zion  (D.  &  C.  64:41-43);  it  is  The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of 
Latter-day  Saints. 


166 


(Entities  ) 

See  PRE-EXISTENCE. 


Entities 


Environment 

(Environment  ) 

See  HEREDITY,  PRE-EXISTENCE. 

Two  obligations  face  the  saints  where  the  matter  of  environment  is  concerned:  1.  To  create  for 
themselves  and  their  famiUes  the  most  wholesome  and  edifying  environment  possible,  so  there  will  be  less 
chance  of  any  member  of  the  family  circle  being  lost  through  transgression;  and  2.  To  rise  above  every 
unwholesome  environmental  situation  that  may  be  encountered  during  the  course  of  this  mortal  probation. 

When  the  spirit  offspring  of  God  pass  from  pre-existence  to  mortality,  they  bring  with  them  the 
talents,  capacities,  and  abilities  acquired  during  a  long  existence  and  experience  in  their  first  estate.  At  the 
time  of  mortal  birth  all  children  are  innocent  and  pure.  Then  as  they  begin  to  become  accountable,  they  are 
swayed  by  "the  tradition  of  their  fathers."  (D.  &  C.  93:38-39.)  Their  lives  and  destinies  are  shaped  and 
altered  by  their  environment  -  the  circumstances,  external  surroundings,  and  influences  in  which  they  find 
themselves.  The  command  to  bring  up  children  in  light  and  tmth  includes  a  requirement  to  create  for  them 
a  wholesome  environment. 

One  of  the  great  purposes  of  this  mortal  probation  is  to  test  and  try  men,  to  see  if  they  will  keep  the 
commandments  and  walk  in  the  light  no  matter  what  environmental  enticements  beckon  them  away  from 
the  straight  and  narrow  path.  (1  John  2:15-17.)  The  prayer,  "lead  us  not  into  temptation,  but  deliver  us 
from  evil"  (Matt.  6:13),  is  a  petition  that  we  may  be  kept  from  such  unwholesome  environmental 
circumstances  as  to  be  overcome  by  them. 

It  is  axiomatic  that  the  saints  should  establish  peace  and  love  in  their  families;  engage  in  wholesome 
recreation  only;  perform  their  daily  labors  in  the  cleanest  and  most  wholesome  environment  possible; 
associate  with  proper  companions  always;  and  seek  to  live  under  those  surroundings  and  influences  that 
breathe  the  spirit  of  righteousness  and  faith.  Constant  association  with  that  which  is  low  and  vulgar 
inevitably  leads  to  the  debasement  of  the  human  soul. 

Eons 

(Eons  ) 

See  ETERNITY. 

Epiphany 

(Epiphany  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHRISTMAS. 

According  to  tradition  it  is  supposed  that  the  wise  men  from  the  east  came  to  Jerusalem  and  found  the 
newly  bom  Son  of  God  12  days  after  his  birth.  Hence  portions  of  the  sectarian  world  celebrate  Epiphany 
(Twelfthtide  or  Twelfth-day)  on  January  6.  This  is  the  traditional  and  customaiy  end  to  the  Christmas 
season. 

It  appears  from  Matthew's  account  however,  that  in  reality  the  wise  men  came  two  or  three  years  after 
the  birth  of  our  Lord.  It  was  a  "young  child,"  not  a  baby  they  were  seeking;  he  was  found  in  a  "house,  not 
a  manger;  and  Herod  "sent  forth,  and  slew  all  the  children  that  were  in  Bethlehem  and  in  all  the  coasts 
thereof,  from  two  years  old  and  under,  according  to  the  time  which  he  had  diligently  enquired  of  the  wise 
men."  (Matt.  2.)  Those  who  had  not  reached  the  third  anniversary  of  their  births  were  "two  years  old  and 
under."  The  true  Church,  of  course,  pays  no  heed  to  Epiphany  and  conducts  no  celebration  thereon. 


167 


Epistles 

(Epistles  ) 

See  BIBLE,  EPISTLES  OF  COMMENDATION,  GOSPELS,  NEW  TESTAMENT,  SCRIPTURE. 

In  the  New  Testament  there  are  21  epistles  or  letters  written  by  inspired  writers  to  persons  or  groups. 
In  their  original  forms  they  were  perfect  scripture,  and  they  were  written  by  the  authors  whose  names  they 
bear,  the  specious  speculations  of  higher  criticism  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding.  Their  authorship  and 
inspiration  are  attested  to  by  references  made  to  them  and  quotations  taken  from  them  in  the  sermons  of 
the  prophet  and  in  latter-day  revelation  itself. 

Purpose  of  the  epistles  is  to  bear  record  of  Christ  (and  in  this  sense  they  are  apostolic  letters),  to  teach 
the  principles  of  the  gospel,  and  to  exhort  the  saints  to  that  personal  righteousness  which  leads  to 
salvation.  As  with  the  other  books  of  the  Bible,  they  were  preserved  by  Divine  Providence  to  come  forth 
and  foiTn  a  part  of  that  book  of  books. 

Sections  121,  122,  123,  127,  and  128  of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  are  epistles  written  under  the 
spirit  of  inspiration  by  the  Prophet.  Sidney  Rigdon  was  commanded  by  revelation  to  write  an  epistle  to  the 
Church  to  solicit  funds  "to  purchase  lands  for  an  inheritance  for  the  children  of  God."  (D.  &  C.  58:51.) 
The  First  Presidency  has  taken  frequent  occasion,  particularly  in  the  early  days  of  the  Church,  to  send 
epistles  to  portions  or  all  of  the  Latter-day  Saints.  Frequent  Book  of  Mormon  reference  is  found  to 
epistles,  which  were  formal  letters  dealing  with  affairs  of  state  and  of  the  Church.  (Alma  54:4;  55:3;  56:1; 
57:1.) 

Epistles  of  Commendation 

(Epistles  of  Commendation  ) 
See  EPISTLES,  RECOMMENDS. 

It  appears  from  2  Cor.  3 : 1  that  the  practice  prevailed  among  the  primitive  saints  of  introducing  faithfiil 
members  of  the  Church  from  one  group  of  saints  to  another  by  means  of  epistles  of  commendation  or 
letters  of  commendation.  That  is,  the  saints  were  commended,  introduced,  or  recommended  to  the  various 
local  churches  by  these  written  certifications.  These  would  correspond  to  "recommends"  in  modem  times. 

Equality 

(Equality  ) 

See  CONSECRATION,  EQUITY,  EXALTATION,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  RESPECT  OF 
PERSONS,  UNITED  ORDER. 

1 .  Under  conditions  of  fiill  gospel  equality  perfect  fairness  and  equity  would  prevail  in  every  sphere  of 
life.  All  persons  similarly  situated  would  be  treated  exactly  the  same  as  all  other  such  persons;  all  would 
enjoy  and  possess  the  same  things.  Perfect  impartiality  would  reign,  for  "there  should  be  an  equality 
among  all  men."  (Mosiah  27:3;  Alma  1 :26.)  By  way  of  illustration,  the  gospel  message  itself  is  and  should 
be  freely  available  to  all  men.  (Third  Article  of  Faith.)  The  Lord  "inviteth  them  all  to  come  unto  him  and 
partake  of  his  goodness;  and  he  denieth  none  that  come  unto  him,  black  and  white,  bond  and  free,  male 
and  female;  and  he  remembereth  the  heathen;  and  all  are  alike  unto  God,  both  Jew  and  Gentile."  (2  Ne. 
26:33.) 

Perfect  equality  does  not  now  prevail  either  in  the  world  or  in  the  Church.  But  when  life  is  perfected 
among  the  saints  and  when  the  highest  gospel  law  is  lived,  then  both  temporal  and  spiritual  equality  will 
prevail.  Temporal  adjustments  under  the  principles  of  consecration  will  make  "every  man  equal  according 
to  his  circumstances  and  his  wants  and  needs."  (D.  &  C.  51:3;  82:17.)  "In  your  temporal  things  you  shall 
be  equal,  and  this  not  grudgingly,  otherwise  the  abundance  of  the  manifestations  of  the  Spirit  shall  be 
withheld."  (D.  &  C.  70:14.)  "For  if  ye  are  not  equal  in  earthly  things  ye  cannot  be  equal  in  obtaining 
heavenly  things."  (D.  &  C.  78:3-7.) 

2.  Exalted  beings  will  enjoy  eternal  equality  in  their  high  celestial  status.  "And  he  makes  them  equal  in 
power,  and  in  might,  and  in  dominion."  (D.  &  C.  76:95.)  "And  then  shall  the  angels  be  crowned  with  the 
gloiy  of  his  might,  and  the  saints  shall  be  filled  with  his  glory,  and  receive  their  inheritance  and  be  made 
equal  with  him."  (D.  &  C.  88:107.)  In  other  words,  they  all  enjoy  exaltation;  all  live  the  same  kind  of  life; 


168 


all  exercise  the  same  power,  the  power  of  God;  all  are  possessed  of  the  same  Spirit,  the  Spirit  of  truth;  all 
are  gods  and  have  eternal  increase;  all  are  joint-heirs  with  Christ,  possessing  all  things  with  him,  and  being 
inheritors  of  all  that  the  Father  hath. 

Equity 

(Equity  ) 

See  EQUALITY,  JUSTICE,  MERCY,  RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

Equity  is  the  principle  which  tempers  the  harshness  of  justice.  Equity  dictates  that  the  law  shall  be 
administered  according  to  its  spirit  and  not  merely  its  letter.  (D.  &  C.  102:16;  134:3;  Hela.  3:20;  3  Ne. 
6:4.)  It  is  an  attribute  of  Deity  (Ps.  98:9;  99:4;  Alma  9:26),  the  companion  of  justice  and  mercy,  and  the 
friend  of  righteousness.  One  of  the  great  Messianic  prophecies  says  of  our  Lord:  "With  righteousness  shall 
he  judge  the  poor,  and  reprove  with  equity  for  the  meek  of  the  earth."  (Isa.  1 1 :4.) 

Era 

(Era  ) 

See  DISPENSATIONS. 

Era  of  Restoration 

(Era  of  Restoration  ) 

See  TIMES  OF  RESTITUTION. 

Errors 

(En'ors  ) 

See  APOSTASY. 


Eschatology 

(Eschatology  ) 

See  BOTTOMLESS  PIT,  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  HEAVEN,  HELL,  IMMORTALITY, 
JUDGMENT  DAY,  MILLENNIUM,  PARADISE,  RESURRECTION,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST, 
SONS  OF  PERDITION,  SPIRIT  WORLD,  TELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  TERRESTRLA.L  KINGDOM. 

Under  the  pretense  of  studying  eschatology  -  doctrines  concerning  the  ultimate  destiny  of  mankind  - 
uninspired  Biblical  scholars  speculate,  quibble  and  deny  the  plain  meaning  of  the  revelations  about  death, 
immortality,  the  resurrection,  the  day  of  judgment,  the  Second  Coming  of  Christ,  and  related  matters.  It  is 
common  among  these  sectarian  scholars  to  attempt  to  show  the  evolution  of  these  doctrines  from  prophet 
to  prophet;  to  point  out  the  supposedly  contradictory  and  confUsing  views  expressed  by  prophets  in 
different  ages,  by  Jesus  himself,  and  by  the  New  Testament  writers;  and  finally  to  conclude  their  mental 
and  theological  flights  of  fantasy  without  reaching  any  sound  conclusion  about  things  which  are  to  them 
impenetrable  mysteries. 

The  fact  is,  of  course,  that  all  of  these  so-called  eschatological  doctrines  have  been  known  and  taught 
from  the  beginning;  the  gospel  of  salvation  is  not  something  that  has  been  fomiulated  in  the  minds  of  men 
item  by  item  as  new  light  has  dawned  in  succeeding  ages.  One  prophet  did  not  modify  or  change  what  a 
previous  inspired  man  had  uttered.  And  the  spiritually  enlightened  have  no  difficulty  in  determining  the 
meaning  of  all  that  God  has  revealed  about  the  ultimate  destiny  of  his  children. 

Especial  Witnesses 

(Especial  Witnesses  ) 
See  SEVENTIES. 


169 


Espousal 

(Espousal  ) 

See  BRIDEGROOM,  BRIDE  OF  THE  LAMB,  CELESTIAL  MARRLA.GE. 

Ancient  marriage  customs  in  Israel  provided  for  a  formal  espousal  or  betrothal  which  preceded  the 
marriage  proper.  In  effect  the  espousal  marked  the  beginning  of  the  marriage  ceremony,  though  as  much 
as  a  year  might  elapse  between  it  and  the  marriage  proper.  Though  the  espoused  woman  was  still 
dependent  on  her  father,  she  was  considered  as  consecrated  to  her  fliture  husband,  was  denied  to  all  others, 
and  was  virtually  regarded  as  his  wife.  (Deut.  22:23-24.)  Tlius  Joseph  being  espoused  to  Mary  and  finding 
her  with  child  planned  to  put  her  away  privily  until  Gabriel  commanded  otherwise.  (Matt.  1:  18-25;  Luke 
1:27;  2:5.)  Unfaithfulness  on  the  part  of  an  espoused  woman  was  adultery  (D.  &  C.  132:63),  punishable 
anciently  by  death.  (Deut.  22:23-24.) 

In  a  figurative  sense,  the  saints  are  espoused  to  Clirist.  "I  have  espoused  you  to  one  husband,  that  I 
may  present  you  as  a  chaste  virgin  to  Christ,"  Paul  wrote  to  the  Corinthians.  (2  Cor.  11:1-4.)  By  keeping 
the  vows  of  their  espousal,  the  saints  become  the  bride  of  the  Lamb  (Rev.  19:7-9),  who  is  the  Bridegroom 
(D.  &  C.  33:17)  and  Husband.  (Isa.  54:5.) 

Estates  of  Man 

(Estates  of  Man  ) 
See  FIRST  ESTATE. 

Eternal 

(Eternal  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ENDLESS,  ETERNAL  DAMNATION,  ETERNAL  FATHER,  ETERNAL  GOD, 
ETERNAL  LIFE,  ETERNITY,  EVERLASTTOG,  GOD,  ONE  ETERNAL  ROUND. 

1.  One  of  the  names  of  God  is  Eternal;  to  Enoch  the  Lord  said,  "Eternal  is  my  name"  (Moses  7:35), 
using  this  designation  as  a  noun  and  not  as  an  adjective.  This  name  of  Deity  signifies  that  he  is  "infinite 
and  eternal,  from  everlasting  to  everlasting  the  same  unchangeable  God."  (D.  &  C.  20:17.)  In  fact, 
members  of  the  godhead,  possessing  the  same  characteristics  and  attributes,  are  "infinite  and  eternal, 
without  end."  (D.  &  C.  20:28,  77,  79;  121:32;  128:23.) 

The  Lord  uses  his  name  Eternal  to  teach  with  specific  accurateness  certain  great  principles  of  revealed 
truth.  Thus  the  kind  of  life  he  lives  (which,  of  course,  is  God's  life)  is  called  eternal  life  (meaning 
exaltation);  and  the  kind  of  punishment  which  is  dealt  out  to  transgressors  by  him  is  called  eternal 
punishment,  a  name  having  reference  to  the  type  and  not  the  duration  of  the  penalty  imposed. 

2.  That  which  is  of  infinite  duration,  which  goes  on  forever  and  has  no  end  is  eternal,  endless, 
everlasting.  Using  the  term  in  this  sense  the  revelations  teach  that  "The  elements  are  eternal"  (D.  &  C. 
93:33),  and  that  there  are  such  things  as  eternal  glory  (D.  &  C.  76:6),  eternal  felicity  (D.  &  C.  77:3),  and 
eternal  joy.  (D.  &  C.  109:76.) 

3.  Eternal  is  also  used  to  mean  the  opposite  of  temporal,  the  opposite  of  that  which  pertains  to  time  and 
mortality.  This  is  a  temporal  world  in  which  we  now  live;  hereafter  we  shall  gain  places  in  the  eternal 
worlds.  (D.  &  C.  76:86;  121:2;  132:55,  63.)  The  earth  itself  is  now  passing  through  "its  temporal 
existence";  hereafter  it  is  to  be  sanctified,  become  immortal,  and  gain  an  "eternal  state."  (D.  &  C.  77:1-6.) 
Any  views  expressed  by  man  through  his  own  power  consist  of  natural  or  mortal  words;  in  contrast,  words 
spoken  by  the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  being  the  Lord's  words  (D.  &  C.  68: 1-4),  are  "eternal  words."  (D. 
&C.  85:7.) 

Eternal  Damnation 

(Eternal  Damnation  ) 

See  DAMNATION,  DEVIL,  ETERNAL  LIFE,  FIRE  AND  BRIMSTONE,  HELL,  KINGDOMS  OF 
GLORY,  PUNISHMENT,  RESURRECTION,  SALVATION,  SIN,  SONS  OF  PERDITION,  SPIRIT 
PRISON,  SPIRITUAL  DEATH,  UNPARDONABLE  SIN. 


170 


To  denote  the  severity  and  extent  of  the  condemnation  falUng  upon  those  whose  feet  slip  from  the 
straight  and  narrow  path,  and  who  do  not  repent  and  return  to  righteousness,  the  Lord  couples  the  word 
eternal  with  the  tenn  damnation.  There  are  three  distinct  senses  in  which  the  expression  eternal  damnation 
is  used. 

1.  Eternal  damnation  is  the  opposite  of  eternal  life,  and  all  those  who  do  not  gain  eternal  life,  or 
exaltation  in  the  highest  heaven  within  the  celestial  kingdom,  are  partakers  of  eternal  damnation.  Their 
eternal  condemnation  is  to  have  limitations  imposed  upon  them  so  that  they  cannot  progress  to  the  state  of 
godhood  and  gain  a  fullness  of  all  things. 

They  "remain  separately  and  singly,  without  exaltation,  to  all  eternity  and  from  henceforth  are  not 
gods,  but  are  angels  of  God  forever  and  ever."  (D.  &  C.  132:17.)  Their  kingdom  or  progress  has  an  "end," 
and  they  "cannot  have  an  increase."  (D.  &  C.  13 1:4.)  Spirit  children  are  denied  to  them  to  all  eternity,  and 
they  inherit  "the  deaths"  leaning  an  absence  of  posterity  in  the  resun'ection.  (D.  &  C.  132:16-25.) 

They  are  never  redeemed  from  their  spiritual  fall  and  taken  back  into  the  fiill  presence  and  glory  of 
God.  Only  the  obedient  are  "raised  in  immortality  unto  eternal  life."  The  disobedient  "they  that  believe 
not,"  are  raised  in  immortality  "unto  eternal  damnation  for  they  cannot  be  redeemed  from  their  spiritual 
fall,  because  they  repent  not."  (D.  &  C.  29:42-44.) 

2.  Eternal  damnation  is  also  used  to  specify  the  punishment  of  those  who  come  forth  in  the 
resurrection  of  damnation  (John  5:29),  meaning  those  who  are  destined  to  inherit  the  telestial  kingdom  and 
those  who  will  be  cast  out  to  reign  with  the  devil  and  his  angels  as  sons  of  perdition.  (D.  &  C.  76:30-49, 
81-112;  88:100-102.) 

After  the  angel  had  taught  King  Benjamin  the  basic  truths  relative  to  Clirist's  atoning  sacrifice  and  the 
salvation  that  flows  therefrom,  these  words  were  spoken  relative  to  the  teachings  given:  "They  shall  stand 
as  a  bright  testimony  against  this  people,  at  the  judgment  day;  whereof  they  shall  be  judged,  every  man 
according  to  his  works,  whether  they  be  good,  or  whether  they  be  evil.  And  if  they  be  evil  they  are 
consigned  to  an  awful  view  of  their  own  guilt  and  abominations,  which  doth  cause  them  to  shrink  from  the 
presence  of  the  Lord  into  a  state  of  misery  and  endless  torment,  from  whence  they  can  no  more  return; 
therefore  they  have  drunk  damnation  to  their  own  souls.  And  their  tonnent  is  as  a  lake  of  fire  and 
brimstone,  whose  flames  are  unquenchable,  and  whose  smoke  ascendeth  up  forever  and  ever."  (Mosiah 
3:24-27.) 

Abinadi  uses  the  term  endless  damnation  similarly,  to  refer  to  the  resurrected  state  of  all  the  rebellious, 
those  who  come  forth  in  the  resurrection  of  the  unjust,  those  who  refiised  to  repent  when  the  gospel  was 
offered  to  them  but  who  chose  to  go  their  own  carnal  ways,  receiving  eventually  an  inlieritance  in  the 
telestial  kingdom.  Though  they  attain  a  kingdom  of  glory,  yet  to  all  eternity  they  are  damned,  cannot  go 
where  God  and  Christ  are  (D.  &  C.  76:1 12),  and  are  never  completely  free  from  the  lingering  remorse  that 
always  follows  the  loss  of  opportunity. 

These  are  Abinadi's  words:  "This  mortal  shall  put  on  immortality,  and  this  corruption  shall  put  on 
incorruption,  and  shall  be  brought  to  stand  before  the  bar  of  God,  to  be  judged  of  him  according  to  their 
works  whether  they  be  good  or  whether  they  be  evil  -  If  they  be  good,  to  the  resurrection  of  endless  life 
and  happiness;  and  if  they  be  evil,  to  the  resuiTection  of  endless  damnation,  being  delivered  up  to  the 
devil,  who  hath  subjected  them,  which  is  damnation  -  Having  gone  according  to  their  own  carnal  wills  and 
desires;  having  never  called  upon  the  Lord  while  the  arms  of  mercy  were  extended  towards  them;  for  the 
arms  of  mercy  were  extended  towards  them,  and  they  would  not;  they  being  warned  of  their  iniquities  and 
yet  they  would  not  depart  from  them;  and  they  were  commanded  to  repent  and  yet  they  would  not  repent." 
(Mosiah  16:10-12.) 

The  last  persons  to  come  forth  in  the  resurrection  of  damnation  will  be  the  sons  of  perdition.  "They 
shall  go  away  into  everlasting  punishment,  which  is  endless  punishment,  which  is  eternal  punishment,  to 
reign  with  the  devil  and  his  angels  in  eternity,  where  their  worm  dieth  not,  and  the  fire  is  not  quenched, 
which  is  their  torment  -  And  the  end  thereof,  neither  the  place  thereof,  nor  their  torment,  no  man  knows; 
Neither  was  it  revealed,  neither  is,  neither  will  be  revealed  unto  man,  except  to  them  who  are  made 
partakers  thereof;  Nevertheless,  I,  the  Lord,  show  it  by  vision  unto  many,  but  straightway  shut  it  up  again; 
Wherefore,  the  end,  the  width,  the  height,  the  depth,  and  the  misery  thereof,  they  understand  not,  neither 
any  man  except  those  who  are  ordained  unto  this  condemnation."  (D.  &  C.  76:44-49.) 

3.  Eternal  damnation  is  used  further  to  specify  the  torment  and  anguish  to  which  the  spirits  of  the 
wicked  are  heir  in  the  spirit  prison  as  they  await  the  day  of  their  resurrection.  This  type  of  eternal 
damnation  ceases  when  the  offender  has  finally  come  forth  in  the  resun'ection.  In  this  sense,  eternal 


171 


damnation  is  the  type,  kind,  and  quality  of  torment,  punishment,  or  damnation  involved  rather  than  the 
duration  of  that  damnation.  In  other  words,  eternal  is  the  name  of  the  kind  of  punishment  involved,  just  as 
it  is  the  name  of  the  kind  of  life  referred  to  in  the  expression  eternal  life.  Eternal  punishment  is,  thus,  the 
kind  of  punishment  imposed  by  God  who  is  Eternal,  and  those  subject  to  it  may  suffer  therefrom  for  either 
a  short  or  a  long  period.  After  their  bufferings  and  trials  cause  them  to  repent,  they  are  freed  from  this  type 
of  eternal  damnation. 

"And  surely  every  man  must  repent  or  suffer,  for  I,  God,  am  endless,"  the  Lord  says.  "Wherefore,  I 
revoke  not  the  judgments  which  I  shall  pass,  but  woes  shall  go  forth,  weeping,  wailing  and  gnashing  of 
teeth,  yea,  to  those  who  are  found  on  my  left  hand.  Nevertheless,  it  is  not  written  that  there  shall  be  no  end 
to  this  torment,  but  it  is  written  endless  tomient.  Again,  it  is  written  eternal  damnation;  wherefore  it  is 
more  express  than  other  scriptures  that  it  might  work  upon  the  hearts  of  the  children  of  men,  altogether  for 
my  name's  glory.  Behold,  I  am  endless,  and  the  punishment  which  is  given  from  my  hand  is  endless 
punishment,  for  Endless  is  my  name.  Wherefore  Eternal  punishment  is  God's  punishment.  Endless 
punishment  is  God's  punishment."  (D.  &  C.  19:4-12.) 

Eternal  Deaths 

(Eternal  Deaths  ) 
See  ETERNAL  LIVES. 

Eternal  Father 

(Eternal  Father  ) 

See  CHRIST  AS  THE  FATHER,  ETERNAL,  ETERNAL  GOD,  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  GOD. 

On  very  formal  occasions,  as  in  the  revealed  sacramental  prayers.  Deity  is  addressed  as,  "God,  the 
Eternal  Father."  (D.  &  C.  20:77-79)  This  exalted  and  sacred  name-title  combines  in  one  expression  the 
concept  of  God  as  an  Eternal,  exalted  Being  and  his  position  as  the  personal  Father  of  the  spirits  of  all 
men.  In  the  sense  in  which  Clii'ist  is  called  the  Everlasting  Father  (Isa.  9:6),  he  is  also  the  Eternal  Father 
for  he  is  both  Eternal  and  (in  special  ways)  the  Father. 

Eternal  Fire 

(Eternal  Fire  ) 

See  FIRE  AND  BRIMSTONE. 

Eternal  God 

(Eternal  God  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ETERNAL,  ETERNAL  FATHER,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY,  EVERLASTING 
FATHER,  EVERLASTING  GOD,  EVERLASTING  TO  EVERLASTING,  GOD. 

Both  the  Father  and  the  Son  carry  the  exalted  name-title.  Eternal  God.  Both  are  exalted  Beings  and  as 
such  are  Eternal;  both  are  from  everlasting  to  everlasting,  with  all  that  this  phrase  connotes;  both  are 
beyond  finite  comprehension  in  power,  dominion,  godly  attributes  and  eternal  glory.  (D.  &  C.  121 :32.)  By 
their  eternal  grace  men  have  been  created,  redeemed,  and  placed  as  possible  heirs  of  all  things. 

Eternal  Hell 

(Eternal  Hell  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Eternal  Increase 

(Eternal  Increase  ) 
See  ETERNAL  LIVES. 


172 


(Eternal  Judge  ) 

See  JUDGE  OF  ALL  THE  EARTH. 


Eternal  Judge 


Eternal  King 

(Eternal  King  ) 
See  KING. 


Eternal  Life 

(Eternal  Life  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  LIFE,  CALLING  AND  ELECTION  SURE,  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  CELESTIAL 
MARRIAGE,  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  ETERNAL  DAMNATION, 
ETERNAL  LIVES,  EXALTATION,  FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER,  GODHOOD,  IMMORTALITY, 
JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  RICHES  OF  ETERNITY,  SALVATION,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

As  used  in  the  scriptures,  eternal  life  is  the  name  given  to  the  kind  of  life  that  our  Eternal  Father  lives. 
The  word  eternal  as  used  in  the  name  eternal  life,  is  a  noun  and  not  an  adjective.  It  is  one  of  the  formal 
names  of  Deity  (Moses  1:3;  7:35;  D.  &  C.  19:11)  and  has  been  chosen  by  him  as  the  particular  name  to 
identify  the  kind  of  life  that  he  lives.  He  being  God,  the  life  he  lives  is  God's  life;  and  his  name  (in  the 
noun  sense)  being  Eternal,  the  kind  of  life  he  lives  is  eternal  life.  Thus:  God's  life  is  eternal  life;  eternal 
life  is  God's  life  -  the  expressions  are  synonymous. 

Accordingly,  eternal  life  is  not  a  name  that  has  reference  only  to  the  unending  duration  of  a  fiiture  life; 
immortality  is  to  live  forever  in  the  resurrected  state,  and  by  the  grace  of  God  all  men  will  gain  this 
unending  continuance  of  life.  But  only  those  who  obey  the  fiillness  of  the  gospel  law  will  inherit  eternal 
hfe.  (D.  &  C.  29:43-44.)  It  is  "the  greatest  of  all  the  gifts  of  God"  (D.  &  C.  14:7),  for  it  is  the  kind,  status, 
type,  and  quality  of  life  that  God  himself  enjoys.  Thus  those  who  gain  eternal  life  receive  exaltation;  they 
are  sons  of  God,  joint-heirs  with  Christ,  members  of  the  Church  of  the  Firstborn;  they  overcome  all  things, 
have  all  power,  and  receive  the  fullness  of  the  Father.  They  are  gods. 

Eternal  Lives 

(Eternal  Lives  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD, 
ETERNAL  LIFE,  EXALTATION,  FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER,  GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH 
CHRIST,  SALVATION,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

Those  who  gain  eternal  life  (exaltation)  also  gain  eternal  lives,  meaning  that  in  the  resuiTection  they 
have  eternal  "increase,"  "a  continuation  of  the  seeds,"  a  "continuation  of  the  lives."  Their  spirit  progeny 
will  "continue  as  innumerable  as  the  stars;  or,  if  ye  were  to  count  the  sand  upon  the  seashore  ye  could  not 
number  them."  (D.  &  C.  131:1-4;  132:19-25,30,55.) 

"Except  a  man  and  his  wife  enter  into  an  everlasting  covenant  and  be  married  for  eternity,  while  in  this 
probation  by  the  power  and  authority  of  the  holy  priesthood,"  the  prophet  says,  "they  will  cease  to  increase 
when  they  die;  that  is,  they  will  not  have  any  children  after  the  resun'ection."  Then  with  reference  to  those 
who  have  been  properly  sealed  in  marriage  and  who  have  thereafter  endured  in  righteousness  until  their 
callings  and  elections  were  made  sure  by  revelation  he  adds:  "But  those  who  are  married  by  the  power  and 
authority  of  the  priesthood  in  this  life,  and  continue  without  committing  the  sin  against  the  Holy  Ghost, 
[their  callings  and  elections  having  been  made  sure  through  perfect  devotion  to  the  truth,  they]  will 
continue  to  increase  and  have  children  in  the  celestial  glory.  (Teachings,  pp.  300-301.) 

The  opposite  of  eternal  lives  is  eternal  deaths.  Those  who  come  up  separately  and  singly  in  the 
resurrection  and  who  therefore  do  not  have  spirit  children  eternally  are  said  to  inherit  "the  deaths."  (D.  & 
C.  132:16-17,25.) 


173 


Eternal  One 

(Eternal  One  ) 
See  GREAT  I  AM. 

Eternal  Progression 

(Eternal  Progression  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  KINGDOM,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN, 
DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  ETERNAL  LIFE,  ETERNAL  LIVES,  EXALTATION,  FULNESS  OF  THE 
FATHER,  GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST. 

Endowed  with  agency  and  subject  to  eternal  laws,  man  began  his  progression  and  advancement  in  pre- 
existence,  his  ultimate  goal  being  to  attain  a  state  of  glory,  honor,  and  exaltation  like  the  Father  of  spirits. 
During  his  earth  life  he  gains  a  mortal  body,  receives  experience  in  earthly  things,  and  prepares  for  a 
future  eternity  after  the  resurrection  when  he  will  continue  to  gain  knowledge  and  intelligence.  (D.  &  C. 
130: 18-19.)  This  gradually  unfolding  course  of  advancement  and  experience  -  a  course  that  began  in  a  past 
eternity  and  will  continue  in  ages  future  -  is  frequently  referred  to  as  a  course  of  eternal  progression. 

It  is  important  to  know,  however,  that  for  the  overwhelming  majority  of  mankind,  eternal  progression 
has  very  definite  limitations.  In  the  full  sense,  eternal  progression  is  enjoyed  only  by  those  who  receive 
exaltation.  Exalted  persons  gain  the  fullness  of  the  Father;  they  have  all  power,  all  knowledge,  and  all 
wisdom;  they  gain  a  fiillness  of  truth,  becoming  one  with  the  Father.  All  other  persons  are  assigned  lesser 
places  in  the  mansions  that  are  prepared,  and  their  progression  is  not  eternal  and  unlimited  but  in  a 
specified  sphere.  There  will  be  truths  such  persons  never  learn,  powers  they  never  possess.  They  are 
"ministering  servants,  to  minister  for  those  who  are  worthy  of  a  far  more,  and  an  exceeding,  and  an  eternal 
weight  of  glory,"  and  they  so  continue  "to  all  eternity,  and  ...  forever  and  ever."  (D.  &  C.  132: 16-17.) 

Those  who  gain  exaltation,  having  thus  enjoyed  the  fullness  of  eternal  progression,  become  like  God. 
It  should  be  realized  that  God  is  not  progressing  in  knowledge,  truth,  virtue,  wisdom,  or  any  of  the 
attributes  of  godliness.  He  has  already  gained  these  things  in  their  fiillness.  But  he  is  progressing  in  the 
sense  that  his  creations  increase,  his  dominions  expand,  his  spirit  offspring  multiply,  and  more  kingdoms 
are  added  to  his  domains.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  5-10.) 

Eternal  Punishment 

(Eternal  Punishment  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Eternal  Round 

(Eternal  Round  ) 

See  ONE  ETERNAL  ROUND. 

Eternal  Torment 

(Eternal  Toraient  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Eternity 

(Eternity  ) 

See  ETERNAL,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY,  IMMORTALITY,  MORTALITY,  PRE-EXISTENCE, 
RESURRECTION,  RICHES  OF  ETERNITY,  TIME. 

In  general,  eternity  refers  to  the  eternal  worlds,  to  the  spheres  of  existence  outside  the  realm  of  time, 
those  outside  the  temporal  limitations  circumscribing  mortal  life  on  this  earth.  Spirit  beings  and  immortal 
persons  live  in  eternity;  mortal  man  lives  in  time.  Eternity  goes  on  forever  and  is  of  infinite  duration;  time 
is  of  finite  proportions,  beginning  for  each  person  at  birth  and  ending  at  death.  (D.  &  C.  38:12,  20;  39:22; 
72:3;  109:24;  132:17.)  Properly  perfoiTned  priesthood  ordinances  are  binding  in  time  and  in  eternity.  (D. 


174 


&  C.  132:7,  18-19,  49.)  Faithful  saints  are  promised  the  riches  and  the  wonders  of  eternity  (D.  &  C.  38:39; 
67:2;  68:31;  76:8;  78:18);  the  sons  of  perdition  are  destined  to  go  "with  the  devil  and  his  angels  in 
eternity."  (D.  &  C.  76:33,  44.) 

Because  he  is  an  eternal  Being,  God  dwells  "in  the  high  and  holy  place"  in  eternity.  He  is  "the  high 
and  lofty  One  that  inhabiteth  eternity,  whose  name  is  Holy."  (Isa.  57:15.)  He  "sitteth  upon  his  throne,  is  in 
the  bosom  of  eternity,  in  the  midst  of  all  things."  (D.  &  C.  88:13.)  And  it  is  he  who  "looked  upon  the  wide 
expanse  of  eternity,  and  all  the  seraphic  hosts  of  heaven,  before  the  world  was  made."  (D.  &  C.  38:1.) 

Eternity  to  Eternity 

(Eternity  to  Eternity  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ENDLESS,  ETERNAL,  ETERNAL  FATHER,  ETERNAL  GOD,  ETERNAL  LIFE, 
ETERNITY,  EVERLASTING,  EVERLASTING  TO  EVERLASTING,  IMMORTALITY,  ONE 
ETERNAL  ROUND,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  RESURRECTION. 

As  men  view  things  from  their  mortal  perspective,  there  was  a  past  eternity  and  there  will  be  a  fiiture 
eternity.  The  past  eternity  embraced  the  sphere  of  eternal  existence  which  all  men  had  as  the  spirit 
offspring  of  exalted  parents  in  pre-existence.  The  future  eternity  will  be  that  eternal  sphere  in  which  the 
righteous,  having  gained  both  immortality  and  eternal  life,  will  themselves  become  exalted  parents  and 
have  a  continuation  of  the  seeds  forever  and  ever.  (D.  &  C.  132:19-25.)  In  this  sense,  eternity  becomes  a 
measure  of  eternal  "time."  Those  past  ages  when  all  men  dwelt  in  the  presence  of  their  Eternal  Father  were 
one  eternity,  and  those  future  ages  when  these  spirit  children  will  have  gone  on  to  exaltation,  having  spirit 
children  of  their  own,  will  be  another  eternity. 

Having  in  mind  this  eternal,  unending  repetition  of  the  eternal  plan  of  creation,  redemption,  and 
salvation,  it  is  plain  what  our  Lord  meant  when  he  said  he  was  "from  all  eternity  to  all  eternity"  (D.  &  C. 
39:1),  and  also  when  he  said  of  himself,  "From  eternity  to  eternity  he  is  the  same,  and  his  years  never  fail." 
(D.  &  C.  76:4.)  In  other  words  Christ,  as  an  eternal,  exalted  Being,  never  varies;  from  one  eternity  to  the 
next  he  is  the  same.  From  pre-existence  to  pre-existence  his  course  goes  on  in  one  eternal  round,  and  so 
will  it  be  with  all  exalted  beings.  Those  who  become  gods  will  then  be  from  eternity  to  eternity, 
everlastingly  the  same,  always  possessing  the  ftallness  of  all  things  and  multiplying  their  race  without  end. 
(Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  l,pp.  10-12.) 

Ethics 

(Ethics  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CHRISTIANITY,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST. 

Principles  of  right  conduct  are  called  ethics.  Ethical  principles  grow  out  of  the  teachings  of 
Cliristianity;  some  of  them  are  instilled  into  the  consciences  of  men  by  the  light  of  Christ.  The  only  real 
superiority  of  the  apostate  sects  of  Christendom  over  their  more  openly  pagan  counterparts  is  the  fact  that 
the  Christian  sects  (though  rejecting  the  doctrines,  ordinances,  and  powers  of  the  gospel)  have  nonetheless 
preserved  many  of  the  ethical  teachings  of  Christ  and  the  apostles. 

The  more  gospel  doctrines  accepted  by  a  pailicular  people,  the  higher  are  their  ethical  standards.  Thus 
the  highest  manifestation  of  ethical  achievement  is  found  among  the  true  saints. 

Eucharist 

(Eucharist  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  SACRAMENT,  SACRAMENTS. 

One  of  the  sacraments  of  the  Catholic  Church  is  the  Eucharist.  As  administered  by  them  this  is  not  the 
correct  form  of  the  true  ordinance  of  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  The  chief  feature  of  the  Eucharist 
-  according  to  their  teaching  -  is  that  bread  and  wine,  on  the  principle  of  transubstantiation,  turn  literally 
into  the  flesh  and  blood  of  our  Lord.  (James  Cardinal  Gibbons,  The  Faith  of  Our  Fathers,  pp.  235-250.) 


175 


Eunuchs 

(Eunuchs  ) 
See  CELIBACY. 

In  a  passage  of  uncertain  accuracy  and  meaning,  our  Lord  said:  "There  are  some  eunuchs,  which  were 
so  bom  from  their  mother's  womb:  and  there  are  some  eunuchs,  which  were  made  eunuchs  of  men:  and 
there  be  eunuchs,  which  have  made  themselves  eunuchs  for  the  kingdom  of  heaven's  sake."  (Matt.  19:12.) 
Apparently  those  who  made  themselves  eunuchs  were  men  who  in  false  pagan  worship  had  deliberately 
mutilated  themselves  with  the  expectancy  that  such  would  further  their  salvation.  It  is  clear  that  such  was 
not  a  true  gospel  requirement  of  any  sort.  There  is  no  such  thing  in  the  gospel  as  willful  emasculation; 
such  a  notion  violates  true  principles  of  procreation  and  celestial  marriage. 

Eunuchs  who  are  righteous  and  keep  the  commandments  are  heirs  of  the  fullness  of  the  Father's 
kingdom.  (Isa.  56:1-8.)  One  of  the  most  dramatic  conversions  and  baptisms  recorded  in  the  scripture  is 
that  of  the  eunuch  by  Philip.  (Acts  8:26-39.) 

Evangelical  Ministers 

(Evangelical  Ministers  ) 
See  EVANGELISTS. 

Evangelists 

(Evangelists  ) 

See  MELCHIZEDEK  PRIESTHOOD,  MISSIONARIES,  PATRIARCHAL  BLESSINGS, 
PATRIARCHAL  ORDER,  PATRIARCHS,  PATRIARCH  TO  THE  CHURCH,  PRIESTHOOD, 
PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES,  PRIESTHOOD  QUORUMS. 

1.  "An  evangelist  is  a  patriarch,"  the  Prophet  said,  "even  the  oldest  man  of  the  blood  of  Joseph  or  of 
the  seed  of  Abraham.  Wherever  the  Church  of  Christ  is  established  in  the  earth,  there  should  be  a  patriarch 
for  the  benefit  of  the  posterity  of  the  saints,  as  it  was  with  Jacob  in  giving  his  patriarchal  blessing  unto  his 
sons."  (Teachings,  p.  151;  Gen.  49;  Acts  21:8;  Eph.  4:11-14;  2  Tim.  4:5.) 

Stake  patriarchs  are  chosen  pursuant  to  the  following  revelation:  "It  is  the  duty  of  the  Twelve,  in  all 
large  branches  of  the  church,  to  ordain  evangelical  ministers,  as  they  shall  be  designated  unto  them  by 
revelation."  (D.  &  C.  107:39.)  The  office  of  Evangelist  or  Patriarch  to  the  Church  is  hereditaiy;  it  "was 
confinned  to  be  handed  down  from  father  to  son,  and  rightly  belongs  to  the  literal  descendants  of  the 
chosen  seeds,  to  whom  the  promises  were  made.  (D.  &  C.  107:40-53.) 

2.  Having  lost  the  true  knowledge  of  the  priesthood  and  its  of  offices,  and  knowing  nothing  of 
patriarchal  blessings  as  a  necessary  part  of  church  administration,  the  false  traditions  of  the  sectarian 
world  have  applied  the  designation  evangelist  to  traveling  preachers,  missionaries,  and  revivalists.  The 
sectarian  theory  is  that  evangelists  travel  to  spread  the  gospel.  This  usage  of  the  teim  is  so  widespread  that 
even  in  the  Church  it  is  not  inappropriate  to  speak  of  the  evangelical  work  of  missionaries. 

Eve 

(Eve  ) 

See  ADAM,  FORBIDDEN  FRUIT,  WOMAN. 

Scant  knowledge  is  available  to  us  of  Eve  (the  wife  of  Adam)  and  her  achievements  in  pre-existence 
and  in  mortality.  Without  question  she  was  like  unto  her  mighty  husband  Adam  in  intelligence  and  in 
devotion  to  righteousness  during  both  her  first  and  second  estates  of  existence.  She  was  placed  on  earth  in 
the  same  manner  as  was  Adam,  the  Mosaic  account  of  the  Lord  creating  her  from  Adam's  rib  being  merely 
figurative.  (Moses  3:20-25.) 

Eve  was  the  first  woman;  she  became  the  mother  of  the  whole  human  race,  her  very  name  signifying 
"mother  of  all  living."  (Moses  4:26;  1  Ne.  5:11.)  Strictly  speaking  it  was  she  who  first  partook  of  the 
forbidden  fruit,  with  the  resultant  change  in  the  physical  body  from  a  state  of  immortality  to  mortality. 
Adam  thereafter  partook  in  order  to  comply  with  the  command  to  multiply  and  fill  the  earth  with  posterity. 


176 


"Adam  was  not  deceived,  but  the  woman  being  deceived  was  in  the  transgression."  (1  Tim.  2: 14.) 

Before  the  fall  Eve  was  sealed  to  Adam  in  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  of  raamage,  a  ceremony 
performed  by  the  Lord  before  death  entered  the  world  and  therefore  one  destined  to  last  forever.  (Moses 
3:20-25.)  After  the  fall  the  Lord  said  to  her:  "I  will  greatly  multiply  thy  sorrow  and  thy  conception.  In 
sorrow  thou  shalt  bring  forth  children,  and  thy  desire  shall  be  to  thy  husband,  and  he  shall  rule  over  thee." 
(Moses  4:22.) 

One  of  the  most  perfect  summaries  of  the  plan  of  salvation  ever  given  fell  from  the  lips  of  Eve:  "Were 
it  not  for  our  transgression,"  she  said,  "we  never  should  have  had  seed,  and  never  should  have  known  good 
and  evil,  and  the  joy  of  our  redemption,  and  the  eternal  life  which  God  giveth  unto  all  the  obedient." 
(Moses  5:11.)  Indeed,  Eve  is  a  joint-participant  with  Adam  in  all  his  ministry,  and  will  inherit  jointly  with 
him  all  the  blessings  appertaining  to  his  high  state  of  exaltation. 

Everlasting 

(Everlasting  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ENDLESS,  ETERNAL,  ETERNAL  LIFE,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY, 
EVERLASTING  GOD,  EVERLASTING  TO  EVERLASTING,  GOD,  ONE  ETERNAL  ROUND. 

1 .  In  the  same  sense  in  which  one  of  the  Lord's  names  is  Endless  and  another  Eternal,  so  Everlasting  is 
also  an  appellation  of  Deity.  (Moses  1:3;  7:35;  D.  &  C.  19:10.)  He  is  called  the  Everlasting  God  (Gen. 
21:33;  Isa.  9:6;  40:28;  Jer.  10:10;  Rom.  16:26;  D.  &  C.  133:34),  signifying  that  he  endures  forever,  for 
"his  years  never  fail."  (D.  &  C.  76:4.) 

Everlasting,  used  thus,  is  a  noun  and  not  an  adjective;  it  is  the  name  of  the  kind,  status,  and  quality  of 
existence  enjoyed  by  an  everlasting  Being.  Accordingly,  everlasting  life  (a  synonym  for  endless  life  and 
eternal  life)  is  the  name  of  the  kind  of  life  that  God  lives,  or  in  other  words  everlasting  life  is  exaltation. 
(Matt.  19:29;  John  3:16,  36;  5:24;  6:40,  47) 

2.  Everlasting  is  also  used  to  signify  the  eternal,  lasting,  and  enduring  nature  of  some  particular  thing. 
For  instance:  the  "everlasting  covenant"  (D.  &  C.  1:15),  "the  everlasting  gospel"  (D.  &  C.  36:5),  "songs  of 
everlasting  joy"  (D.  &  C.  45:71),  "an  everlasting  inheritance"  (D.  &  C  57:5),  "the  everlasting  hills."  (D.  & 
C.  133:31.) 

Everlasting  Covenant 

(Everlasting  Covenant  ) 

See  NEW  AND  EVERLASTING  COVENANT. 

Everlasting  Damnation 

(Everlasting  Damnation  ) 
See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Everlasting  Father 

(Everlasting  Father  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CHRIST  AS  THE  FATHER,  ETERNAL,  EVERLASTING,  EVERLASTING  GOD, 
FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  GOD. 

One  of  Isaiah's  great  Messianic  prophecies  names  Christ  as  "The  everlasting  Father"  (Isa.  9:6),  an 
expression  having  reference  both  to  our  Lord's  everlasting  godhood  and  to  the  special  senses  in  which  he 
stands  as  the  Father.  Since  God  the  Father  is  both  an  everlasting  Being  and  the  Father  of  the  spirits  of 
men,  he  also  may  properly  be  called  the  Everlasting  Father. 

Everlasting  God 

(Everlasting  God  ) 

See  CHRIST,  ETERNAL  GOD,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY,  EVERLASTING  FATHER, 
EVERLASTING  TO  EVERLASTING,  GOD. 


177 


Both  the  Father  and  the  Son  are  known  by  the  sacred  name-title,  Everlasting  God.  (Gen.  21:33;  Isa. 
9:6;  40:28;  Jer.  10:10;  Rom.  16:26;  D.  &  C.  133:34.)  Can-ying  as  it  does  a  connotation  of  eternal 
continuance  and  unending  existence,  this  designation  of  Deity  points  up  the  sharp  contrast  between  the 
living  Gods  and  the  false  and  temporary  gods  of  the  world. 

Everlasting  Gospel 

(Everlasting  Gospel  ) 
See  GOSPEL. 

Everlasting  Hell 

(Everlasting  Hell  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Everlasting  King 

(Everlasting  King  ) 
See  KING. 

Everlasting  Life 

(Everlasting  Life  ) 
See  ETERNAL  LIFE. 

Everlasting  Punishment 

(Everlasting  Punishment  ) 
See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Everlasting  to  Everlasting 

(Everlasting  to  Everlasting  ) 

See  ENDLESS,  ETERNAL,  ETERNAL  LIFE,  ETERNITY,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY, 
EVERLASTING,  EVERLASTING  FATHER,  EVERLASTING  GOD,  EXALTATION,  FULNESS  OF 
THE  FATHER,  IMMORTALITY,  ONE  ETERNAL  ROUND,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  RESURRECTION. 

By  gaining  exaltation  -  which  includes  the  fiilness  of  the  Father  and  "a  continuation  of  the  seeds 
forever  and  ever"  -  men  become  "gods,  because  they  have  no  end;  therefore  shall  they  be  from  everlasting 
to  everlasting,  because  they  continue."  (D.  &  C.  132:19-20.)  That  is,  those  who  gain  eternal  increase,  who 
have  unending  spirit  children  in  the  resurrection,  have  thereby  become  from  everlasting  to  everlasting. 
Because  of  their  eternal  progeny  they  continue  everlastingly  without  end;  from  eternity  to  eternity  they  are 
the  same;  and  being  perfected  and  exalted  beings,  their  course  never  varies,  nor  is  there  shadow  of  turning 
to  the  right  or  the  left. 

Our  Eternal  Father,  of  course,  now  has  this  kind  of  an  existence.  "There  is  a  God  in  heaven,"  the 
revelation  says,  of  him  "who  is  infinite  and  eternal,  from  everlasting  to  everlasting  the  same  unchangeable 
God."  (D.  &  C.  20:17;  109:77.)  Christ  also  describes  himself  as  being  "from  everlasting  to  everlasting." 
(D.  &  C.  61:1;  Ps.  90:2;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  10-12.) 

Everlasting  Torment 

(Everlasting  Torment  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION. 

Evil 

(Evil  ) 

See  AGENCY,  DEVIL,  EVIL  ONE,  EVIL  SPIRITS,  GOOD,  SIN,  WICKEDNESS. 


178 


Evil  is  the  opposite  of  good;  it  consists  in  disobeying  the  laws  of  God.  It  is  of  the  devil.  Everything 
which  is  fostered,  inspired,  and  spread  forth  by  the  power  of  the  Evil  One  is  in  its  nature  evil. 
Accordingly,  evil  is  that  which  is  morally  corrupt,  wicked,  and  bad;  which  neither  edifies  nor  enlightens; 
which  chooses  darkness  and  secrecy  to  cover  its  doings;  which  is  destructive  of  faith,  good  morals,  and 
godly  virtues;  which  is  in  opposition  to  all  righteousness;  which  leads  away  from  God  and  from  salvation. 
Evil  is  sin,  transgression,  unrighteousness,  wickedness. 

Philosophers  and  certain  religionists  are  forever  seeking  to  find  the  origin  and  purpose  of  evil,  but  until 
they  accept  the  gospel  truths,  they  will  never  succeed.  To  understand  the  nature  and  source  of  evil, 
together  with  its  place  in  the  eternal  scheme  of  things,  it  is  necessary  to  know  the  basic  truths  of  the  great 
plan  of  salvation. 

As  far  as  men  on  this  earth  are  concerned,  evil  had  its  beginning  in  pre-existence.  The  Eternal  Father 
begat  spirit  children,  ordained  laws  to  enable  them  to  progress  and  endowed  them  with  agency. 
Disobedience  to  those  laws  was  in  its  nature  evil,  and  consequently  without  the  possibility  of  committing 
evil  there  could  be  no  hope  of  progression  toward  exaltation.  Lucifer  and  one-third  of  the  spirit  hosts  of 
heaven  chose  evil  rather  than  good,  failed  to  exercise  their  agency  in  righteousness,  and  finally  coming  out 
in  open  rebellion  against  the  Lord,  they  were  cast  out  onto  the  earth  and  denied  bodies.  (Moses  4:1-4; 
Abra.  3:24-28;  D.  &  C.  29:36-40;  Rev.  12:7-13.) 

Continuing  their  rebellion  against  God,  their  self-appointed  mission  is  to  entice  men  to  violate  the  laws 
of  God  and  thereby  commit  evil  and  be  damned.  Thus,  as  far  as  this  mortal  life  is  concerned,  Lucifer  is  the 
author  and  creator  of  evil.  "That  which  is  evil  cometh  of  the  devil;  for  the  devil  is  an  enemy  unto  God,  and 
fighteth  against  him  continually,  and  inviteth  and  enticeth  to  sin,  and  to  do  that  which  is  evil  continually." 
(Moro.  7:12.)  "Let  no  man  say  when  he  is  tempted,  I  am  tempted  of  God:  for  God  cannot  be  tempted  with 
evil,  neither  tempteth  he  any  man."  (Jas.  1:13.) 

The  presence  of  evil  in  this  world,  with  the  ever  present  possibility  that  each  accountable  person  may 
do  that  which  is  evil,  becomes  a  basic  reality  without  which  the  great  plan  of  salvation  would  not  operate. 
"It  must  needs  be,  that  there  is  an  opposition  in  all  things,"  Lehi  said.  (2  Ne.  2:11.)  Without  virtue  in 
contrast  to  vice,  good  as  the  opposite  of  bad,  and  evil  as  the  opponent  of  righteousness,  men  would  not  be 
able  to  overcome  the  lusts  of  the  flesh  and  thus  work  out  their  own  salvation  in  the  kingdom  of  God.  Thus 
the  existence  but  not  the  partaking  of  evil  is  essential  to  the  attainment  of  salvation. 

As  part  of  the  gospel  plan,  men  are  commanded:  "Forsake  all  evil  and  cleave  unto  all  good"  (D.  &  C. 
98: 1 1);  "cease  to  do  evil"  (D.  &  C.  124: 116);  "Keep  yourselves  from  evil."  (D.  &  C.  136:21.)  "Deliver  us 
from  evil,"  is  the  approved  petition  for  divine  grace  as  it  is  found  in  the  Lord's  prayer.  (Matt.  6:13.) 

"The  wicked,"  those  "who  are  evil,"  those  who  choose  "evil  works  rather  than  good,"  shall  be  thmst 
down  to  hell  to  suffer  the  toiments  of  the  damned  until  they  have  paid  the  penalty  for  their  evil  deeds. 
(Alma  40:13-14.)  At  the  end  of  their  imprisonment  they  shall  come  forth  in  the  resurrection  of  the  unjust 
to  receive  a  telestial  inheritance.  (D.  &  C.  76:17,  105-106.) 

Evil  One 

(Evil  One  ) 

See  DEVIL,  EVIL,  EVIL  SPIRITS. 

Satan  is  the  Evil  One,  a  name-title  signifying  that  he  is  the  embodiment  of  all  evil  and  all  wickedness, 
that  he  is  in  opposition  to  all  righteousness,  and  that  he  is  the  father  of  lies  and  the  author  of  evil.  (2  Ne. 
4:27;  9:28;  Alma  46:8;  Hela.  12:4;  Ether  8:25.)  "Light  and  truth  forsake  that  evil  one."  (D.  &  C.  93:37.) 
His  mission  is  "to  destroy  the  souls  of  men."  (Hela.  8:28.)  Sorceries,  witchcrafts,  magics,  and  every  form 
of  evil  abomination  are  wrought  by  "the  power  of  the  evil  one."  (Monn.  1:19.) 

Evil  Spirits 

(Evil  Spirits  ) 

See  DEMONS,  DEVILS,  DIVINATION,  EVIL,  EVIL  ONE,  EXORCISM,  GHOSTS,  MAGIC, 
NECROMANCY,  SIN,  SORCERY,  SPIRITUALISM,  TEMPTATION,  WITCHCRAFT. 


179 


Lucifer  is  not  alone;  one-tliird  of  tlie  spirit  liosts  of  heaven,  having  been  cast  out  with  him,  stand  at  his 
side  to  do  his  bidding.  Their  mission  is  to  make  war  with  tire  saints  and  to  destroy  the  souls  of  all  men. 
(Rev.  12.)  Obviously  there  are  many  evil  spirits  available  to  seduce  and  lead  astray  each  person  on  earth. 

Acting  in  conformity  with  laws  which  exist,  evil  spirits  have  power  to  tempt  men,  to  entice  them  to 
work  wickedness,  and  to  induce  them  to  do  those  things  which  are  carnal,  sensual,  and  devilish. 
Revelations  come  to  men  just  as  easily  from  devils  as  they  do  from  holy  sources.  By  rebellion  and 
wickedness  men  may  commune  with  evil  spirits,  whereas  by  obedience  and  righteousness  they  might  have 
seen  angels  and  had  the  communion  of  the  Holy  Spirit.  All  these  things  are  governed  by  law. 

Evil  spirits  control  much  of  the  so-called  religious  worship  in  the  world;  for  instance,  the  great  creeds 
of  Christendom  were  foraiulated  so  as  to  conform  to  their  whispered  promptings.  They  have  played  a 
substantial  part  in  the  foraiulation  of  the  philosophies  of  the  world;  so-called  scientific  theories  have  been 
influenced  by  them.  By  hearkening  to  their  promptings,  leaders  of  nations  have  led  their  peoples  into  wars 
and  every  sort  of  evil. 

Whether  they  know  it  or  not,  Satan  is  and  has  been  the  master  of  all  who  live  after  the  manner  of  the 
world.  Stalin,  for  instance  (though  he  may  not  have  been  aware  of  the  source  of  his  ideas),  seemed  to  have 
been  influenced  by  evil  spirits  in  the  direction  of  the  murderous  and  barbarous  course  he  pursued  both  in 
his  home  Russia  and  in  the  nations  of  the  earth. 

To  his  saints  the  Lord  says;  "Ye  are  commanded  in  all  things  to  ask  of  God,  who  giveth  liberally;  and 
that  which  the  Spirit  testifies  unto  you  even  so  I  would  that  ye  should  do  in  all  holiness  of  heart,  walking 
uprightly  before  me,  considering  the  end  of  your  salvation,  doing  all  things  with  prayer  and  thanksgiving, 
that  ye  may  not  be  seduced  by  evil  spirits,  or  doctrines  of  devils,  or  the  commandments  of  men;  for  some 
are  of  men,  and  others  of  devils."  (D.  &  C.  46;7.) 

Evolution 

(Evolution  ) 

See  ADAM,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CREATION,  EARTH,  EARTHS,  FALLEN  MAN,  FALL 
OF  ADAM,  FIRST  MAN,  GOD,  MILLENNIUM,  PRE-EXISTENCE. 

Of  the  several  theories,  postulated  in  one  age  or  another  to  explain  (without  the  aid  of  revelation)  the 
origin  of  man  and  the  various  forms  of  life,  none  has  taken  such  hold  or  found  such  widespread 
acceptance  as  the  relatively  modem  so-called  theory  of  organic  evolution.  Stated  generally,  this  theory 
assumes  that  over  long  periods  of  times,  and  through  a  series  of  changes,  all  present  living  organisms  or 
groups  of  organisms  have  acquired  the  morphological  and  physiological  characters  which  distinguish 
them.  The  theory  assumes  that  all  present  animals  and  plants  have  their  origin  in  other  pre-existing  types, 
the  distinguishable  differences  being  due  to  modifications  in  successive  generations.  One  or  more 
common  origins  for  all  fonns  of  life  are  assumed. 

From  the  day  of  their  first  announcement,  these  theories  of  organic  evolution  found  themselves  in 
conflict  with  the  principles  of  revealed  religion  as  such  are  found  recorded  in  the  scriptures  and 
expounded  by  inspired  teachers.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  I,  pp.  139-151.) 

President  John  Taylor  wrote  as  follows;  "The  animal  and  vegetable  creations  are  governed  by  certain 
laws,  and  are  composed  of  certain  elements  peculiar  to  themselves.  This  applies  to  man,  to  the  beasts, 
fowls,  fish  and  creeping  things,  to  the  insects  and  to  all  animated  nature;  each  one  possessing  its  own 
distinctive  features,  each  requiring  a  specific  sustenance,  each  having  an  organism  and  faculties  governed 
by  prescribed  laws  to  perpetuate  its  own  kind.  So  accurate  is  the  fonnation  of  the  various  living  creatures 
that  an  intelligent  student  of  nature  can  tell  by  any  particular  bone  of  the  skeleton  of  an  animal  to  what 
class  or  order  it  belongs. 

"These  principles  do  not  change,  as  represented  by  evolutionists  of  the  Darwinian  school,  but  the 
primitive  organisms  of  all  living  beings  exist  in  the  same  forni  as  when  they  first  received  their  impress 
from  their  Maker.  ...  If  we  take  man,  he  is  said  to  have  been  made  in  the  image  of  God,  for  the  simple 
reason  that  he  is  a  son  of  God;  and  being  his  son,  he  is,  of  course,  his  offspring,  an  emanation  from  God, 
in  whose  likeness,  we  are  told,  he  is  made.  He  did  not  originate  from  a  chaotic  mass  of  matter,  moving  or 
inert,  but  came  forth  possessing,  in  an  embryotic  state,  all  the  faculties  and  powers  of  a  God.  And  when  he 
shall  be  perfected,  and  have  progressed  to  maturity,  he  will  be  like  his  Father  -  a  God;  being  indeed  his 
offspring.  As  the  horse,  the  ox,  the  sheep,  and  every  living  creature,  including  man,  propagates  its  own 
species  and  perpetuates  its  own  kind,  so  does  God  perpetuate  his. 


180 


"Paul,  in  speaking  on  the  resurrection,  refers  to  the  different  qualities  of  flesh  as  follows:  'But  God 
giveth  it  a  body  as  it  hath  pleased  him,  and  to  every  seed  his  own  body.  All  flesh  is  not  the  same  flesh:  but 
there  is  one  kind  of  flesh  of  men,  another  flesh  of  beasts,  and  another  of  fishes,  and  another  of  birds.'  (1 
Cor.  15:38-39.) 

"These  different  qualities  seem  to  be  inherent  in  the  several  species,  as  much  so  as  the  properties  of 
silver,  gold,  copper,  iron,  and  other  minerals  are  inherent  in  the  matter  in  which  they  are  contained,  whilst 
herbs,  according  to  their  kind,  possess  their  specific  properties,  or  as  the  leading  properties  of  earth,  air, 
and  water,  are  distinct  from  one  another;  and  hence,  on  physiological  grounds,  this  principle  being 
admitted,  and  it  cannot  be  controverted,  it  would  be  impossible  to  take  the  tissues  of  the  lower,  or,  indeed, 
of  any  order  of  fishes,  and  make  of  them  an  ox,  a  bird,  or  a  man;  as  impossible  as  it  would  be  to  take  iron 
and  make  it  into  gold,  silver,  or  copper,  or  to  produce  any  other  changes  in  the  laws  which  govern  any 
kind  of  matter.  And  when  the  resun'ection  and  exaltation  of  man  shall  be  consummated,  although  more 
pure,  refined  and  glorious,  yet  will  he  still  be  in  the  same  image,  and  have  the  same  likeness,  without 
variation  or  change  in  any  of  his  parts  or  faculties,  except  the  substitution  of  spirit  for  blood."  (Mediation 
and  Atonement,  pp.  160-161.) 

This  aptly  expressed  and  plainly  worded  statement  from  President  John  Taylor  expresses  the  same 
views  and  perspective  found  in  the  writings  and  sennons  of  Joseph  Smith,  Brigham  Young,  Orson  Pratt, 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  Charles  W.  Penrose,  and  many  of  our  early  day  inspired  writers.  (Man:  His  Origin  and 
Destiny,  pp.  1-563.) 

The  First  Presidency  of  the  Church  (Joseph  F.  Smith,  John  R.  Winder,  and  Anthon  H.  Lund),  in 
November,  1909,  issued  a  formal  pronouncement  under  the  title,  "The  Origin  of  Man,"  in  which,  as  they 
expressed  it,  is  set  forth  "the  position  held  by  the  Church"  upon  the  subject  of  evolution.  After  explaining 
the  scriptural  passages  relative  to  the  creation  and  pre-existence,  this  document  concludes: 

"Adam,  our  great  progenitor,  'the  first  man,'  was,  like  Clirist,  a  pre-existent  spirit,  and  like  Clirist,  he 
took  upon  him  an  appropriate  body,  the  body  of  a  man,  and  so  became  a  'living  soul.'  The  doctrine  of  the 
pre-existence,  revealed  so  plainly,  particularly  in  latter-days,  pours  a  wonderftal  flood  of  light  upon  the 
otherwise  mysterious  problem  of  man's  origin.  It  shows  that  man,  as  a  spirit,  was  begotten  and  bom  of 
heavenly  parents,  and  reared  to  maturity  in  the  eternal  mansions  of  the  Father,  prior  to  coming  upon  the 
earth  in  a  temporal  body  to  undergo  an  experience  in  mortality.  It  teaches  that  all  men  existed  in  the  spirit 
before  any  man  existed  in  the  flesh,  and  that  all  who  have  inhabited  the  earth  since  Adam  have  taken 
bodies  and  become  souls  in  like  manner. 

"It  is  held  by  some  that  Adam  was  not  the  first  man  upon  this  earth,  and  that  the  original  human  being 
was  a  development  from  lower  orders  of  the  animal  creation.  These,  however,  are  the  theories  of  men.  The 
word  of  the  Lord  declares  that  Adam  was  'the  first  man  of  all  men'  (Moses  1:34),  and  we  are  therefore  in 
duty  bound  to  regard  him  as  the  primal  parent  of  the  race.  It  was  shown  to  the  brother  of  Jared  that  all  men 
were  created  in  the  beginning  after  the  image  of  God;  and  whether  we  take  this  to  mean  the  spirit  or  the 
body,  or  both,  it  commits  us  to  the  same  conclusion:  Man  began  life  as  a  human  being,  in  the  likeness  of 
our  heavenly  Father. 

"True  it  is  that  the  body  of  man  enters  upon  its  career  as  a  tiny  germ  or  embryo,  which  becomes  an 
infant,  quickened  at  a  certain  stage  by  the  spirit  whose  tabernacle  it  is,  and  the  child,  after  being  bom, 
develops  into  a  man.  There  is  nothing  in  this,  however,  to  indicate  that  the  original  man  the  first  of  our 
race,  began  life  as  anything  less  than  a  man,  or  less  than  the  human  germ  or  embryo  that  becomes  a  man. 

"Man,  by  searching,  cannot  find  out  God.  Never,  unaided,  will  he  discover  the  truth  about  the 
beginning  of  human  life.  The  Lord  must  reveal  himself  or  remain  unrevealed;  and  the  same  is  true  of  the 
facts  relating  to  the  origin  of  Adam's  race  -  God  alone  can  reveal  them.  Some  of  these  facts,  however,  are 
already  known,  and  what  has  been  made  known  it  is  our  duty  to  receive  and  retain. 

"The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  basing  its  belief  on  divine  revelation,  ancient  and 
modem,  proclaims  man  to  be  the  direct  and  lineal  offspring  of  Deity.  God  himself  is  an  exalted  man, 
perfected,  enthroned,  and  supreme.  By  his  almighty  power  he  organized  the  earth,  and  all  that  it  contains, 
from  spirit  and  element,  which  exist  co-etemally  with  himself.  He  formed  every  plant  that  grows,  and 
every  animal  that  breathes,  each  after  its  own  kind,  spiritually  and  temporally  -  'that  which  is  spiritual 
being  in  the  likeness  of  that  which  is  temporal,  and  that  which  is  temporal  in  the  likeness  of  that  which  is 
spiritual.'  He  made  the  tadpole  and  the  ape,  the  lion  and  the  elephant;  but  he  did  not  make  them  in  his  own 
image,  nor  endow  them  with  Godlike  reason  and  intelligence.  Nevertheless,  the  whole  animal  creation  will 
be  perfected  and  perpetuated  in  the  hereafter,  each  class  in  its  'destined  order  or  sphere.'  and  will  enjoy 
'eternal  felicity.'  That  fact  has  been  made  plain  in  this  dispensation.  (D.  &  C.  77:3.) 


181 


"Man  is  the  child  of  God,  formed  in  the  divine  image  and  endowed  with  divine  attributes,  and  even  as 
the  infant  son  of  an  earthly  father  and  mother  is  capable  in  due  time  of  becoming  a  man,  so  the 
undeveloped  offspring  of  celestial  parentage  is  capable,  by  experience  through  ages  and  aeons,  of 
evolving  into  a  God."  (Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny,  pp.  354-355.) 

Obviously  there  never  will  be  a  conflict  between  truths  revealed  in  the  realm  of  religion  and  those 
discovered  by  scientific  research.  Truth  is  ever  in  harmony  with  itself.  But  if  false  doctrines  creep  into 
revealed  religion,  these  will  mn  counter  to  the  discovered  truths  of  science;  and  if  false  scientific  theories 
are  postulated,  these  ultimately  will  be  overtlirown  by  the  truths  revealed  from  Him  who  knows  all  things. 

Sometimes  persons  having  a  knowledge  of  the  revealed  truths  of  salvation  and  of  the  evolutionistic 
theories  of  the  day  keep  these  two  branches  of  knowledge  divided  between  separate  mental  compartments. 
Their  purpose  seems  to  be  to  avoid  resolving  the  obvious  conflicts  which  otherwise  would  arise.  Truth, 
however,  is  truth,  and  ultimately  every  believing  person  must  channel  his  mental  processes  so  that  proper 
choices  are  made  as  between  the  truths  of  salvation  and  the  theories  of  men.  Perhaps  it  will  be  profitable 
to  list  a  few  of  the  basic,  revealed  truths  concerning  the  origin  and  destiny  of  man  and  of  all  life  -  tmths 
which  are  not  taken  into  consideration  by  evolutionists  in  their  theorizing  and  which,  in  most  instances, 
are  diametrically  opposed  to  the  speculative  conclusions  reached  by  them. 

1.  GOD:  CREATOR  AND  RULER  OF  MANY  WORLDS.  -  While  it  is  tnie  that  evolutionists  may  be 
divided  between  theistic  and  atheistic  groups,  yet  most  of  those  professing  belief  in  God  consider  him  to 
be  an  indefinable  force,  essence,  or  power  of  an  incomprehensible  nature.  According  to  revelation, 
however,  he  is  a  personal  Being,  a  holy  and  exalted  Man,  a  glorified,  resurrected  Personage  having  a 
tangible  body  of  flesh  and  bones,  an  anthropomorphic  Entity,  the  personal  Father  of  the  spirits  of  all  men. 
(D.  &  C.  130:22-23;  Moses  6:51,  57;  Abra.  3:22-24;  Jos.  Smith  2: 16-19.) 

This  Person,  in  whose  image  and  likeness  man  is  created,  has  ordained  the  same  plan  of  creation  and 
salvation  for  this  earth,  and  all  the  varieties  of  life  on  its  face,  that  he  has  ordained  with  reference  to  the 
infinite  number  of  worlds  elsewhere  created  by  him.  (Moses  1;  D.  &  C.  76:22-24.)  Obviously  the  eternal 
truths  concerning  the  nature  of  the  true  God  and  his  creative  enterprises  have  received  no  consideration  in 
the  formulation  of  the  theory  of  organic  evolution. 

2.  PRE-EXISTENCE.  -  Life  did  not  originate  on  this  earth;  it  was  transplanted  from  other  and  older 
spheres.  Men  are  the  literal  spirit  children,  spirit  offspring,  of  the  Eternal  Father;  they  were  bom  to  him  as 
his  spirit  progeny,  as  spirit  entities  having  bodies  made  of  a  more  pure  and  refined  substance  than  that 
comprising  these  mortal  tabernacles. 

Further,  every  forai  of  life  had  a  spirit  existence  in  that  eternal  world  before  it  came  to  dwell  naturally 
upon  the  face  of  the  earth;  and  that  prior  existence,  for  all  forms  of  life,  was  one  in  which  the  spirit  entity 
had  the  exact  form  and  likeness  of  its  present  temporal  body.  Animals,  plants,  fowls,  fishes,  all  foims  of 
life  existed  as  spirit  entities  in  pre-existence;  their  number,  extent,  variety,  and  form  were  known  with 
exactitude  before  ever  the  foundations  of  this  earth  were  laid.  They  were  all  destined  to  live  in  their  time 
and  season  upon  this  particular  globe.  (Moses  3:1-9;  D.  &  C.  77:1-2.)  There  was  no  chance  whatever 
connected  with  the  creative  enteiprises.  All  things  were  foreknown  to  that  God  who  fathered  man  in  his 
own  image  and  who  created  all  other  forms  of  life  for  the  benefit  and  blessing  of  man.  Evolutionary 
speculation  takes  no  account  of  any  such  revealed  knowledge  as  this. 

3.  EARTH  CREATED  IN  A  PARADISIACAL  STATE.  -  This  earth,  when  first  it  rolled  forth  from 
the  Creator's  hand,  was  in  a  paradisiacal  or  terrestrial  state.  This  condition,  which  does  not  now  prevail, 
will  be  restored  when  the  earth  is  "renewed"  (made  new  again)  and  receives  its  paradisiacal  gloiy.  (Tenth 
Article  of  Faith.) 

In  its  primeval,  edenic  state  all  of  the  earth's  surface  was  in  one  place  (Moses  2:9);  thorns,  thistles, 
briars  and  noxious  weeds  had  not  yet  begun  to  grow  on  it;  rather,  all  plant  and  animal  life  was  desirable, 
congenial,  and  designed  to  provide  for  man  (earth's  crowning  inhabitant)  a  fruitful,  peaceful  garden  in 
which  to  dwell.  It  was  not  a  condition  attained  by  progressive,  creative  evolvement  from  less  propitious 
situations;  it  was  creation  in  its  glory,  beauty,  and  perfection;  hence,  the  Lord  God  pronounced  it  "very 
good."  The  fall  to  present  conditions  was  to  come  later.  (Parley  P.  Pratt,  Voice  of  Warning,  chapter  5.) 

Bearing  on  this  general  theme  that  the  earth  was  created  in  its  glory  and  perfection,  in  a  higher  type  of 
existence  than  it  now  enjoys,  is  the  revealed  fact  that,  as  is  the  case  with  man,  the  earth  itself  is  passing 
through  a  plan  of  salvation.  It  was  created  (the  equivalent  of  birth);  it  fell  to  its  present  mortal  or  telestial 
state;  it  was  baptized  by  immersion,  when  the  universal  flood  swept  over  its  entire  surface  (Ether  13:2-1 1); 
it  will  be  baptized  by  fire  (the  equivalent  of  baptism  of  the  Spirit)  in  the  day  when  it  is  renewed  and 


182 


receives  its  paradisiacal  glory;  it  will  die;  and  finally  it  will  be  quickened  (or  resurrected)  and  become  a 
celestial  sphere.  Evolutionary  theories  take  no  account  of  any  of  this. 

4.  TEMPORAL  CREATION  OF  MAN  AND  ALL  LIFE.  -  Adam  and  Eve  and  all  forms  of  life,  both 
animal  and  plant,  were  created  in  immortality,  that  is,  when  first  placed  on  this  earth,  all  forms  of  life  were 
in  a  state  of  immortality.  There  was  no  death  in  the  world;  death  entered  after  the  fall.  All  things  existed  in 
a  state  of  primeval  innocence.  If  conditions  had  not  changed,  death  would  not  have  entered  the  picture. 
Instead,  as  the  revelations  express  it,  "All  things  which  were  created  must  have  remained  in  the  same  state 
in  which  they  were  after  they  were  created;  and  they  must  have  remained  forever,  and  had  no  end."  (2  Ne. 
2:22.) 

The  recorded  teachings  of  many  of  the  early  brethren  of  the  Church  bear  this  same  testimony.  Orson 
Pratt,  for  instance,  has  left  us  such  apt  expressions  as  these:  "When  the  Lord  made  the  fowls  of  the  air,  and 
the  fishes  of  the  sea,  to  people  the  atmospheric  heavens,  or  the  watery  elements,  these  fowls  and  fishes 
were  so  constructed  in  their  nature  as  to  be  capable  of  eternal  existence.  .  .  .  Man,  when  he  was  first  placed 
upon  this  earth,  was  an  immortal  being,  capable  of  eternal  endurance;  his  flesh  and  bones,  as  well  as  his 
spirit,  were  immortal  and  eternal  in  their  nature;  and  it  was  just  so  with  all  the  inferior  creation  -  the  lion, 
the  leopard,  the  kid  and  the  cow;  it  was  so  with  the  feathered  tribes  of  creation,  as  well  as  those  that  swim 
in  the  vast  ocean  of  waters;  all  were  immortal  and  eternal  in  their  nature;  and  the  earth  itself  as  a  living 
being,  was  immortal  and  eternal  in  its  nature.  .  .  .  The  earth  was  so  constructed  that  it  was  capable  of 
existing  as  a  living  being  to  all  eternity,  with  all  the  swarms  of  animals,  fowls,  and  fishes  that  were  first 
placed  upon  the  face  thereof  ...  If  there  had  been  no  sin,  our  father  Adam  would  at  this  day  have  been  in 
the  Garden  of  Eden,  as  bright  and  as  blooming,  as  fresh  and  as  fair,  as  ever,  together  with  his  lovely 
consort  Eve,  dwelling  in  all  the  beauty  of  youth."  (Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny,  pp.  388-396.) 

After  this  temporal  creation,  this  creation  of  all  forms  of  life  in  a  state  of  immortality,  the  Lord  God 
issued  the  decree  that  all  created  life  should  remain  in  the  sphere  in  which  it  was  after  it  was  created. 
Further,  having  in  mind  the  coming  fall  and  consequent  entrance  of  death  and  mortality  into  the  world,  the 
Lord  in  that  first  primeval  day  commanded  that  all  forms  of  life,  after  mortality  entered  the  picture,  should 
bring  forth  posterity,  each  after  its  own  kind.  (Moses  2;  3.)  These  principles  accord  with  the  one 
announced  by  Paul  that  "All  flesh  is  not  the  same  flesh:  but  there  is  one  kind  of  flesh  of  men,  another  of 
beasts,  another  of  fishes,  and  another  of  birds."  (1  Cor.  15:39.) 

If  the  revelations  are  true  which  say  that  all  life  was  created  in  immortality,  then  evolutionary  theories 
which  necessarily  assume  there  was  always  death  in  the  world  are  false. 

5.  FALL  OF  ADAM  AND  ALL  THINGS.  -  Before  the  fall  there  was  neither  death  nor  procreation. 
Plants,  animals,  and  man  would  have  continued  living  forever  unless  a  change  of  condition  overtook  them; 
and  in  their  then  immortal  condition  they  could  not  have  reproduced,  each  after  its  own  kind.  Death  and 
procreation  pertain  to  mortality,  that  is,  to  the  status  and  type  of  existence  attained  by  all  fonns  of  life 
subsequent  to  the  fall. 

Lehi  said:  "If  Adam  had  not  transgressed  he  would  not  have  fallen,  but  he  would  have  remained  in  the 
garden  of  Eden.  And  all  things  which  were  created  must  have  remained  forever,  and  had  no  end.  And  they 
would  have  had  no  children;  wherefore  they  would  have  remained  in  a  state  of  innocence,  having  no  joy, 
for  they  knew  no  misery;  doing  no  good,  for  they  knew  no  sin.  But  behold,  all  things  have  been  done  in 
the  wisdom  of  him  who  knoweth  all  things.  Adam  fell  that  men  might  be;  and  men  are,  that  they  might 
have  joy.  And  the  Messiah  cometh  in  the  fulness  of  time,  that  he  may  redeem  the  children  of  men  from  the 
fall."  (2  Ne.  2:22-26.) 

Eve  expressed  the  same  truth  in  this  language:  "Were  it  not  for  our  transgression  we  never  should  have 
had  seed,  and  never  should  have  known  good  and  evil,  and  the  joy  of  our  redemption,  and  the  eternal  life 
which  God  giveth  unto  all  the  obedient."  (Moses  5:1 1.) 

Adam's  fall  brought  temporal  (natural)  and  spiritual  death  into  the  world.  The  temporal  or  natural 
death  means  that  body  and  spirit  separate,  the  spirit  going  to  a  world  of  waiting  spirits  to  await  the  day  of 
the  resuiTection,  the  body  returning  to  the  dust,  the  primal  element,  from  which  it  was  taken.  The  effects 
of  this  fall  passed  upon  all  created  things.  "Adam  was  appointed  Lord  of  this  creation,"  Orson  Pratt  says, 
"a  great  governor,  swaying  the  scepter  of  power  over  the  whole  earth.  When  the  governor,  the  person  who 
was  placed  to  reign  over  this  fair  creation,  had  transgressed,  all  in  his  dominion  had  to  feel  the  effects  of  it, 
the  same  as  a  father  or  a  mother,  who  transgresses  certain  laws,  frequently  transmits  the  effects  thereof  to 
the  latest  generations."  (Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny,  p.  395.) 

Thus  when  man  fell  the  earth  fell  together  with  all  fonns  of  life  on  its  face.  Death  entered;  procreation 
began;  the  probationary  experiences  of  mortality  had  their  start.  Before  this  fall  there  was  neither 


183 


mortality,  nor  birth,  nor  death,  nor  -  for  that  matter  -  did  Adam  so  much  as  have  blood  in  his  veins  (and  the 
same  would  be  true  for  other  fonns  of  life),  for  blood  is  an  element  pertaining  only  to  moilality.  (Man:  His 
Origin  and  Destiny,  pp.  362-365;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  76-77.) 

Obviously,  the  whole  doctrine  of  the  fall,  and  all  that  pertains  to  it,  is  diametrically  opposed  to  the 
evolutionary  assuinptions  relative  to  the  origin  of  species. 

6.  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST.  -  Our  Lord's  atoning  sacrifice  is  the  cornerstone  on  which  the  whole 
gospel  of  salvation  rests.  For  this  atonement  to  come  to  pass,  two  things  were  necessary:  1.  Christ  had  to 
come  into  the  world  as  the  literal  Son  of  an  immoilal,  personal  Father,  a  Father  who  had  life  in  himself 
and  from  whoin  his  offspring  in  mortality  would  inherit  power  over  death  (John  10:7-18);  2.  The  fall  of 
Adam  had  to  introduce  temporal  and  spiritual  death  into  the  world,  for  the  atonement  in  its  very  nature 
was  designed  to  ransom  all  things  that  fell  from  the  effects  of  that  fall.  All  forms  of  life  are  ransomed  from 
the  temporal  effects  of  the  fall  in  that  they  are  resuiTected  and  become  immortal. 

Now  if  Adam  did  not  fall  and  bring  death  into  the  world,  there  would  be  no  need  for  the  atoning 
sacrifice  of  Christ.  If  there  were  no  atonement  to  ransom  fallen  beings  and  creatures  from  the  effects  of  the 
fall,  there  would  be  no  resurrection,  no  immortality,  no  salvation,  no  eternal  life;  and  if  all  these  things 
should  vanish  away,  we  could  discard  God  himself  and  our  faith  would  be  vain. 

7.  ADAM'S  PLACE  IN  PLAN  OF  SALVATION.  -  Father  Adam  was  the  mightiest  and  most 
intelligent  spirit  son  of  God,  save  Jesus  (Jehovah)  only,  among  all  the  pre-existent  hosts  destined  to  come 
to  this  earth.  (D.  &  C.  78:15-16.)  When  there  was  war  in  heaven  following  Lucifer's  rebellion,  Adam  led 
the  araiies  of  the  righteous  in  casting  out  the  rebels.  (Rev.  12:7-10.)  When  the  populating  of  the  earth  was 
to  commence,  Adam  came  to  fill  his  foreordained  mission  and  stand  as  the  first  man  of  all  men.  He  was 
placed  in  the  Garden  of  Eden,  fell  in  due  course  from  his  state  of  immortality  and  innocence,  and  became 
the  first  mortal  flesh  on  earth.  (Moses  2;  3.)  There  were  no  pre-Adamites.  Any  assumption  to  the  contrary 
runs  counter  to  the  whole  plan  and  scheme  of  the  Almighty  in  creating  and  peopling  this  earth. 

As  a  mortal  man,  Adam  held  the  priesthood,  had  the  fulness  of  the  gospel,  heard  the  voice  of  God  and 
saw  his  face,  received  the  ministration  of  angels,  held  the  keys  of  the  kingdom,  enjoyed  the  gifts  of  the 
Spirit,  was  an  intelligent  and  wise  as  any  man  (save  Jesus  only)  who  has  ever  lived;  and,  finally,  having 
filled  the  fiill  measure  of  his  creation,  he  has  gone  on  to  his  exaltation  and  glory  in  all  things,  and  he  will 
reign  as  a  prince  and  rtiler  over  his  posterity  forever.  He  and  other  men  of  his  day  enjoyed  abundant 
spiritual  endowments  and  possessed  physical  bodies  superior  to  those  of  any  men  now  on  earth.  Many, 
including  Adam,  lived  nearly  a  thousand  years  on  earth.  (Moses  6;  D.  &  C.  107:40-52.) 

It  is  vain  to  belittle  Adam  and  attempt  to  place  him  but  a  step  ahead  of  some  lower  fonn  of  creature. 
Revelation  speaks  to  the  contrary.  And,  of  course,  the  reasoning  that  concerns  us  here  is:  No  Adam,  no 
fall;  no  fall,  no  atonement;  no  atonement,  no  true  religion,  no  puipose  in  life. 

8.  AGE  OF  THE  EARTH.  -  Evolutionary  theories  assume  that  hundreds  of  millions  of  years  were 
involved,  first  in  the  creation  of  the  earth  as  a  habitable  globe,  and  again  in  the  evolution  of  spontaneously 
generated,  single  celled  forms  of  life  into  the  complex  and  multitudinous  forms  of  life  now  found  on  its 
face.  We  have  rather  specific  scriptural  indications  that  the  creative  period  was  of  relatively  short  duration. 
The  record  says:  "It  was  after  the  Lord's  time,  which  was  after  the  time  of  Kolob"  (one  day  on  which 
planet  is  equal  to  a  thousand  years  of  our  time);  "for  as  yet  the  Gods  had  not  appointed  unto  Adam  his 
reckoning."  (Abra.  5:13.) 

However,  for  our  present  purposes,  it  is  sufficient  to  know  that  the  time  element  since  mortal  life 
began  on  earth  is  specifically  and  pointedly  made  known.  We  are  now  nearing  the  end  of  the  6th  thousand 
years  of  this  earth's  "continuance,  or  its  temporal  existence,"  and  the  millennial  era  will  commence  "in  the 
beginning  of  the  seventh  thousand  years."  (D.  &  C.  77.)  That  is,  we  are  approaching  the  end  of  the  6th  of 
the  periods  of  one  thousand  years  each,  all  of  which  periods  have  occurred  since  the  fall,  since  the  earth 
became  temporal,  since  it  gained  its  telestial  status,  since  it  became  the  natural  earth  that  we  know,  since 
death  and  mortality  entered  the  scene.  Thus  the  period  during  which  birth,  and  life,  and  death  have  been 
occurring  on  this  earth  is  less  than  6,000  years. 

9.  FUTURE  DESTINY  OF  THE  EARTH  AND  LIFE  THEREON.  -  According  to  evolutionary 
theories,  life  will  continue  on  this  sphere  with  such  changes,  mutations,  and  developments  as 
circumstances  and  environments  require.  Actually,  however,  future  events  involving  the  earth  and  all 
living  things  thereon  will  be  as  dramatic  and  divergent  from  what  finite  intellects  might  assume  as  past 
events  have  been.  Our  knowledge  of  these  future  events  -  events  in  no  sense  harmonious  with  progressive 
evolutionary  development  -  gives  us  an  entirely  different  perspective  relative  to  the  origin  and 
development  of  species  than  the  one  assumed  by  evolutionists. 


184 


For  instance:  Evolutionary  tlieories  have  no  place  in  them  for  the  imminent  Second  Advent  of  our 
Lord,  a  coming  which  will  usher  in  the  millennial  era  of  peace.  These  theories  give  no  consideration  to  the 
revealed  facts  that  the  elements  are  to  melt  with  fervent  heat  when  Christ  comes;  that  "every  corruptible 
thing,  both  of  man,  or  of  the  beasts  of  the  field,  or  of  the  fowls  of  the  heavens,  or  of  the  fish  of  the  sea,  that 
dwells  upon  all  the  face  of  the  earth,  shall  be  consumed"  (D.  &  C.  101:24);  that  the  earth  will  then  be 
renewed,  returning  again  to  that  paradisiacal  state  which  prevailed  before  the  fall;  that  the  enmity  of  man 
and  of  beasts  will  cease;  and  that  there  will  be  no  more  death  as  we  know  it,  men  living  instead  (freed 
from  disease  and  sickness)  until  they  are  an  hundred  years  old  when  they  will  be  changed  to  immortality 
in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye.  (D.  &  C.  101:23-32.) 

Further:  These  theories  take  no  account  of  the  resurrection  from  the  dead,  that  eventual  status  when  all 
men  (and  all  forms  of  life,  every  living  thing  that  has  ever  breathed  the  breath  of  life,  every  animal,  fish, 
fowl,  or  what  have  you!)  will  come  forth  as  immortal,  resurrected  beings  and  creatures.  (D.  &  C.  29:22- 
26;  77:1-3.)  Nor  do  these  theories  give  consideration  to  the  fact  that  this  earth  itself  is  to  pass  through 
changes  equivalent  to  death  and  resuiTcction,  finally  becoming  a  celestial  sphere  which  will  bum  like  the 
sun  in  the  firmament,  a  planet  on  whose  surface  only  celestial  beings  will  then  be  able  to  live.  (D.  &  C. 
88:14-28;  130:7-9.) 

How  weak  and  puerile  the  intellectuality  which,  knowing  that  the  Lord's  plan  takes  all  forms  of  life 
from  a  pre-existent  spirit  state,  through  mortality,  and  on  to  an  ultimate  resurrected  state  of  immortality, 
yet  finds  comfort  in  the  theoretical  postulates  that  mortal  life  began  in  the  scum  of  the  sea,  as  it  were,  and 
has  through  eons  of  time  evolved  to  its  present  varieties  and  state!  Do  those  with  spiritual  insight  really 
think  that  the  infinite  Creator  of  worlds  without  number  would  operate  in  this  way? 

10.  EVOLUTION  AND  SPIRITUAL  THINGS  IN  GENERAL.  -  Merely  to  list  the  basic  doctrines  of 
the  gospel  is  to  point  out  the  revealed  truths  which  are  inliannonious  with  the  theories  of  organic  evolution 
and  which  were  to  taken  into  account  by  those  who  postulated  those  theories,  hi  addition  to  the 
considerations  so  far  mentioned  attention  might  be  given  to  revelation,  visions,  and  angelic  ministrations; 
to  miracles,  signs,  and  gifts  of  the  Spirit;  to  the  enjoyment  of  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost  by  the  faithful;  to 
the  truths  comprising  the  plan  of  salvation;  to  the  decreed  judgment  according  to  works,  and  the  ultimate 
assignment  of  all  resun'ected  men  to  kingdoms  or  degrees  of  glory  hereafter. 

There  is  no  harmony  between  the  truths  of  revealed  religion  and  the  theories  of  organic  evolution. 

Exaltation 

(Exaltation  ) 

See  CALLING  AND  ELECTION  SURE,  CELESTLA.L  KINGDOM,  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE, 
CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD,  ENDOWMENTS,  ETERNAL  LIFE, 
ETERNAL  LIVES,  ETERNAL  PROGRESSION,  FULNESS  OF  THE  FATHER,  GODHOOD, 
IMMORTALITY,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  KINGS,  PERFECTION,  PLURALITY  OF  GODS, 
PLURAL  MARRIAGE,  PRIESTESSES,  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIESTS,  QUEENS,  REDEMPTION, 
SALVATION,  SEALING  POWER,  SECOND  COMFORTER,  SERVANTS  OF  GOD,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

Celestial  mamage  is  the  gate  to  exaltation,  and  exaltation  consists  in  the  continuation  of  the  family 
unit  in  eternity.  Exaltation  is  eternal  life,  the  kind  of  life  which  God  lives.  Those  who  obtain  it  gain  an 
inheritance  in  the  highest  of  three  heavens  within  the  celestial  kingdom.  (D.  &  C.  131:1-4.) 

They  have  eternal  increase,  a  continuation  of  the  seeds  forever  and  ever,  a  continuation  of  the  lives, 
eternal  lives;  that  is,  they  have  spirit  children  in  the  resurrection,  in  relation  to  which  offspring  they  stand 
in  the  same  position  that  God  our  Father  stands  to  us.  They  inherit  in  due  course  the  flilness  of  the  glory  of 
the  Father,  meaning  that  they  have  all  power  in  heaven  and  on  earth.  (D.  &  C.  76:50-60;  93:1-40.)  "Then 
shall  they  be  gods,  because  they  have  no  end;  therefore  shall  they  be  from  everlasting  to  everlasting, 
because  they  continue;  then  shall  they  be  above  all,  because  all  things  are  subject  unto  them.  Then  shall 
they  be  gods,  because  they  have  all  power  and  the  angels  are  subject  unto  them."  (D.  &  C.  132:16-26; 
Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  35-79.) 

Although  salvation  may  be  defined  in  many  ways  to  mean  many  things,  in  its  most  pure  and  perfect 
definition  it  is  a  synonym  for  exaltation.  This  was  the  way  in  which  the  Prophet  used  it  when  he  left  us 
this  inspired  explanation:  "Where  shall  we  find  a  prototype  into  whose  likeness  we  may  be  assimilated,  in 
order  that  we  may  be  made  partakers  of  life  and  salvation?  or,  in  other  words,  where  shall  we  find  a  saved 
being?  for  if  we  can  find  a  saved  being,  we  may  ascertain  without  much  difficulty  what  all  others  must  be 


185 


in  order  to  be  saved.  We  think  tliat  it  will  not  be  a  matter  of  dispute,  that  two  beings  who  are  unlike  each 
other  cannot  be  saved;  for  whatever  constitutes  the  salvation  of  one  will  constitute  the  salvation  of  every 
creature  which  will  be  saved;  and  if  we  find  one  saved  being  in  all  existence,  we  may  see  what  others  must 
be,  or  else  not  be  saved. 

"We  ask,  then,  where  is  the  prototype?  or  where  is  the  saved  being?  We  conclude,  as  to  the  answer  of 
this  question,  there  will  be  no  dispute  among  those  who  believe  the  Bible,  that  it  is  Christ:  all  will  agree  in 
this,  that  he  is  the  prototype  or  standard  of  salvation;  or,  in  other  words,  that  he  is  a  saved  being.  And  if  we 
should  continue  our  interrogation  and  ask  how  it  is  that  he  is  saved,  the  answer  would  be  -  because  he  is  a 
just  and  holy  being;  and  if  he  were  anything  different  from  what  he  is,  he  would  not  be  saved;  for  his 
salvation  depends  on  his  being  precisely  what  he  is  and  nothing  else;  for  if  it  were  possible  for  him  to 
change,  in  the  least  degree,  so  sure  he  would  fail  of  salvation  and  lose  all  his  dominion,  power,  authority, 
and  glory,  which  constitute  salvation;  for  salvation  consists  in  the  glory,  authority,  majesty,  power  and 
dominion  which  Jehovah  possesses  and  in  nothing  else;  and  no  being  can  possess  it  but  himself  or  one  like 
him." 

After  quoting  many  passages  of  scripture  the  record  of  the  Prophet's  teachings  continues:  "These 
teachings  of  the  Savior  most  clearly  show  unto  us  the  nature  of  salvation,  and  what  he  proposed  unto  the 
human  family  when  he  proposed  to  save  them  -  that  he  proposed  to  make  them  like  unto  himself,  and  he 
was  like  the  Father,  the  great  prototype  of  all  saved  beings;  and  for  any  portion  of  the  human  family  to  be 
assimilated  into  their  likeness  is  to  be  saved  and  to  be  unlike  them  is  to  be  destroyed  and  on  this  hinge 
turns  the  door  of  salvation."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  pp.  63-67.) 

Exaltation  for  the  Dead 

(Exaltation  for  the  Dead  ) 

See  SALVATION  FOR  THE  DEAD. 

Exaltation  of  Children 

(Exaltation  of  Children  ) 

See  SALVATION  OF  CHILDREN. 

Exalted  Man 

(Exalted  Man  ) 
See  AHMAN. 

Excellence 

(Excellence  ) 
See  PERFECTION. 

Excommunication 

(Excommunication  ) 

See  ANATHEMA,  APOSTASY,  CHURCH  COURTS,  DISFELLOWSHIPMENT,  RESTORATION 
OF  FORMER  BLESSINGS. 

Whenever,  as  is  presently  the  case,  there  is  a  separation  of  Church  and  state,  then  the  highest 
punishment  which  the  Church  can  impose  upon  its  members  is  excommunication.  This  consists  in  cutting 
the  person  off  from  the  Church  so  that  he  is  no  longer  a  member.  Every  blessing  of  the  gospel  is  thereby 
lost,  and  unless  the  excommunicated  person  repents  and  gains  his  church  status  again,  he  cannot  be  saved 
in  the  celestial  kingdom.  (1  Tim.  1:20;  Matt.  18:15-19;  1  Cor.  5:1-5.) 

Apostasy,  rebellion,  cruelty  to  wives  and  children,  immorality,  and  all  crimes  involving  moral 
turpitude,  are  among  those  which  warrant  excommunication.  The  Lord  imposes  upon  church  officers  the 
responsibility  to  handle  every  such  case  of  transgression.  If  there  is  honest  contrition  of  soul,  frank 
confession  of  sin,  and  complete  repentance  there&om,  the  transgressor's  membership  is  not  taken  from 
him.  But  "him  that  repenteth  not  of  his  sins,  and  confesseth  them  not,"  the  Lord  says,  "ye  shall  bring 
before  the  church  and  do  with  him  as  the  scripture  saith  unto  you,  either  by  commandment  or  by 


186 


revelation.  And  this  ye  shall  do  that  God  may  be  glorified  -  not  because  ye  forgive  not,  having  no 
compassion,  but  that  ye  may  be  justified  in  the  eyes  of  the  law,  that  ye  may  not  offend  him  who  is  your 
lawgiver  -  Verily  I  say,  for  this  cause  ye  shall  do  these  things."  (D.  &  C.  64:12-13.) 

"The  way  of  transgressors  is  hard."  (Prov.  13:15.)  When  they  turn  from  the  light,  their  curse  is  far 
worse  than  it  would  have  been  had  they  never  known  the  truth.  (D.  &  C.  41: 1;  76:29:37;  82: 1-7;  104:8-9; 
121:13-25.)  But  if  they  have  not  sinned  unto  death,  and  if  they  do  repent,  there  is  yet  hope.  By  baptism, 
entrance  can  again  be  gained  into  the  Church  of  our  Lord,  and  following  testing  and  faithfulness  all  their 
fonner  blessings  may  be  restored. 

Exemplar 

(Exemplar  ) 
See  CHRIST. 

Clirist  is  the  great  Exemplar.  With  reference  to  "all  covenants,  contracts,  bonds,  obligations,  oaths, 
vows,  performances,  connections,  associations,  or  expectations"  (D.  &  C.  132:7)  -  that  is,  in  all  things  -  he 
leads  the  way  and  sets  an  example  for  his  brethren.  "Follow  thou  me,"  is  his  cry.  (2  Ne.  31:10.)  "What 
manner  of  men  ought  ye  to  be?"  he  asked;  and  then  answered:  "Verily  I  say  unto  you,  even  as  I  am."  (3 
Ne.  27:27.) 

Exhortations 

(Exhortations  ) 
See  SERMONS. 

Exorcism 

(Exorcism  ) 

See  DEVILS,  SORCERY,  SPIRITUALISM. 

In  imitation  of  the  true  order  whereby  devils  are  cast  out  of  people,  false  ministers  (having  no  actual 
priesthood  power)  attempt  to  cast  them  out  by  exorcism.  This  ungodly  practice  was  probably  more 
common  anciently  than  it  is  now,  because  few  people  today  believe  either  in  miracles  or  in  the  casting  out 
of  literal  devils.  But  over  the  years  it  has  not  been  uncommon  for  so-called  priests  to  attempt  to  expel  evil 
spirits  from  persons  or  drive  them  away  from  particular  locations  by  incantations,  conjuration,  or 
adjuration.  Commonly  some  holy  name  is  used  in  these  false  rituals. 

Having  seen  Paul  cast  out  devils  in  the  power  and  majesty  of  his  priesthood,  "certain  of  the  vagabond 
Jews,  exorcists,  took"  it  upon  themselves  to  imitate  the  divine  practice.  Commanding  the  devil  to  come 
out  of  a  possessed  person,  they  said:  "We  adjure  you  by  Jesus  whom  Paul  preacheth."  Thereupon  the  devil 
said  to  the  seven  sorcerers  who  so  acted:  "Jesus  I  know,  and  Paul  I  know;  but  who  are  ye?"  Then  "the  man 
in  whom  the  evil  spirit  was  leaped  on  them,  and  overcame  them,  and  prevailed  against  them,  so  that  they 
fled  out  of  that  house  naked  and  wounded."  (Acts  19:11-16.)  This  scriptural  account  is  symbolical  of  the 
final  overthrow  of  all  those  who  practice  exorcism. 

Exorcists 

(Exorcists  ) 
See  EXORCISM. 

Expiation 

(Expiation  ) 

See  ADVOCACY,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  EXPIATOR,  INTERCESSION,  MEDIATION, 
PROPITIATION,  RECONCILIATION. 

Our  Lord's  atoning  sacrifice  complied  with  the  law  of  expiation  in  that,  through  his  suffering  and 
death,  a  way  and  means  was  provided  so  that  the  guilt  and  sins  of  the  faithful  might  be  extinguished. 
Expiation  is  the  act  of  making  satisfaction  or  atonement  for  sin;  it  is  the  extinguishing  of  guilt  by  suffering 


187 


or  penalty.  This  is  the  very  thing  which  Christ  did  for  all  men,  on  conditions  of  repentance,  when  he  took 
upon  himself  the  sins  of  the  world. 

Expiator 

(Expiator  ) 

See  ADVOCATE,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CHRIST,  EXPIATION,  INTERCESSOR, 
MEDIATOR,  PROPITIATOR,  RECONCILER. 

Christ  is  the  great  Expiator  the  one  whose  sufferings  and  death  paid  the  penalty  for  the  sins  of  those 
who  believe  and  obey  the  laws  of  the  gospel.  An  expiator  is  one  who  expiates  or  extinguishes  guilt  by 
suffering  the  prescribed  penalty,  thus  atoning  or  making  complete  satisfaction  where  the  broken  law  is 
concerned. 

Extreme  Unction 

(Extreme  Unction  ) 

See  ADMINISTRATIONS,  APOSTASY,  SACRAMENTS,  UNCTION. 

One  of  the  sacraments  of  the  Catholic  Church  is  called  Extreme  Unction.  It  is  administered  by  a  priest 
to  one  in  danger  of  death  and  includes  both  the  application  of  oil  to  his  organs  of  sense  and  the  recital  of 
prayers.  It  is  a  false  form  of  the  true  ordinance  of  administering  to  the  sick,  which  tme  ordinance  is 
effective  in  healing  the  sick  in  the  household  of  faith.  But  this  substitute  practice  is  in  a  very  real  sense  an 
anointing  unto  death  and  not  unto  life.  According  to  the  official  Catholic  explanation,  it  is  "spiritual 
medicine  which  diminishes  the  terrors  of  death,  comforts  the  dying  Christian,  fortifies  the  soul  in  its  final 
struggle,  and  purifies  it  for  its  passage  from  time  to  eternity."  (James  Cardinal  Gibbons,  The  Faith  of  Our 
Fathers,  pp.  314-316.) 


Exultation 

(Exultation  ) 
See  BOASTING. 


188 


(F  ) 

Fables 

(Fables  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  DOCTRINE,  HERESY. 

All  false  doctrines  are  fables.  That  is,  they  are  stories  which  have  been  imagined,  fabricated,  and 
invented  as  opposed  to  the  gospel  which  is  real  and  true.  (2  Pet.  1:16.)  Apostasy  consists  in  turning  from 
true  doctrine  to  fables.  Paul  said:  "The  time  will  come  when  they  will  not  endure  sound  doctrine;  but  after 
their  own  lusts  shall  they  heap  to  themselves  teachers,  having  itching  ears;  And  they  shall  turn  away  their 
ears  from  the  truth,  and  shall  be  turned  unto  fables."  (2  Tim.  4: 1-4;  1  Tim.  1 :3-4;  4:7.) 


Fairies 

(Fairies  ) 
See  GHOSTS. 


Fairness 

(Fairness  ) 
See  JUSTICE. 


189 


Faith 

(Faith  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  BELIEF,  CHARITY,  CHRIST,  FIRST  PRINCIPLES  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  GIFTS  OF 
THE  SPIRIT,  GOD,  HOLY  GHOST,  HOPE,  KNOWLEDGE,  LECTURES  ON  FAITH,  MIRACLES, 
OBEDIENCE,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION,  REPENTANCE,  SALVATION,  TESTIMONY,  TRUTH. 

In  teaching  the  laws  and  principles  surrounding  the  subject  of  faith,  Joseph  Smith  outlined  his 
presentation  under  three  heads:  L  "Faith  itself  -  what  it  is";  2.  "The  object  on  which  it  rests";  and  3.  "The 
effects  which  flow  from  it." 

By  way  of  definition,  the  Prophet  taught  that  faith  is  "the  first  principle  in  revealed  religion,  and  the 
foundation  of  all  righteousness."  After  quoting  Paul's  affirmation,  "Now  faith  is  the  substance  of  things 
hoped  for,  the  evidence  of  things  not  seen"  (Heb.  1 1:1),  he  said,  "From  this  we  learn  that  faith  is  the 
assurance  which  men  have  of  the  existence  of  things  which  they  have  not  seen,  and  the  principle  of  action 
in  all  intelligent  beings."  Continuing  his  analysis,  the  Prophet  affmned:  "Faith  is  .  .  .  the  moving  cause  of 
all  action  in  .  .  .  intelligent  beings.  And  as  faith  is  the  moving  cause  of  all  action  in  temporal  concerns,  so 
it  is  in  spiritual.  .  .  .  But  faith  is  not  only  the  principle  of  action,  but  of  power  also,  in  all  intelligent  beings, 
whether  in  heaven  or  on  earth.  .  .  .  Faith,  then,  is  the  first  great  governing  principle  which  has  power, 
dominion,  and  authority  over  all  things;  by  it  they  exist,  by  it  they  are  upheld,  by  it  they  are  changed,  or  by 
it  they  remain,  agreeable  to  the  will  of  God.  Without  it  there  is  no  power,  and  without  power  there  could 
be  no  creation  nor  existence.  .  .  .  How  would  you  define  faith  in  its  most  unlimited  sense?  It  is  the  first 
great  governing  principle  which  has  power,  dominion,  and  authority  over  all  things."  (Lectures  on  Faith, 
pp.  1-8.) 

Faith  is  based  on  truth  and  is  preceded  by  knowledge.  Until  a  person  gains  a  knowledge  of  the  truth  he 
can  have  no  faith.  Alma  said,  "Faith  is  not  to  have  a  perfect  knowledge  of  things;  therefore  if  ye  have  faith 
ye  hope  for  things  which  are  not  seen,  which  are  true."  (Alma  32:21;  Ether  12:6.)  Thus  faith  is  a  hope  in 
that  which  is  not  seen  which  is  true,  and  accordingly  it  can  enter  the  heart  of  man  only  after  he  has 
received  the  truth. 

Faith  unto  life  and  salvation  centers  in  Christ.  There  is  no  salvation  in  that  general  principle  of  faith 
alone,  that  moving  cause  of  action,  which  causes  the  fanner  to  plant  his  seed  with  the  unseen  hope  that  it 
will  bear  grain.  But  there  is  faith  unto  salvation  when  Christ  is  the  focal  point  in  which  the  unseen  hope 
centers.  Accordingly  the  Prophet  explained  "that  three  things  are  necessary  in  order  that  any  rational  and 
intelligent  being  may  exercise  faith  in  God  unto  life  and  salvation."  These  he  named  as:  1.  "The  idea  that 
he  actually  exists";  2.  "A  correct  idea  of  his  character,  perfections,  and  attributes";  and  3.  "An  actual 
knowledge  that  the  course  of  life  which  he  is  pursuing  is  according  to  his  will." 

It  follows  that  a  knowledge  of  the  true  and  living  God  is  the  begimiing  of  faith  unto  life  and  salvation, 
"for  faith  could  not  center  in  a  being  of  whose  existence  we  have  no  idea,  because  the  idea  of  his  existence 
in  the  first  instance  is  essential  to  the  exercise  of  faith  in  him."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  p.  33.)  So  a  belief  in  a 
false  god  can  engender  no  faith  in  the  human  breast.  If  a  person  believes  that  an  idol  is  God,  or  that  Deity 
is  a  power  or  essence  that  fills  the  immensity  of  space,  or  if  he  has  any  other  false  concept,  he  stops 
himself  from  gaining  faith,  because  faith  is  a  hope  in  that  which  is  not  seen  which  is  true.  Faith  and  truth 
cannot  be  separated;  if  there  is  to  be  faith,  saving  faith,  faith  unto  life  and  salvation,  faith  that  leads  to  the 
celestial  world  there  must  first  be  truth. 

Not  only  is  a  true  knowledge  of  God  a  condition  precedent  to  the  acquirement  of  this  faith,  but  faith 
can  be  exercised  only  by  those  who  conform  to  the  principles  of  truth  which  come  from  the  true  God  who 
actually  exists.  For  instance,  the  Prophet,  discoursing  upon  the  great  plan  of  redemption  and  the  sacrifices 
offered  to  typify  the  atoning  sacrifice  of  our  Lord,  explained  that  Abel's  sacrifice  was  accepted  because  it 
conformed  to  the  true  pattern.  Then  he  said:  "Cain  offered  of  the  fruit  of  the  ground,  and  was  not  accepted, 
because  he  could  not  do  it  in  faith,  he  could  have  no  faith,  or  could  not  exercise  faith  contrary  to  the  plan 
of  heaven.  ...  As  the  sacrifice  was  instituted  for  a  type,  by  which  man  was  to  discern  the  great  Sacrifice 
which  God  had  prepared,  to  offer  a  sacrifice  contrary  to  that,  no  faith  could  be  exercised,  because 
redemption  was  not  purchased  in  that  way,  nor  the  power  of  the  atonement  instituted  after  that  order; 
consequently,  Cain  could  have  no  faith;  and  whatsoever  is  not  of  faith,  is  sin."  (Teachings,  p.  58.)  On  this 
same  principle  no  one  can  exercise  faith,  saving  faith,  faith  unto  life  and  salvation,  in  infant  baptism,  or  in 
any  ordinance  or  performance  that  does  not  confonn  to  revealed  truth,  for  no  faith  can  be  exercised 
"contrary  to  the  plan  of  heaven." 


190 


The  Prophet  summarizes  the  character  of  God  under  six  headings:  1.  "He  was  God  before  the  world 
was  created,  and  the  same  God  that  he  was  after  it  was  created";  2.  "He  is  merciflil  and  gracious,  slow  to 
anger,  abundant  in  goodness,  and  ...  he  was  so  from  everlasting,  and  will  be  so  to  everlasting";  3.  "He 
changes  not,  neither  is  there  variableness  with  him,  and  .  .  .  his  course  is  one  eternal  round";  4.  "He  is  a 
God  of  truth,  and  cannot  lie";  5.  "He  is  no  respecter  of  persons";  and  6.  "He  is  love."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  p. 
39.)  And  any  ideas  men  have  relative  to  these  characteristics  must  be  true,  if  faith  is  to  result. 

As  pertaining  to  the  attributes  of  God,  the  Prophet  said:  "The  real  design  which  the  God  of  heaven  had 
in  view  in  making  the  human  family  acquainted  with  his  attributes,  was,  that  they,  through  the  ideas  of  the 
existence  of  his  attributes,  might  be  enabled  to  exercise  faith  in  him,  and,  through  the  exercise  of  faith  in 
him,  might  obtain  eternal  life;  for  without  the  idea  of  the  existence  of  the  attributes  which  belong  to  God 
the  minds  of  men  could  not  have  power  to  exercise  faith  in  him  so  as  to  lay  hold  upon  eternal  life.  The 
God  of  heaven,  understanding  most  perfectly  the  constitution  of  human  nature,  and  the  weakness  of  men, 
knew  what  was  necessary  to  be  revealed,  and  what  ideas  must  be  planted  in  their  minds  in  order  that  they 
might  be  enabled  to  exercise  faith  in  him  unto  eternal  life."  The  attributes  of  God  are  listed  as: 
Knowledge;  Faith  or  Power;  Justice;  Judgment;  Mercy;  and  Truth.  (Lectures  on  Faith,  pp.  42-49.) 

Relative  to  the  perfections  of  God,  the  record  says:  "What  we  mean  by  perfections  is,  the  perfections 
which  belong  to  all  the  attributes  of  his  nature."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  p.  50.)  That  is,  the  perfection  of  God 
consists  in  his  possession  of  all  knowledge,  all  power,  all  truth,  and  the  fulness  of  all  good  things.  (D.  & 
C.  93:6-34.)  Accordingly,  if  a  person  accepts  the  false  heresy  that  God  is  progressing  or  increasing  in  any 
of  these  attributes,  that  is,  does  not  now  possess  them  in  their  fulness  and  perfection,  he  places  a  bar  across 
the  path  leading  to  a  full  measure  of  faith.  "Without  the  knowledge  of  all  things,"  for  instance,  as  the 
Prophet  expresses  it,  "God  would  not  be  able  to  save  any  poiHon  of  his  creatures;  for  it  is  by  reason  of  the 
knowledge  which  he  has  of  all  things,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end,  that  enables  him  to  give  that 
understanding  to  his  creatures  by  which  they  are  made  partakers  of  eternal  life;  and  if  it  were  not  for  the 
idea  existing  in  the  minds  of  men  that  God  had  all  knowledge  it  would  be  impossible  for  them  to  exercise 
faith  in  him."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  p.  44;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  1-17.)  Obviously  those  who 
suppose  there  is  a  power  or  being  greater  than  God  (a  necessary  corollary  of  the  false  notion  that  God  is 
gaining  new  knowledge  or  new  truth  or  more  power),  cannot  have  full  faith  in  God  because  there  is 
always  the  chance  that  the  new  knowledge  will  reverse  the  order  of  the  past  or  that  the  greater  power  will 
rescind  the  eternal  decrees  of  God. 

Faith  is  a  gift  of  God  bestowed  as  a  reward  for  personal  righteousness.  It  is  always  given  when 
righteousness  is  present,  and  the  greater  the  measure  of  obedience  to  God's  laws  the  greater  will  be  the 
endowment  of  faith.  Hence  the  Prophet  says  that  to  acquire  faith  men  must  gain  the  actual  knowledge 
"that  the  course  of  life  which  they  pursue  is  according  to  the  will  of  God,  in  order  that  they  may  be 
enabled  to  exercise  faith  in  him  unto  life  and  salvation.  This  knowledge  supplies  an  important  place  in 
revealed  religion;  for  it  was  by  reason  of  it  that  the  ancients  were  enabled  to  endure  as  seeing  him  who  is 
invisible.  An  actual  knowledge  to  any  person,  that  the  course  of  life  which  he  pursues  is  according  to  the 
will  of  God,  is  essentially  necessary  to  enable  him  to  have  that  confidence  in  God  without  which  no 
person  can  obtain  eternal  life.  It  was  this  that  enabled  the  ancient  saints  to  endure  all  their  afflictions  and 
persecutions,  and  to  take  joyfully  the  spoiling  of  their  goods,  knowing  (not  believing  merely)  that  they  had 
a  more  enduring  substance."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  p.  57;  Heb.  10:34.) 

Miracles,  signs,  the  gifts  of  the  Spirit,  the  knowledge  of  God  and  godliness,  and  every  conceivable 
good  thing  -  all  these  are  the  effects  of  faith;  all  of  these  come  because  faith  has  become  the  ruling  force  in 
the  lives  of  the  saints.  Conversely,  where  these  things  are  not,  faith  is  not. 

In  Moroni's  language,  the  reason  why  God  "ceaseth  to  do  miracles  among  the  children  of  men  is 
because  that  they  dwindle  in  unbelief  and  depart  from  the  right  way,  and  know  not  the  God  in  whom  they 
should  trust.  Behold,  I  say  unto  you  that  whoso  believeth  in  Christ,  doubting  nothing,  whatsoever  he  shall 
ask  the  Father  in  the  name  of  Christ  it  shall  be  granted  him;  and  this  promise  is  unto  all,  even  unto  the 
ends  of  the  eai1h.  For  behold,  thus  said  Jesus  Christ,  the  Son  of  God,  unto  his  disciples  who  should  tany, 
yea,  and  also  to  all  his  disciples,  in  the  hearing  of  the  multitude:  Go  ye  into  all  the  world,  and  preach  the 
gospel  to  every  creature;  And  he  that  believeth  and  is  baptized  shall  be  saved,  but  he  that  believeth  not 
shall  be  damned;  And  these  signs  shall  follow  them  that  believe  -  in  my  name  shall  they  cast  out  devils; 
they  shall  speak  with  new  tongues;  they  shall  take  up  serpents;  and  if  they  drink  any  deadly  thing  it  shall 
not  hurt  them;  they  shall  lay  hands  on  the  sick  and  they  shall  recover;  And  whosoever  shall  believe  in  my 
name,  doubting  nothing,  unto  him  will  I  confinn  all  my  words,  even  unto  the  ends  of  the  earth."  (Morm.  9: 
20-25;  Mark  16:15-20.) 


191 


Mormon  taught  similarly:  "By  the  ministering  of  angels,  and  by  every  word  which  proceedeth  forth 
out  of  the  mouth  of  God,  men  began  to  exercise  faith  in  Christ;  and  thus  by  faith,  they  did  lay  hold  upon 
every  good  thing;  and  thus  it  was  until  the  coming  of  Christ.  And  after  that  he  came  men  also  were  saved 
by  faith  in  his  name;  and  by  faith,  they  become  the  sons  of  God.  And  as  sure  as  Christ  liveth  he  spake 
these  words  unto  our  fathers,  saying:  Whatsoever  thing  ye  shall  ask  the  Father  in  my  name,  which  is  good, 
in  faith  believing  that  ye  shall  receive,  behold,  it  shall  be  done  unto  you."  Moraion  then  says  that  Christ 
"claimeth  all  those  who  have  faith  in  him;  and  they  who  have  faith  in  him  will  cleave  unto  every  good 
thing." 

Then,  after  showing  that  miracles  and  the  ministering  of  angels  are  an  eternal  part  of  the  gospel  of 
Christ,  he  asks:  "Have  angels  ceased  to  appear  unto  the  children  of  men?  Or  has  he  withheld  the  power  of 
the  Holy  Ghost  from  them?  Or  will  he,  so  long  as  time  shall  last,  or  the  earth  shall  stand,  or  there  shall  be 
one  man  upon  the  face  thereof  to  be  saved?  Behold  I  say  unto  you.  Nay;  for  it  is  by  faith  that  miracles  are 
wrought;  and  it  is  by  faith  that  angels  appear  and  minister  unto  men;  wherefore,  if  these  things  have 
ceased  wo  be  unto  the  children  of  men,  for  it  is  because  of  unbelief  and  all  is  vain.  For  no  man  can  be 
saved,  according  to  the  words  of  Christ,  save  they  shall  have  faith  in  his  name;  wherefore,  if  these  things 
have  ceased,  then  has  faith  ceased  also;  and  awful  is  the  state  of  man.  ...  If  ye  have  not  faith  in  him  then 
ye  are  not  fit  to  be  numbered  among  the  people  of  his  church."  (Moro.  7:25-39.) 

"When  faith  comes,"  the  Prophet  said,  "it  brings  its  train  of  attendants  with  it  -  apostles,  prophets, 
evangelists,  pastors,  teachers,  gifts,  wisdom,  knowledge,  miracles,  healings,  tongues,  interpretation  of 
tongues,  etc.  All  these  appear  when  faith  appears  on  the  earth,  and  disappear  when  it  disappears  from  the 
earth;  for  these  are  the  effects  of  faith,  and  always  have,  and  always  will,  attend  it.  For  where  faith  is,  there 
will  the  knowledge  of  God  be  also,  with  all  things  which  pertain  thereto  -  revelations,  visions,  and  dreams, 
as  well  as  every  necessary  thing,  in  order  that  the  possessors  of  faith  may  be  perfected,  and  obtain 
salvation;  for  God  must  change,  otherwise  faith  will  prevail  with  him.  And  he  who  possesses  it  will, 
through  it,  obtain  all  necessary  knowledge  and  wisdom,  until  he  shall  know  God,  and  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  whom  he  has  sent  -  whom  to  know  is  eternal  life."  (Lectures  on  Faith,  pp.  70-71.) 

Again:  "Because  faith  is  wanting,  the  fruits  are.  No  man  since  the  world  was  had  faith  without  having 
something  along  with  it.  The  ancients  quenched  the  violence  of  fire,  escaped  the  edge  of  the  sword, 
women  received  their  dead,  etc.  By  faith  the  worlds  were  made.  A  man  who  has  none  of  the  gifts  has  no 
faith;  and  he  deceives  himself,  if  he  supposes  he  has.  Faith  has  been  wanting,  not  only  among  the  heathen, 
but  in  professed  Christendom  also,  so  that  tongues,  healings,  prophecy,  and  prophets  and  apostles,  and  all 
the  gifts  and  blessings  have  been  wanting."  (Teachings,  p.  270.) 

"Miracles  are  the  fruits  of  faith,"  the  Prophet  said  on  another  occasion.  "Faith  comes  by  hearing  the 
word  of  God.  If  a  man  has  not  faith  enough  to  do  one  thing,  he  may  have  faith  to  do  another:  if  he  cannot 
remove  a  mountain,  he  may  heal  the  sick.  Where  faith  is  there  will  be  some  of  the  fmits:  all  gifts  and 
power  which  were  sent  from  heaven,  were  poured  out  on  the  heads  of  those  who  had  faith."  (History  of 
the  Church,  vol.  5,  p.  355.) 

Showing  that  miracles  and  signs  follow  faith  and  do  not  precede  it,  Moroni  said:  "Faith  is  things  which 
are  hoped  for  and  not  seen;  wherefore,  dispute  not  because  ye  see  not,  for  ye  receive  no  witness  until  after 
the  trial  of  your  faith.  For  it  was  by  faith  that  Clii'ist  showed  himself  unto  our  fathers,  after  he  had  risen 
from  the  dead;  and  he  showed  not  himself  unto  them  until  after  they  had  faith  in  him;  wherefore,  it  must 
needs  be  that  some  had  faith  in  him,  for  he  showed  himself  not  unto  the  world.  But  because  of  the  faith  of 
men  he  has  shown  himself  unto  the  world,  and  glorified  the  name  of  the  Father,  and  prepared  a  way  that 
thereby  others  might  be  partakers  of  the  heavenly  gift,  that  they  might  hope  for  those  things  which  they 
have  not  seen.  Wherefore,  ye  may  also  have  hope,  and  be  partakers  of  the  gift,  if  ye  will  but  have  faith. 
Behold  it  was  by  faith  that  they  of  old  were  called  after  the  holy  order  of  God.  Wherefore,  by  faith  was  the 
law  of  Moses  given.  But  in  the  gift  of  his  Son  hath  God  prepared  a  more  excellent  way;  and  it  is  by  faith 
that  it  hath  been  fulfilled.  For  if  there  be  no  faith  among  the  children  of  men  God  can  do  no  miracle 
among  them;  wherefore,  he  showed  not  himself  until  after  their  faith.  .  .  .  And  neither  at  any  time  hath  any 
wrought  miracles  until  after  their  faith;  wherefore  they  first  believed  in  the  Son  of  God."  (Ether  12:6-18; 
Heb.  II.) 

To  gain  faith  men  must  first  have  knowledge;  then  as  their  faith  increases,  they  come  to  a  state  where 
it  is  supplanted  by  perfect  knowledge;  and  in  any  field  in  which  perfect  knowledge  has  been  gained,  "faith 
is  dormant."  (Alma  32:21-34.)  For  instance,  a  man  first  comes  to  a  knowledge  of  the  nature  and  kind  of 
being  that  Christ  is,  and  he  thereby  is  enabled  to  gain  faith  in  him.  As  a  result  he  gains  further  knowledge 
about  Clirist  as  an  effect  of  faith  and  by  revelation  from  the  Holy  Ghost.  This  knowledge  and  this  faith 


192 


both  increase,  supplementing  eacli  otlier,  until  by  the  power  of  faith  the  veil  is  rent,  the  man  sees  Christ 
and  gains  a  perfect  knowledge  of  him.  Then,  as  Alma  expresses  it,  "in  that  thing"  his  "faith  is  domiant" 
(Alma  32:34),  although  in  other  things  his  faith  may  not  yet  have  blossomed  foi1h  into  perfect  knowledge. 

The  Brother  of  Jared  is  one  who  followed  this  course  until  he  saw  the  Lord.  As  Moroni  explained  it, 
"Because  of  the  knowledge  of  this  man  he  could  not  be  kept  from  beholding  within  the  veil;  and  he  saw 
the  finger  of  Jesus,  which,  when  he  saw,  he  fell  with  fear;  for  he  knew  that  it  was  the  finger  of  the  Lord; 
and  he  had  faith  no  longer,  for  he  knew,  nothing  doubting.  Wherefore,  having  this  perfect  knowledge  of 
God,  he  could  not  be  kept  from  within  the  veil,  therefore  he  saw  Jesus;  and  he  did  minister  unto  him." 
Indeed,  "The  Lord  could  not  withhold  anything  from  him,  for  he  knew  that  the  Lord  could  show  him  all 
things."  (Ether  3: 19-26.) 

"And  there  were  many  whose  faith  was  so  exceeding  strong,  even  before  Christ  came,  who  could  not 
be  kept  from  within  the  veil,  but  truly  saw  with  their  eyes  the  things  which  they  had  beheld  with  an  eye  of 
faith,  and  they  were  glad."  (Ether  12:19.)  Today  as  anciently  the  same  effects  flow  from  faith.  "It  is  the 
privilege  of  every  elder  to  speak  of  the  things  of  God,"  the  Prophet  said,  "and  could  we  all  come  together 
with  one  heart  and  one  mind  in  perfect  faith  the  veil  might  as  well  be  rent  today  as  next  week,  or  any  other 
time."  (Teachings,  p.  9;  D.  &  C.  93:1.) 

Faith  and  Works 

(Faith  and  Works  ) 
See  GOOD  WORKS. 

Faithfulness 

(Faithfulness  ) 

See  RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

Fallen  Man 

(Fallen  Man  ) 

See  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CARNALITY,  DEVILISHNESS,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  MAN, 
MORTALITY,  SENSUALITY,  SPIRITUAL  DEATH,  WORLD. 

After  the  fall  of  Adam,  man  became  carnal,  sensual,  and  devilish  by  nature;  he  became  fallen  man. 
(Moses  5:13;  6:49;  Mosiah  16:1-4;  Alma  42:10;  D.  &  C.  20:20.)  All  accountable  persons  on  eai1h  inherit 
this  fallen  state,  this  probationary  state,  this  state  in  which  worldly  things  seem  desirable  to  the  carnal 
nature.  Being  in  this  state,  "the  natural  man  is  an  enemy  to  God,"  until  he  conforms  to  the  great  plan  of 
redemption  and  is  bom  again  to  righteousness.  (Mosiah  3:19.)  Thus  all  mankind  would  remain  lost  and 
fallen  forever  were  it  not  for  the  atonement  of  our  Lord.  (Alma  42:4-14.) 

Fall  of  Adam 

(Fall  of  Adam  ) 

See  ADAM,  ATONEMENT  OF  CHRIST,  CORRUPTION,  DEATH,  FALLEN  MAN,  MORTALITY, 
SPIRITUAL  DEATH. 

Adam,  our  first  parent  (I  Ne.  5:11),  a  "son  of  God"  (Moses  6:22),  was  first  placed  on  earth  as  an 
immortal  being.  His  coming  was  the  crowning  event  of  the  creation;  and  as  with  him,  so  with  every 
depailment  of  creation  -  immortality  reigned  supreme.  (2  Ne.  2:22.)  There  was  no  death,  no  mortality,  no 
corruption,  no  procreation.  Blood  did  not  flow  in  Adam's  veins,  for  he  was  not  yet  mortal,  and  blood  is  an 
element  that  pertains  exclusively  to  mortality.  (Gen.  9:2-6;  Lev.  17:10-15;  Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny, 
pp.  362-364;  Joseph  Fielding  Smith,  Church  History  and  Modern  Revelation,  vol.  1,  p.  231.)  Radical 
changes  were  in  the  offing  for  man,  the  earth,  and  all  forms  of  life  when  the  fall  came. 

In  that  first  edenic  day,  Adam  was  still  in  the  presence  of  God,  with  whom  he  walked  and  talked  and 
from  whom  he  received  counsel  and  commandments  (Moses  3;  4.)  He  had  temporal  life  because  his  spirit 
was  housed  in  a  temporal  body,  one  made  from  the  dust  of  the  earth.  (Abra.  5:7.)  He  had  spiritual  life 
because  he  was  in  the  presence  of  God  and  was  alive  to  the  things  of  righteousness  or  of  the  Spirit.  He  had 


193 


not  yet  come  to  that  state  of  mortal  probation  in  which  are  found  the  testings  and  trials  requisite  to  a 
possible  inheritance  of  eternal  life.  As  yet  the  fall  knowledge  of  good  and  evil  had  not  been  placed  before 
him;  and,  what  was  tremendously  important  in  the  eternal  scheme  of  things,  he  could  have  no  children. 

But  all  these  conditions,  in  the  providences  of  the  Almighty,  were  soon  to  change.  According  to  the 
foreordained  plan,  Adam  was  to  fall;  that  is,  "in  the  wisdom  of  him  who  knoweth  all  things"  (2  Ne.  2:  24), 
Adam  was  to  introduce  mortality  and  all  that  attends  it,  so  that  the  opportunity  for  eternal  progression  and 
perfection  might  be  offered  to  all  the  spirit  children  of  the  Father. 

In  conformity  with  the  will  of  the  Lord,  Adam  fell  both  spiritaally  and  temporally.  Spiritaal  death 
entered  the  world,  meaning  that  man  was  cast  out  of  the  presence  of  the  Lord  and  died  as  pertaining  to  the 
things  of  the  Spirit  which  are  the  things  of  righteousness.  Temporal  death  also  entered  the  world,  meaning 
that  man  and  all  created  things  became  mortal,  and  blood  became  the  life  preserving  element  in  the  natural 
body.  In  this  mortal  condition  it  became  possible  for  the  body  and  the  spirit  to  separate  a  separation  which 
by  definition  is  the  nataral  or  temporal  death.  (Alma  42:6-12;  D.  &  C.  29:40-42.) 

In  this  state  of  mortality,  subject  to  both  spiritual  and  temporal  death,  man  thus  was  in  a  position  to  be 
examined  relative  to  his  worthiness  to  inherit  eternal  life.  He  became  subject  to  corruption,  disease,  and  all 
the  ills  of  the  flesh.  Spiritaally  he  was  required  to  walk  by  faith  rather  than  by  sight;  a  knowledge  of  good 
and  evil  could  now  come  to  him  by  actaal  experience;  and  being  mortal  he  could  now  have  children,  thus 
providing  bodies  for  the  pre-existent  hosts.  "Adam  fell  that  men  might  be."  (2  Ne.  2:19-25;  Moses  5:11; 
6:45-48;  Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  pp.  107-120.) 

False  Christs 

(False  Christs  ) 

See  ANTICHRISTS,  APOSTASY,  CHRIST,  SALVATION. 

Our  Lord  during  his  ministry  foretold  that  in  the  coming  eras  of  apostate  darkness  there  would  arise 
false  prophets  and  false  Chi'ists  who  would  deceive  many,  even  if  it  were  possible  the  very  elect.  Then  he 
counseled:  "If  they  shall  say  unto  you.  Behold,  he  is  in  the  desert;  go  not  forth:  behold  he  is  in  the  secret 
chambers  believe  it  not."  (Matt.  24:  23-27;  Mark  13:21-23;  Jos.  Smith  2:21-26.) 

Since  then  untold  millions  have  worshiped  before  the  thrones  of  false  Christs.  Some  deluded  fanatics 
have  bowed  before  persons  professing  to  be  saviors  or  to  have  the  power  to  confer  salvation.  Other  hosts 
of  misguided  souls  have  trekked  to  desert  monasteries,  to  mountain  hermitages,  to  Jesuit  retreats,  and  to 
the  meeting  places  of  secret  cults  -  all  acting  under  the  specious  assumption  that  in  the  place  of  their 
choice  they  would  find  Christ.  Still  others  have  made  money,  power,  worldly  learning,  political 
preferment,  or  the  gratification  of  sensual  lusts  their  God.  And  virtually  all  the  millions  of  apostate 
Christendom  have  abased  themselves  before  the  mythical  tlirone  of  a  mythical  Christ  whom  they  vainly 
suppose  to  be  a  spirit  essence  who  is  incorporeal  uncreated,  immaterial  and  three-in-one  with  the  Father 
and  Holy  Spirit. 

False  Doctrine 

(False  Doctrine  ) 
See  DOCTRINE. 

False  Doctrines 

(False  Doctrines  ) 
See  HERESY. 

False  Gods 

(False  Gods  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CREEDS,  FALSE  CHRISTS,  GOD,  IDOLATRY,  UNKNOWN  GOD. 

As  pertaining  to  this  universe,  there  are  three  Gods:  the  Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost.  All  other 
supposed  deities  are  false  gods. 


194 


However,  the  mere  worship  of  a  god  who  has  the  proper  scriptural  names  does  not  assure  one  that  he 
is  worsliiping  the  true  and  living  God.  The  tme  names  of  Deity,  for  instance,  are  applied  to  the  false 
concepts  of  God  found  in  the  apostate  creeds  of  the  day.  "There  is  but  one  only  living  and  true  God  who  is 
infinite  in  being  and  perfection,"  the  Presbyterian  Confession  of  Faith  correctly  recites,  and  then  proceeds 
to  describe  a  false  god  who  is  "without  body,  parts,  or  passions,  immutable,  immense,  eternal, 
incomprehensible"  and  so  forth.  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  1,  p.  2.) 

From  the  beginning  of  history  the  great  masses  of  men  have  worshiped  false  gods.  Those  who  believe 
the  creeds  of  Christendom  profess  to  worship  an  incomprehensible,  unknowable,  immaterial  essence  that 
fills  the  immensity  of  space  and  is  everywhere  and  nowhere  in  particular  present.  Heathen  and  pagan 
peoples  in  all  ages  have  worshiped  idols;  the  liberal  Athenian  philosophers  paid  homage  to  what  they 
called,  "The  Unknown  God."  (Acts  17:22-31.)  There  are  those  who  set  their  whole  hearts  on  learning, 
money,  power,  and  the  like,  until  these  things  become  in  effect  their  god.  There  is  no  salvation  in  the 
worship  of  false  gods.  For  such  false  worship  the  Lord  imposed  the  death  penalty  in  ancient  Israel.  (Deut. 
13:6-11.) 

False  Gospels 

(False  Gospels  ) 
See  GOSPEL. 

Falsehood 

(Falsehood  ) 
See  LIARS. 

False  Preachers 

(False  Preachers  ) 
See  SERMONS. 

False  Prophets 

(False  Prophets  ) 
See  PROPHETS. 

False  Religions 

(False  Religions  ) 

See  CHURCH  OF  THE  DEVIL. 

False  Spirits 

(False  Spirits  ) 

See  DEVILS,  DISCERNMENT,  EVIL  SPIRITS,  GIFTS  OF  THE  SPIRIT,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST. 

Two  spirits  are  abroad  in  the  earth  -  one  is  of  God,  the  other  of  the  devil.  The  spirit  which  is  of  God  is 
one  that  leads  to  light,  truth,  freedom,  progress,  and  every  good  thing;  on  the  other  hand,  the  spirit  which 
is  of  Lucifer  leads  to  darkness,  error,  bondage,  retrogression,  and  every  evil  thing.  One  spirit  is  from 
above,  the  other  from  beneath;  and  that  which  is  from  beneath  never  allows  more  light  or  truth  or  freedom 
to  exist  than  it  can  help.  All  religion  philosophy,  education  science,  governmental  control  -  indeed,  all 
things  -  are  influence  and  governed  by  one  or  the  other  (in  some  cases,  part  by  one  and  part  by  the  other) 
of  these  spirits.  (Moro.  7.) 

It  should  be  understood  that  these  two  influences  in  the  world  are  manifest  through  the  ministrations  of 
actual  spirit  personages  from  the  unseen  world.  The  power  and  influence  wielded  by  Satan  is  exercised 
through  the  host  of  evil  spirits  who  do  his  bidding  and  who  have  power,  according  to  laws  that  exist,  to 
impress  their  wills  upon  the  minds  of  receptive  mortals.  On  the  other  hand,  much  of  the  power  and 
influence  of  Deity  is  exercised  by  and  manifest  through  spirit  beings  who  appear  and  give  revelation  and 
guidance  as  the  Lord's  purpose  may  require.  In  general,  the  more  righteous  and  saintly  a  person  is,  the 


195 


easier  it  will  be  for  him  to  receive  communications  from  heavenly  sources;  and  the  more  evil  and  corrupt 
he  is,  the  easier  will  it  be  for  evil  spirits  to  implant  their  nefarious  schemes  in  his  mind  and  heart. 

The  problem  that  most  men  have  is  to  discern  the  spirits,  so  that  they  may  know  what  is  of  God  and 
what  is  not.  The  gift  of  discernment,  that  is  the  "discerning  of  spirits,"  is  itself  one  of  the  gifts  of  the  Spirit 
which  comes  from  God.  (1  Cor.  12: 10;  D.  &  C.  46:23.)  "Believe  not  every  spirit,"  John  counseled,  "but  try 
the  spirits  whether  they  are  of  God:  because  many  false  prophets  are  gone  out  into  the  world."  (1  John 
4:1.) 

How  can  we  try  the  spirits?  By  what  tests  shall  it  be  known  whether  they  are  of  God  or  the  devil?  If  a 
messenger  appears  from  the  unseen  world,  how  shall  we  know  whether  he  is  a  good  spirit  or  an  evil  spirit? 
When  a  revelation  is  received  is  it  one  bom  of  light  or  darkness?  When  trances,  visions,  tongues, 
enchantments,  miracles,  and  related  things  come  to  view,  are  they  from  above  or  beneath?  When  a 
philosophy  is  taught,  a  doctrine  preached,  a  religion  proclaimed,  an  educational  theory  espoused,  how 
shall  we  know  whether  it  is  true  or  false? 

"We  may  look  for  angels  and  receive  their  ministrations,"  the  Prophet  said,  "but  we  are  to  try  the 
spirits  and  prove  them,  for  it  is  often  the  case  that  men  make  a  mistake  in  regard  to  these  things.  God  has 
so  ordained  that  when  he  has  communicated,  no  vision  is  to  be  taken  but  what  you  see  by  the  seeing  of  the 
eye,  or  what  you  hear  by  the  hearing  of  the  ear.  When  you  see  a  vision  pray  for  the  interpretation;  if  you 
get  not  this,  shut  it  up;  there  must  be  certainty  in  this  matter.  An  open  vision  will  manifest  that  which  is 
more  important.  Lying  spirits  are  going  forth  in  the  earth.  There  will  be  great  manifestations  of  spirits, 
both  false  and  true.  Not  every  spirit,  or  vision,  or  singing,  is  of  God."  (Teachings,  pp.  161-162.) 

As  part  of  a  long  discussion  of  true  and  false  spirits,  and  in  explaining  how  they  may  be  distinguished, 
the  Prophet  also  said:  "No  man  can  do  this  without  the  priesthood,  and  having  a  knowledge  of  the  laws  by 
which  spirits  are  governed;  for  as  no  man  knows  the  things  of  God,  but  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  so  no  man 
knows  the  spirit  of  the  devil,  and  his  power  and  influence,  but  by  possessing  intelligence  which  is  more 
than  human,  and  having  unfolded  through  the  medium  of  the  priesthood  the  mysterious  operations  of  his 
devices. 

"A  man  must  have  the  discerning  of  spirits  before  he  can  drag  into  daylight  this  hellish  influence  and 
unfold  it  unto  the  world  in  all  its  soul-destroying,  diabolical,  and  horrid  colors;  for  nothing  is  a  greater 
injury  to  the  children  of  men  than  to  be  under  the  influence  of  a  false  spirit  when  they  think  they  have  the 
Spirit  of  God.  Thousands  have  felt  the  influence  of  its  terrible  power  and  baneful  effects.  Long 
pilgrimages  have  been  undertaken,  penances  endured,  and  pain,  misery  and  ruin  have  followed  in  their 
train;  nations  have  been  convulsed,  kingdoms  overthrown,  provinces  laid  waste,  and  blood,  carnage  and 
desolation  are  habiliments  in  which  it  has  been  clothed. 

"As  we  have  noticed  before,  the  great  difficulty  lies  in  the  ignorance  of  the  nature  of  spirits,  of  the 
laws  by  which  they  are  governed,  and  the  signs  by  which  they  may  be  known;  if  it  requires  the  Spirit  of 
God  to  know  the  things  of  God;  and  the  spirit  of  the  devil  can  only  be  unmasked  through  that  medium, 
then  it  follows  as  a  natural  consequence  that  unless  some  person  or  persons  have  a  communication,  or 
revelation  from  God,  unfolding  to  them  the  operation  of  the  spirit,  they  must  eternally  remain  ignorant  of 
these  principles;  for  I  contend  that  if  one  man  cannot  understand  these  things  but  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  ten 
thousand  men  cannot;  it  is  alike  out  of  the  reach  of  the  wisdom  of  the  learned,  the  tongue  of  the  eloquent, 
the  power  of  the  mighty.  And  we  shall  at  last  have  to  come  to  this  conclusion,  whatever  we  may  think  of 
revelation,  that  without  it  we  can  neither  know  nor  understand  anything  of  God,  or  the  devil;  and  however 
unwilling  the  world  may  be  to  acknowledge  this  principle,  it  is  evident  from  the  multifarious  creeds  and 
notions  concerning  this  matter  that  they  understand  nothing  of  this  principle,  and  it  is  equally  as  plain  that 
without  a  divine  communication  they  must  remain  in  ignorance."  (Teachings,  pp.  204-206.) 

It  follows  that  the  discerning  of  spirits  is  and  can  be  practiced  in  righteousness  only  where  the  true 
Church  and  kingdom  of  God  is  found.  In  the  final  analysis,  it  takes  apostles,  prophets,  priesthood,  the  gift 
of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  a  knowledge  of  God's  laws  and  the  manner  in  which  he  operates,  in  order  to 
separate  the  spirits  into  their  two  opposing  camps.  Only  where  these  things  are  found  can  en'or  be 
segregated  from  truth,  because  only  there  are  the  channels  of  revelation  open. 

False  Teachers 

(False  Teachers  ) 
See  PROPHETS. 


196 


False  Witnesses 

(False  Witnesses  ) 
See  LIARS. 

False  Worship 

(False  Worship  ) 
See  WORSHIP. 

Familiar  Spirits 

(Familiar  Spirits  ) 
See  SPIRITUALISM. 

Family 

(Family  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  FAMILY  ORGANIZATIONS,  FAMILY  REUNIONS,  HOME, 
PATRLA.RCHAL  CHAIN,  PATRIARCHAL  ORDER,  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL. 

Among  the  saints  the  family  is  the  basic  unit  of  the  Church  and  of  society,  and  its  needs  and 
preservation  in  righteousness  take  precedence  over  all  other  things.  True  family  organization  is  patriarchal 
in  nature;  it  is  patterned  after  that  organization  which  exists  in  heaven  (Eph.  3:15);  it  always  consists  of  a 
husband  and  wife  who  have  entered  into  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  of  marriage;  and  if  the  couple 
so  united  are  blessed  with  children,  they  too  become  members  of  the  family. 

Adam  and  Eve  set  a  proper  and  righteous  pattern  for  all  of  their  descendants.  As  husband  and  wife, 
maiTied  by  God  himself  while  yet  in  the  Garden  of  Eden  (Gen.  2:22-25),  they  became  the  first  family  -  an 
eternal  family,  for  there  was  no  death.  Then  came  the  fall,  mortality  began,  the  power  of  procreation  was 
given,  and  Adam  and  Eve  added  children  to  their  family.  They  and  such  of  their  children  as  abode  in  the 
truth  have  since  gone  on  in  immortality  and  glory,  and  now  as  resuiTected  beings,  parents  and  children 
together,  comprise  an  eternal  family  unit  in  celestial  glory.  The  same  is  true  of  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob, 
and  the  faithful  saints  who  were  with  Christ  in  his  resurrection.  (D.  &  C.  132:  29-37.) 

Eternal  families  have  their  beginning  in  celestial  marriage  here  in  mortality.  Faithful  members  of  them 
continue  in  the  family  unit  in  eternity,  in  the  highest  heaven  of  the  celestial  world,  where  they  have  eternal 
increase.  (D.  &  C.  131:  1-4;  132:16-32.)  Perfect  peace  and  a  full  endowment  of  all  good  graces  attend 
such  eternal  families.  By  obedience  to  the  laws  of  the  gospel  (which  are  celestial  laws).  Latter-day  Saint 
families  begin  here  and  now  to  enjoy  much  of  that  peace,  joy,  love,  and  charity  which  will  be  enjoyed  in 
eternal  fulness  in  the  exalted  family  unit. 

It  is  also  common  to  speak  of  the  descendants  of  a  common  ancestor  as  members  of  a  family;  the 
descendants  of  president  Joseph  F.  Smith,  through  all  their  generations,  for  instance,  make  up  his  family. 
Similarly,  there  is  the  family  of  Israel  and  of  Abraham.  The  Church  itself,  composed  of  a  gathered 
remnant  of  Israel,  is  a  family.  And  as  with  individual  families,  so  with  these  great  patriarchal  groups, 
faithful  members  of  them  will  continue  on  as  members  of  these  great  patriarchal  families  in  eternity. 

Family  Organizations 

(Family  Organizations  ) 

See  BOOK  OF  REMEMBRANCE,  FAMILY,  FAMILY  REUNIONS,  GENEALOGICAL 
RESEARCH. 

Church  members  who  are  descendants  of  common  ancestors  should  forai  family  organizations.  These 
organizations  serve  four  particular  purposes: 

1 .  They  create  family  solidarity  and  honor  the  patriarchal  system.  Desires  to  work  righteousness  are 
enhanced  and  members  of  the  rising  generations  are  encouraged  to  keep  the  commandments  and  look 
forward  to  temple  marriages  and  the  fulness  of  the  blessings  of  the  priesthood. 


197 


2.  They  make  it  possible  for  large  groups  of  saints,  having  a  common  purpose,  to  pool  their  skills  and 
means  in  organized  genealogical  research.  Incident  to  this  research  the  preparation  of  family  histories  is  a 
proper  and  desirable  enterprise. 

3.  They  keep  current  family  genealogical  data. 

4.  They  make  recreational  opportunities  available  to  groups  bound  together  by  a  common  tie. 

Family  Prayer 

(Family  Prayer  ) 
See  PRAYER. 

Family  Reunions 

(Family  Reunions  ) 

See  FAMILY,  FAMILY  ORGANIZATIONS,  RECREATION. 

In  keeping  with  the  spirit  of  love  and  unity  which  should  always  exist  in  Latter-day  Saint  families,  it  is 
proper  for  families,  both  large  and  small,  to  hold  frequent  family  reunions.  Regular  family  organizations, 
as  an  aid  in  carrying  out  their  important  work,  should  hold  these  affairs  from  time  to  time.  Sunday  is  not  a 
proper  day  for  family  reunions. 

Famines 

(Famines  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

1.  Famines  involving  general  scarcity  of  food  and  resulting  in  hunger  and  starvation,  have  been  of 
frequent  occurrence  among  nearly  all  peoples.  Such  are  among  the  probationary  experiences  ordained  for 
the  testing  and  trial  of  man.  Sometimes  they  have  come  upon  the  rebellious;  often  both  the  righteous  and 
the  wicked  have  suffered  under  their  curse. 

They  are  one  of  the  ways  the  Lord  has  of  humbling  his  children  so  they  will  seek  him  and  his  help  in 
their  temporal  concerns.  "How  oft  have  I  called  upon  you  ...  by  the  voice  of  famines  and  pestilences  of 
every  kind,"  he  says.  (D.  &  C.  43:25.)  Famines  are  among  the  signs  of  the  times,  and  the  great  Church 
Welfare  Plan  is  designed  to  help  free  men  from  the  effects  of  them. 

2.  Spiritual  famines  are  periods  of  apostasy  from  the  truth.  "Behold,  the  days  come,  saith  the  Lord 
God,  that  I  will  send  a  famine  in  the  land,  not  a  famine  of  bread,  nor  a  thirst  for  water,  but  of  hearing  the 
words  of  the  Lord:  And  they  shall  wander  from  sea  to  sea,  and  from  the  north  even  to  the  east,  they  shall 
run  to  and  fro  to  seek  the  word  of  the  Lord,  and  shall  not  find  it."  (Amos  8: 11-12.) 

Fanaticism 

(Fanaticism  ) 

See  GOSPEL  HOBBIES,  ZEAL. 

Fanaticism  is  the  devil's  substitute  for  and  perversion  of  true  zeal.  It  is  exhibited  in  wildly  extravagant 
and  overzealous  views  and  acts.  It  is  based  either  on  unreasoning  devotion  to  a  cause,  a  devotion  which 
closes  the  door  to  investigation  and  dispassionate  study,  or  on  an  over  emphasis  of  some  paiticular 
doctrine  or  practice,  an  emphasis  which  twists  the  truth  as  a  whole  out  of  perspective. 

Through  the  ages  religious  fanatics  have  fought  and  died  on  the  field  of  battle  in  false  causes;  in  the 
Church  there  are  those  who  became  fanatics  on  such  things  as  the  Word  of  Wisdom,  even  to  the  point  that 
they  teach  against  the  use  of  white  bread,  white  flour,  refined  sugar,  chocolate,  and  sometimes  even  milk, 
eggs,  and  cheese.  Stable  and  sound  persons  are  never  fanatics;  they  do  not  ride  gospel  hobbies. 

Fast  Day 

(Fast  Day  ) 

See  FASTING,  FAST  MEETINGS,  FAST  OFFERINGS. 


198 


In  partial  compliance  with  the  Lord's  command  that  his  saints  are  to  continue  in  fasting  and  prayer  (D. 
&  C.  88:76),  the  Church  designates  one  day  each  month  (ordinarily  the  first  Sunday  of  the  month)  as  a  fast 
day.  "The  law  to  the  Latter-day  Saints,  as  understood  by  the  authorities  of  the  Church,"  President  Joseph 
F.  Smith  said,  "is  that  food  and  drink  are  not  to  be  partaken  of  for  24  hours,  'from  even  to  even,'  and  that 
the  saints  are  to  refrain  from  all  bodily  gratification  and  indulgences.  Fast  day  being  on  the  Sabbath,  it 
follows,  of  course,  that  all  labor  is  to  be  abstained  from."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  p.  243.)  Most 
meinbers  of  the  Church  when  fasting  eat  the  evening  meal  on  Saturday  and  then  abstain  from  food  and 
drink  until  the  evening  meal  on  Sunday. 

Fasting 

(Fasting  ) 

See  FAST  DAY,  FAST  MEETINGS,  FAST  OFFERINGS,  PRAYER,  TESTIMONY. 

As  President  Joseph  F.  Sinith  expressed  it,  fasting  consists  in  the  coinplete  abstinence  froin  "food  and 
drink."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  p.  243.)  Fasting,  with  prayer  as  its  companion,  is  designed  to  increase 
spirituality;  to  foster  a  spirit  of  devotion  and  love  of  God;  to  increase  faith  in  the  hearts  of  men,  thus 
assuring  divine  favor;  to  encourage  humility  and  contrition  of  soul;  to  aid  in  the  acquirement  of 
righteousness  to  teach  man  his  nothingness  and  dependence  upon  God;  and  to  hasten  those  who  properly 
comply  with  the  law  of  fasting  along  the  path  to  salvation. 

Many  specific  reasons  for  fasting  are  found  in  the  scriptures.  It  is  a  general  obligation  imposed  by 
revelation  upon  church  members  in  good  standing.  (D.  &  C.  59:13-14;  88:76;  Luke  5:33-35;  2  Cor.  6:5; 
II:  27.)  It  is  itself  a  form  of  the  true  worship  of  God.  (Luke  2:37;  Acts  9:9;  Alma  45:1;  4  Ne.  12.)  It  is 
proper  to  fast  for  the  sick  (2  Sam.  12:16);  for  special  blessings  (Mosiah  27:22-23);  to  gain  a  testimony 
(Alma  5:46);  to  gain  revelation  (Alma  17:3;  3  Ne.  27:1;  Ex.  34:28;  Deut.  9:9,  18);  for  the  conversion  of 
nonmembers  to  the  truth,  (Alma  6:6;  17:9);  for  guidance  in  the  choice  of  church  officers  (Acts  13:  3);  as 
an  accompaniment  of  righteous  mourning  and  sorrow  (Alma  28:2-6;  30:2;  Hela.  9:10);  as  a  means  of 
sanctifying  one's  soul  (Hela.  3:  35);  and  for  guidance  along  the  path  leading  to  salvation.  (Omni  26.) 
Temples  are  houses  of  fasting.  (D.  &  C.  88: 1 19;  95:16;  109:8,  16.)  To  be  acceptable  fasting  must  conform 
to  the  Lord's  law  and  not  be  done  for  hypocritical  reasons.  (Matt.  6: 16-18;  3  Ne.  13:16-18.) 

"Compliance  with  the  law  of  the  fast,"  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  said,  "would  call  attention  to  the  sin 
of  over  eating,  place  the  body  in  subjection  to  the  spirit,  and  so  promote  communion  with  the  Holy  Ghost, 
and  insure  a  spiritual  strength  and  power  which  the  people  of  the  nation  so  greatly  need.  As  fasting  should 
always  be  accompanied  by  prayer,  this  law  would  bring  the  people  nearer  to  God,  and  divert  their  minds 
once  a  month  at  least,  from  the  mad  rush  of  worldly  affairs  and  cause  them  to  be  brought  into  immediate 
contact  with  practical,  pure,  and  undefiled  religion  -  to  visit  the  fatherless  and  the  widow,  and  keep 
themselves  unspotted  from  the  sins  of  the  world."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  pp.  237-238.) 

Extended  fasts  are  proper  on  some  special  occasions.  Moses  (Ex.  34:28),  Elijah  (1  Kings  19:8),  and 
Christ  (Matt.  4:2)  each  fasted  for  40  days  and  nights.  But  ordinarily  24  hours  should  suffice,  and  those 
called  upon  to  fast  should  be  of  such  an  age  and  in  such  a  sound  condition  of  health  that  no  impairment  of 
mental  or  physical  well-being  will  result. 

President  Joseph  F.  Smith  explained:  "The  Lord  has  instituted  the  fast  on  a  reasonable  and  intelligent 
basis,  and  none  of  his  works  are  vain  or  unwise.  His  law  is  perfect  in  this  as  in  other  things.  Hence,  those 
who  can  are  required  to  comply  thereto;  it  is  a  duty  from  which  they  cannot  escape;  but  let  it  be 
remembered  that  the  observance  of  the  fast  day  by  abstaining  24  hours  from  food  and  drink  is  not  an 
absolute  rule,  it  is  no  iron-clad  law  to  us,  but  it  is  left  with  the  people  as  a  matter  of  conscience,  to  exercise 
wisdom  and  discretion.  Many  are  subject  to  weakness,  others  are  delicate  in  health,  and  others  have 
nursing  babies;  of  such  it  should  not  be  required  to  fast.  Neither  should  parents  compel  their  little  children 
to  fast.  I  have  known  children  to  cry  for  something  to  eat  on  fast  day.  In  such  cases,  going  without  food 
will  do  them  no  good.  Instead,  they  dread  the  day  to  come,  and  in  place  of  hailing  it,  dislike  it;  while  the 
compulsion  engenders  a  spirit  of  rebellion  in  them,  rather  than  a  love  for  the  Lord  and  their  fellows." 
(Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  p.  244.) 

Fast  Meetings 

(Fast  Meetings  ) 

See  FASTING,  FAST  OFFERINGS,  SACRAMENT  MEETINGS,  TESTIMONY  MEETINGS. 


199 


In  every  gospel  dispensation  it  has  been  the  practice  of  the  saints  to  "meet  together  oft,  to  fast  and  to 
pray,  and  to  speak  one  witli  another  concerning  the  welfare  of  their  souls."  (Moro.  6:5.)  In  this 
dispensation,  it  is  the  practice  of  the  Church  to  designate  one  sacrament  meeting  a  month  as  a  fast 
meeting.  In  these  meetings  it  is  proper  to  invite  members  of  the  congregation  to  express  themselves  by 
way  of  testimony,  doctrine,  confession,  exhortation,  or  the  like,  each  member  arising  to  speak  as  he  may 
be  led  by  the  Spirit.  Special  fasts  are  held  by  families,  groups  of  missionaries,  or  others  as  special 
occasions  require. 

Fast  Offerings 

(Fast  Offerings  ) 

See  CHURCH  WELFARE  PLAN,  FASTING,  OBLATIONS,  POOR,  TITHEMG. 

One  of  the  chief  puiposes  of  organized  fasting  by  the  Church  is  to  enable  the  saints  to  contribute  the 
food  thus  saved,  or  its  equivalent  in  money,  to  the  care  of  the  poor.  Isaiah  decried  the  ostentatious  and 
hypocritical  fasting  practices  of  ancient  Israel,  and  then  gave  them  this  word  from  the  Lord:  "Is  not  this 
the  fast  that  I  have  chosen?  ...  Is  it  not  to  deal  thy  bread  to  the  hungry,  and  that  thou  bring  the  poor  that 
are  cast  out  to  thy  house?  when  thou  seest  the  naked,  that  thou  cover  him;  and  that  thou  hide  not  thyself 
from  thine  own  flesh?"  (Isa.  58:6-8.)  "It  is,  therefore,  incumbent  upon  every  Latter-day  Saint,"  President 
Joseph  F.  Smith  said,  "to  give  to  his  bishop,  on  fast  day,  the  food  that  he  or  his  family  would  consume  for 
the  day,  that  it  may  be  given  to  the  poor  for  their  benefit  and  blessing;  or,  in  lieu  of  the  food,  that  its 
equivalent  amount,  or,  if  the  person  is  wealthy,  a  liberal  donation,  in  money,  be  so  reserved  and  dedicated 
to  the  poor."  (Gospel  Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  p.  243;  Mai.  3:8.) 

Fatherhood  of  God 

(Fatherhood  of  God  ) 

See  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN. 

Father  in  Heaven 

(Father  in  Heaven  ) 

See  ELDER  BROTHER,  ETERNAL  LIVES,  FIRSTBORN,  GOD,  GODHEAD,  HOLY  FATHER, 
MOTHER  IN  HEAVEN,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  SPIRIT  CHILDREN. 

God  the  Eternal  Father,  our  Father  in  Heaven,  is  an  exalted,  perfected,  and  glorified  Personage  having 
a  tangible  body  of  flesh  and  bones.  (D.  &  C.  130:22.)  The  designation  Father  is  to  be  taken  literally;  it 
signifies  that  the  Supreme  Being  is  the  literal  Parent  or  Father  of  the  spirits  of  all  men.  (Heb.  12:9.)  All 
men,  Christ  included,  were  bom  as  his  children  in  pre-existence.  (D.  &  C.  93:21-23;  Moses  1;  2;  3;  4; 
Abra.  3:22-28.)  This  is  the  reason  men  are  commanded  to  approach  Deity  in  prayer  by  saying,  "Our  Father 
which  art  in  heaven."  (Matt.  6:9.) 

It  is  only  by  understanding  the  real  and  literal  sense  in  which  God  is  our  Father  that  we  are  able  to 
understand  what  is  meant  by  the  Fatherhood  of  God  and  the  Brotherhood  of  Man.  In  addition  to  the  fact 
that  all  men  are  brothers  in  the  sense  that  all  have  descended  from  Adam,  they  are  also  brothers  in  that 
they  have  the  same  personal  Father  who  begat  them  in  the  spirit.  Our  Lord  had  reference  to  this  when  he 
said,  "Go  to  my  brethren,  and  say  unto  them,  I  ascend  unto  my  Father,  and  your  Father;  and  to  my  God, 
and  your  God."  (John  20: 17.) 

Father  of  Lies 

(Father  of  Lies  ) 
See  CAIN,  DEVIL. 

Both  Satan  and  Cain  bear  the  title  father  of  lies,  both  having  been  liars  from  the  beginning.  (2  Ne.  9:9; 
Moses  5:  18-27.)  The  name  signifies  authorship  and  sponsorship  of  all  that  is  dishonest  and  which  leads 


200 


away  from  the  truth.  In  a  similar  sense  Satan  is  the  master  of  sin  (Mosiah  4:14)  and  the  father  of  secret 
combinations  and  every  evil  thing.  (2  Ne.  26;22;  Hela.  6:26;  Moro.  7:12.) 

Father  of  Lights 

(Father  of  Lights  ) 

See  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  GOD,  HOLY  FATHER,  LIGHT  OF  CHRIST. 

"God  is  light,  and  in  him  is  no  darkness  at  all."  (1  John  1:5.)  That  is,  he  is  the  embodiment,  author,  and 
source  of  light,  or  in  other  words  the  Father  of  Lights.  (Jas.  1:17.)  Similarly,  Lucifer  is  the  Father  of 
Darkness,  of  apostasy,  iniquity,  and  every  evil  thing. 

Father  of  Spirits 

(Father  of  Spirits  ) 

See  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN. 

Feast  of  the  Passover 

(Feast  of  the  Passover  ) 
See  PASSOVER. 

Fiction 

(Fiction  ) 
See  FABLES. 

Figurative  Expressions 

(Figurative  Expressions  ) 
See  SYMBOLISMS. 

Filthiness 

(Filthiness  ) 

See  SEX  IMMORALITY. 

Filthy  Lucre 

(Filthy  Lucre  ) 
See  RICHES. 

Fire 

(Fire  ) 

See  BAPTISM  OF  FIRE,  FIRE  AND  BRIMSTONE,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST. 

Use  of  fire  in  a  miraculous  manner  has  often  attended  the  Lord's  dealings  with  men.  "Cherubim  and  a 
flaming  sword"  (Moses  4:31;  Gen.  3:24)  barred  Adam  from  returning  to  his  edenic  home.  A  pillar  of  fire 
guided  ancient  Israel  by  night  (Ex.  13:21-22;  Ps.  78:14),  and  the  fires  on  her  sacrificial  altars  were  never 
permitted  to  go  out.  (Lev.  6:13.)  Elijah  called  down  fire  from  heaven  in  his  contest  with  the  priests  of  Baal 
(1  Kings  18),  and  also  to  consume  the  soldiers  sent  by  Ahab  to  arrest  him.  (2  Kings  1.)  And  at  the  time  of 
Elijah's  translation,  "a  chariot  of  fire,  and  horses  of  fire,"  appeared  to  fransport  him  "by  a  whirlwind  into 
heaven."  (2  Kings  2:11.) 

Heavenly  fire  has  often  been  used  by  the  Lord  in  giving  miraculous  manifestations  to  his  prophets. 
(Gen.  15:17;  Ex.  3:2;  24:17;  1  Ne.  1:6.)  Lehi  and  Nephi,  sons  of  Helaman,  "were  encircled  about  as  if  by 
fire,  .  .  .  and  were  not  burned,"  as  a  means  of  protecting  them  in  their  ministry,  a  miracle  soon  expanded  to 
embrace  "about  three  hundred  souls."  (Hela.  5:23-49.)  Fire  from  heaven  encircled  groups  of  worshipers  in 
connection  with  the  ministry  of  the  resurrected  Lord  among  the  Nephites  (2  Ne.  17:23-24;  19:13-14),  and 
the  Three  Nephite  disciples  were  cast  into  fiery  furnaces  and  came  out  unharmed.  (3  Ne.  28:21;  4  Ne.  32; 


201 


Morm.  8:  24.)  Similar  protection  was  given  Shadrach,  Meshach,  and  Abednego  when  Nebuchadnezzar 
had  them  cast  into  a  fiery  flirnace  so  hot  that  it  slew  the  handlers  who  carried  out  the  deed.  (Dan.  3.) 

Indeed  the  power  of  God  is  so  abundantly  manifest  through  fiery  demonstrations  that  Paul  wrote,  "Our 
God  is  a  consuming  fire."  (Heb.  12:29;  Deut.  4:24.)  And  the  Prophet  taught  that  God  dwells  in  everlasting 
burnings,  as  will  all  the  righteous  who  gain  exaltation.  (Teachings,  p.  347;  Isa.  33:14-16.) 

As  pertaining  to  the  righteous,  the  term  fire  is  used  to  indicate  a  purifying,  cleansing  agent,  but  where 
the  wicked  are  concerned  it  is  used  to  signify  destruction  and  the  severity  of  eternal  torment.  The 
scriptures  speak  of  the  receipt  of  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost  as  a  baptism  of  fire,  meaning  that  sin  and 
iniquity  are  burned  out  of  the  repentant  person  as  though  by  fire.  (3  Ne.  9:20.) 

The  revelations  also  speak  of  the  day  when  the  Lord's  vineyard  shall  be  burned,  a  day  when  the 
righteous  shall  be  preserved,  but  one  in  which  every  corruptible  thing  shall  be  consumed,  in  which  the 
elements  shall  melt  with  fervent  heat  and  all  things  shall  become  new.  (D.  &  C.  101:23-25;  Mai.  3;  4.) 
That  is  the  day  in  which  the  tares  shall  be  burned  (D.  &  C.  101:66),  in  which  the  Lord  will  "consume  the 
wicked  with  unquenchable  fire."  (D.  &  C.  63:32-34,  54;  Matt.  3:12;  Luke  3:  17.)  Finally,  all  those  who 
suffer  the  second  death  shall  suffer  the  vengeance  of  eternal  fire  (D.  &  C.  63: 17;  76:44,  105);  their  torment 
shall  be  "as  a  lake  of  fire  and  brimstone,  whose  flame  ascendeth  up  forever  and  ever."  (Alma  12:17.) 

Fire  and  Brimstone 

(Fire  and  Brimstone  ) 

See  ETERNAL  DAMNATION,  FIRE,  SECOND  COMING  OF  CHRIST,  SONS  OF  PERDITION, 
SPIRITUAL  DEATH 

1.  In  ancient  days  the  wickedness  and  abominations  practiced  in  Sodom,  Gomorrah,  Admah,  and 
Zeboim  became  so  great  that  the  Lord  utterly  destroyed  those  cities  by  raining  fire  and  brimstone  upon 
them.  (Gen.  10:19;  19:24-25;  Hos.  11:8;  Luke  17:29.)  Similar  destruction  awaits  the  wicked  in  the  day  of 
vengeance,  the  great  and  dreadfiil  day  of  the  Lord,  for  the  Lord  will  again  rain  upon  the  ungodly  fire  and 
brimstone  from  heaven.  (Ezek.  38:22;  Rev.  9:17-18;  D.  &  C.  29:21.) 

Brimstone  is  sulfur,  an  easily  melted,  very  inflammable  mineral  which  bums  with  a  blue  flame  and 
emits  a  suffocating  odor.  "It  is  found  in  great  abundance  near  volcanoes.  The  soil  around  Sodom  and 
Gomon'ah  abounded  in  sulphur  [sulfur]  and  bitumen."  (Peloubet's  Bible  Dictionary,  p.  100.)  Nothing  is 
quite  so  destructive  of  present  mortal  life  as  fire  and  brimstone.  Living  things  as  we  know  them  cannot 
exist  where  these  elements  are  found.  Nor  is  productivity  thereafter  to  be  found  in  soil  cursed  with 
brimstone.  Indeed,  when  the  Lord  sought  to  impress  upon  ancient  Israel  the  curse  of  disobedience,  he  said 
that  plagues  and  sickness  would  come  upon  their  land  until  "the  whole  land  thereof  is  brimstone,  and  salt, 
and  burning,  that  it  is  not  sown,  nor  beareth,  nor  any  grass  groweth  therein,  like  the  oveilhrow  of  Sodom, 
and  GomoiTah,  Admah,  and  Zeboim,  which  the  Lord  overthrew  in  his  anger,  and  in  his  wrath."  (Deut. 
29:22-23;  Job  18:15;  Ps.  11:6;  Isa.  30:33.) 

2.  The  nature  of  burning  brimstone  is  such  that  it  perfectly  symbolized  to  the  prophetic  mind  the 
eternal  torment  of  the  damned.  Accordingly  we  read  that  the  wicked  are  "tormented  with  fire  and 
brimstone"  (Rev.  14:9-11;  19:20;  20:10),  or  in  other  words  that  "their  torment  is  as  a  lake  of  fire  and 
brimstone,  whose  flame  ascendeth  up  forever  and  ever  and  has  no  end."  (2  Ne.  9:16;  Alma  12:17.)  This 
burning  scene,  a  horrifying  "lake  of  fire  and  brimstone,"  symbolizes  "endless  torment"  (2  Ne.  9:19,  26; 
28:23;  Jac.  6:10;  Alma  14:14;  D.  &  C.  76:36);  those  who  find  place  therein  are  subject  to  the  second 
death.  (Jac.  3:1 1;  D.  &  C.  63:17.)  They  suffer  the  vengeance  of  eternal  fire.  (D.  &  C.  29:28;  43:33;  76:  44, 
105)  When  the  sons  of  perdition  come  forth  in  the  resuiTcction,  they  "rise  to  that  resun'ection  which  is  as 
the  lake  of  fire  and  brimstone."  (Teachings,  p.  361.) 

Fires 

(Fires  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Firmament 

(Firaiament  ) 
See  CREATION. 


202 


As  used  in  the  scriptures,  firmament  means  expanse.  The  firmament  of  heaven  is  the  expanse  of 
heaven;  it  refers,  depending  upon  the  context,  to  either  the  atmospheric  or  the  sidereal  heavens.  (Gen.  1; 
Moses  2;  Abra.  4.)  It  is  not  true,  as  has  been  falsely  supposed,  that  the  ancient  prophets  believed  that  the 
firmament  was  a  solid  arch  between  the  lower  and  upper  waters  in  which  the  stars  were  set  as  so  many 
stones  in  gold  or  silver.  Such  was  rather  the  false  view  of  the  church  in  the  dark  ages.  (Man:  His  Origin 
and  Destiny,  pp.  468-474.) 

First  and  Last 

(First  and  Last  ) 

See  ALPHA  AND  OMEGA,  BEGINNING  AND  END,  CHRIST,  ETERNITY  TO  ETERNITY, 
EVERLASTING  TO  EVERLASTING. 

Clirist  is  the  First  and  the  Last.  (D.  &  C.  110:4;  Isa.  41:4;  44:6;  48:12;  Rev.  1:8-17;  2:8;  22:13.)  These 
terms  are  descriptive  of  his  eternal  timelessness;  he  is  God  everlastingly.  As  the  First,  the  thought  is 
conveyed  that  he  is  pre-eminent  above  all  the  earth's  inhabitants,  both  from  the  standpoint  of  time  (he 
being  the  Firstborn  in  the  spirit),  and  from  the  standpoint  of  power  and  dominion  (he  having  become  a 
God  in  the  beginning).  As  the  Last,  the  concept  is  revealed  that  he  will  go  on  as  God,  continuing  to  enjoy 
his  full  pre-eminence,  to  all  eternity,  everlastingly  without  end. 

Firstborn 

(Firstborn  ) 

See  CHRIST,  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  FATHER  IN  HEAVEN,  FIRST  ESTATE, 
MOTHER  IN  HEAVEN,  ONLY  BEGOTTEN  SON,  SPIRIT  BIRTH,  SPIRIT  BODIES,  WORD  OF 
GOD. 

Clirist  is  the  Firstborn,  meaning  that  he  was  the  first  Spirit  Child  bom  to  God  the  Father  in  pre- 
existence.  (D.  &  C.  93:21;  John  1:1-5;  Rom.  8:29;  Col.  1:15.)  He  is  also  the  Firstborn  from  the  Dead, 
which  signifies  that  he  was  the  first  person  resurrected.  (Col.  1:18.) 

Firstborn  From  the  Dead 

(Firstborn  From  the  Dead  ) 
See  FIRSTBORN. 

First  Comforter 

(First  Comforter  ) 
See  HOLY  GHOST. 

First  Council  of  the  Seventy 

(First  Council  of  the  Seventy  ) 

See  GENERAL  AUTHORITIES,  PRIESTHOOD  OFFICES,  SEVENTIES. 

Each  quorum  of  seventy  is  presided  over  by  seven  presidents  called  a  council.  The  First  Council  of 
Seventy  (sometimes  called  the  First  Seven  Presidents  of  Seventy)  presides  over  the  first  quorum  of 
seventy  and  in  addition  over  all  quorums  and  all  seventies.  Members  of  the  First  Council  hold  the  keys  of 
presidency  over  the  seventies,  are  General  Authorities  of  the  Church,  and  act  under  the  direction  of  the 
Council  of  the  Twelve.  As  with  all  councils  of  seventy,  all  members  are  equal  in  responsibility  and 
presidency  though  the  7th  president  (meaning  the  senior  of  the  group)  presides  over  the  others.  (D.  &  C. 
107:93-97) 

First  Estate 

(First  Estate  ) 

See  PRE-EXISTENCE,  SECOND  ESTATE. 


203 


Both  Abraham  and  Jude  speak  of  pre-existence  as  our  first  estate,  that  is,  it  was  the  first  time  we  Uved 
as  conscious  identities.  The  spirits  who  were  faithful  in  that  first  estate  earned  the  riglit  to  be  bom  into  this 
world  and  get  mortal  bodies,  bodies  which  would  become  the  eternal  habitation  of  the  spirit  after  the 
resurrection.  (Abra.  3:22-28.)  But  the  rebellious  pre-existent  spirits,  "the  angels  which  kept  not  their  first 
estate"  (Jude  6),  have  been  denied  bodies  and  the  probationary  experiences  of  this  second  estate  of 
mortality. 

First  Flesh 

(First  Flesh  ) 

See  ADAM,  FALLEN  MAN,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  FIRST  MAN,  FLESH,  FORBIDDEN  FRUIT. 

Animals,  fowls,  fishes,  and  all  fornis  of  life  were  created  by  the  Lord  with  tangible,  physical  bodies  of 
flesh  and  bones  and  were  duly  placed  on  this  earth.  (Moses  2;  3.)  When  all  other  forms  of  life  had  been 
created  naturally  upon  the  face  of  the  earth,  and  when  all  things  were  in  readiness,  the  crowning  creative 
enterprise  of  the  Almighty  was  undertaken.  Man  was  formed  from  the  dust  of  the  earth  and  placed  here  in 
a  physical  body  of  flesh  and  bones  to  rule  as  governor  over  all  other  creatures.  Yet  the  revealed  account  of 
the  creation  specifies  that  man  was  "the  first  flesh  upon  the  earth."  (Moses  3:7.)  The  meaning  of  this  is 
clear  when  two  things  are  remembered:  1.  That  all  things,  man  included,  were  first  created  in  immortality. 
There  was  no  death  in  the  world  either  for  man  or  for  any  fonn  of  life  until  after  the  fall.  (2  Ne.  2:22.)  2. 
That  the  word  flesh,  as  used  by  the  Lord  and  his  prophets  in  scores  of  scriptures,  means  mortality.  Adam 
fell  and  brought  mortality  into  the  world.  Thereafter  the  effects  of  his  fall  passed  on  all  created  things. 
Adam  thus  became  literally,  not  only  the  first  man,  but  the  first  flesh  (meaning  mortal  flesh)  on  earth. 
(Doctrines  of  salvation,  vol.  1,  pp  77-78;  107-120.) 

Firstlings  of  Flock 

(Firstlings  of  Flock  ) 
See  SACRIFICES. 

First  Man 

(First  Man  ) 

See  ADAM,  FALLEN  MAN,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  FIRST  FLESH,  MAN. 

"Adam,  who  was  the  son  of  God"  (Moses  6:22),  was  "the  first  man  of  all  men."  (Moses  1:34;  3:7; 
6:45;  Abra.  1:3;  D.  &  C.  84:16;  1  Ne.  5:11;  1  Cor.  15:45;  Inspired  Version,  Luke  3:45;  Man:  His  Origin 
and  Destiny,  PP  348-355.)  There  were  no  pre-Adamites;  the  great  archangel  Michael,  who  descended 
fiom  the  courts  of  gloiy  to  be  the  father  of  the  human  race,  was  appointed  to  be  the  father  of  all  living. 
Indeed,  Adam  and  Eve  were  not  able  to  have  children  and  provide  bodies  for  the  spirit  children  of  the 
Father  until  after  the  fall.  (2  Ne.  2:22;  Moses  5:11.) 

This  first  man,  from  the  standpoint  of  ancestry  and  lineage,  is  also  first  in  point  of  pre-eminence, 
power,  and  position.  He  stands  next  to  Christ;  holds  the  "keys  of  salvation"  (D.  &  C.  78:16);  and  (under 
Christ)  is  the  presiding  high  priest  over  all  the  earth.  (Teachings,  p.  158.) 

First  Presidency 

(First  Presidency  ) 

See  HIGH  PRIESTS,  PRESIDENT  OF  THE  CHURCH,  PRIESTHOOD,  PRIESTHOOD 
QUORUMS,  PROPHETS,  REVELATORS,  SEERS. 

From  ancient  times  the  supreme,  directing  power  and  authority  over  the  Church  and  kingdom  has 
rested  with  "a  quorum  of  three  presidents  .  .  .  who  were  ordained  after  the  order  of  Melchizedek,  and  were 
righteous  and  holy  men."  (D.  &  C.  107:29.)  "Three  Presiding  High  Priests,  chosen  by  the  body,  appointed 
and  ordained  to  that  office,  and  upheld  by  the  confidence,  faith,  and  prayer  of  the  church,  form  a  quorum 
of  the  Presidency  of  the  Church."  (D.  &  C.  107:22.) 


204 


As  "the  Presidency  of  the  High  Priesthood,"  they  "always"  hold  "the  keys  of  the  kingdom"  (D.  &  C. 
81:2),  and  "have  a  right  to  officiate  in  all  the  offices  in  the  church."  (D.  &  C.  107:9.)  They  are  "the  highest 
council  of  the  church  of  God  and  a  final  decision  upon  controversies  in  spiritual  matters.  There  is  not  any 
person  belonging  to  the  church  who  is  exempt  from  this  council  of  the  church."  (D.  &  C.  107:80-81 .) 

Death  of  the  President  of  the  Church  dissolves  the  First  Presidency,  his  two  counselors  then  ceasing  to 
function  as  members  of  that  supreme  body.  As  Joseph  Smith  expressed  it:  "The  Twelve  are  not  subject  to 
any  other  than  the  First  Presidency,  viz.,  myself,  Sidney  Rigdon,  and  Frederick  G.  Williams,  who  are  now 
my  Counselors,  and  where  I  am  not,  there  is  no  First  presidency  over  the  Twelve."  (Teachings,  pp  105- 
106.) 

First  Principles  of  the  Gospel 

(First  Principles  of  the  Gospel  ) 

See  FAITH,  GOSPEL,  MYSTERIES,  PLAN  OF  SALVATION,  REPENTANCE. 

"It  is  the  first  principle  of  the  gospel,"  the  Prophet  taught,  "to  know  for  a  certainty  the  character  of 
God,  and  to  know  that  we  may  converse  with  him  as  one  man  converses  with  another."  (Teachings,  p. 
345)  After  this  principle  comes  that  of  the  divine  mission  and  atoning  sacrifice  of  our  Lord,  and  out  of 
these  two  grow  faith  and  repentance  and  all  of  the  basic  and  fiindamental  truths  which  must  be  accepted 
and  lived  to  gain  peace  in  this  life  and  eternal  reward  in  the  life  to  come. 

The  Prophet  also  said:  "The  fundamental  principles  of  our  religion  are  the  testimony  of  the  apostles 
and  prophets,  concerning  Jesus  Christ,  that  he  died,  was  buried,  and  rose  again  the  third  day,  and  ascended 
into  heaven;  and  all  other  things  which  pertain  to  our  religion  are  only  appendages  to  it.  But  in  connection 
with  these,  we  believe  in  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  the  power  of  faith,  the  enjoyment  of  the  spiritual  gifts 
according  to  the  will  of  God,  the  restoration  of  the  house  of  Israel,  and  the  final  triumph  of  tmth." 
(Teachings,  p.  121.) 

Thus  the  first  principles  of  the  gospel,  the  basic  doctrines  of  salvation,  are  the  fiindamental  truths  that 
have  been  revealed  in  plainness  as  distinguished  from  the  mysteries,  those  things  which  have  not  as  yet 
been  unfolded  in  their  clarity  and  perfection  to  mortal  man.  The  Articles  of  Faith  contain  a  summarization 
of  some,  but  not  all,  of  the  basic  and  first  principles  of  the  gospel. 

Speakers  and  teachers  are  obligated  to  confine  their  expressions  to  the  doctrines  that  have  been 
revealed  in  plainness.  They  are  to  "preach  Jesus  Christ  and  him  crucified"  (Teachings,  p.  109),  and  to 
"declare  the  first  principles,  and  let  mysteries  alone."  (Teachings,  p.  292.) 

First  Resurrection 

(First  Resurrection  ) 
See  RESURRECTION. 

First  Seven  Presidents  of  Seventy 

(First  Seven  Presidents  of  Seventy  ) 

See  FIRST  COUNCIL  OF  THE  SEVENTY. 

First  Vision 

(First  Vision  ) 

See  DISPENSATION  OF  THE  FULNESS  OF  TIMES,  GODHEAD,  JOSEPH  SMITH  THE 
PROPHET,  RESTORATION  OF  THE  GOSPEL,  REVELATION,  SACRED  GROVE,  THEOPHANIES, 
VISIONS,  WENTWORTH  LETTER. 

That  glorious  theophany  which  took  place  in  the  spring  of  1 820  and  which  marked  the  opening  of  the 
dispensation  of  the  fiilness  of  times  is  called  the  First  Vision.  It  is  rated  as  first  both  from  the  standpoint  of 
time  and  of  pre-eminent  importance.  In  it  Joseph  Smith  saw  and  conversed  with  the  Father  and  the  Son, 
both  of  which  exalted  personages  were  personally  present  before  him  as  he  lay  enwrapped  in  the  Spirit 
and  overshadowed  by  the  Holy  Ghost. 


205 


This  transcendent  vision  was  the  beginning  of  latter  day  revelation;  it  marked  the  opening  of  the 
heavens  after  the  long  night  of  apostate  darkness;  with  it  was  ushered  in  the  great  era  of  restoration,  "the 
times  of  restitution  of  all  things,  which  God  hath  spoken  by  the  mouth  of  all  his  holy  prophets  since  the 
world  began."  (Acts  3:21.)  Through  it  the  creeds  of  Christendom  were  shattered  to  smithereens,  and 
because  of  it  the  truth  about  those  Beings  whom  it  is  life  eternal  to  know  began  again  to  be  taught  among 
men.  (John  17:3.)  With  this  vision  came  the  call  of  that  Prophet  who,  "save  Jesus  only,"  was  destined  to 
do  more  "for  the  salvation  of  men  in  this  world,  than  any  other  man  that  ever  lived  in  it."  (D.  &  C.  135:3.) 
This  vision  was  the  most  important  event  that  had  taken  place  in  all  world  history  from  the  day  of  Christ's 
ministry  to  the  glorious  hour  when  it  occurred. 

Our  knowledge  of  God's  dealings  with  his  children  from  the  days  of  Adam  to  the  present  leads  us  to 
believe  that  both  the  Father  and  the  Son  have  been  manifested  to  other  prophets  in  other  ages.  Joseph 
Smith,  himself,  on  at  least  two  other  occasions  saw  these  heavenly  Beings  in  vision  (D.  &  C.  76:22-24; 
Teachings,  p.  107),  and  Stephen  beheld  them  as  the  murderous  mob  stoned  him  to  death.  (Acts  7:54-60.) 
Indeed,  it  is  the  privilege  of  those  who  attain  the  Second  Comfoiler  to  have  the  Son  "manifest  the  Father" 
unto  them.  (Teachings,  pp.  149-151;  John  14:23;  D.  &  C.  130:3.)  But  our  account  of  the  First  Vision  is  the 
only  plain  scriptural  record  now  extant  which  details  the  personal  appearance  of  the  Father  and  the  Son  to 
mortal  man. 

"Believing  the  word  of  God,"  the  Prophet  wrote  in  the  Wentwoilh  Letter,  "I  had  confidence  in  the 
declaration  of  James  -  'If  any  of  you  lack  wisdom,  let  him  ask  of  God,  that  giveth  to  all  men  liberally,  and 
upbraideth  not;  and  it  shall  be  given  him.'  (Jas.  1:5.)  I  retired  to  a  secret  place  in  a  grove,  and  began  to  call 
upon  the  Lord;  while  fervently  engaged  in  supplication,  my  mind  was  taken  away  from  the  objects  with 
which  I  was  surrounded,  and  I  was  enwrapped  in  a  heavenly  vision,  and  saw  two  glorious  Personages, 
who  exactly  resembled  each  other  in  features  and  likeness,  surrounded  with  a  brilliant  light  which  eclipsed 
the  sun  at  noon  day.  They  told  me  that  all  religious  denominations  were  believing  in  incoiTcct  doctrines, 
and  that  none  of  them  was  acknowledged  of  God  as  his  Church  and  kingdom:  and  I  was  expressly 
commanded  'to  go  not  after  them,'  at  the  same  time  receiving  a  promise  that  the  fulness  of  the  gospel 
should  at  some  future  time  be  made  known  unto  me."  (History  of  the  Church,  vol.  4,  p.  536.) 

"I  saw  a  pillar  of  light  exactly  over  my  head,  above  the  brightness  of  the  sun,  which  descended 
gradually  until  it  fell  upon  me,"  the  Prophet  also  wrote.  "When  the  light  rested  upon  me  I  saw  two 
Personages,  whose  brightness  and  glory  defy  all  description,  standing  above  me  in  the  air.  One  of  them 
spake  unto  me,  calling  me  by  name,  and  said,  pointing  to  the  other  -  This  is  My  Beloved  Son.  Hear  Him! 

"My  object  in  going  to  inquire  of  the  Lord  was  to  know  which  of  all  the  sects  was  right,  that  I  might 
know  which  to  join.  No  sooner,  therefore,  did  I  get  possession  of  myself,  so  as  to  be  able  to  speak,  than  I 
asked  the  Personages  who  stood  above  me  in  the  light,  which  of  all  the  sects  was  right  -  and  which  I 
should  join.  I  was  answered  that  I  must  join  none  of  them,  for  they  were  all  wrong;  and  the  Personage  who 
addressed  me  said  that  all  their  creeds  were  an  abomination  in  his  sight;  that  those  professors  were  all 
comapt;  that:  'they  draw  near  to  me  with  their  lips,  but  their  hearts  are  far  from  me;  they  teach  for 
doctrines  the  conunandments  of  men,  having  a  form  of  godliness,  but  they  deny  the  power  thereof  He 
again  forbade  me  to  join  with  any  of  them;  and  many  other  things  did  he  say  unto  me."  (Jos.  Smith  2:16- 
20.) 

When  Joseph  Smith,  then  but  a  youth  in  his  1 5th  year,  went  into  the  Sacred  Grove  to  seek  answer  to 
the  Spirit-inspired  question,  "which  of  all  the  sects  was  right,"  he  carried  with  him  the  mental  vagaries 
taught  in  the  creeds  of  the  day  as  to  the  personality  of  God.  He  supposed,  as  was  then  universally  taught  in 
apostate  Christendom,  that  God  was  a  three-in-one  Spirit  that  filled  the  immensity  of  space,  incorporeal, 
uncreated,  immaterial,  without  body,  parts,  or  passions.  When  he  returned  from  that  sacred  spot,  he  had 
the  sure  knowledge  -  for  his  eyes  had  seen  and  the  Holy  Ghost  (whose  power  had  also  been  felt  on  that 
sacred  occasion)  had  bom  record  to  his  soul  -  that  the  Father  and  the  Son  were  two  glorified  Personages  in 
the  express  image  of  each  other.  (D.  &  C.  130:22.) 

If  this  inexperienced  youth  had  been  seeking  to  fabricate  some  great  spiritual  experience,  he  never  in 
the  world  would  have  come  back  with  a  story  that  struck  irreconcilably  at  all  the  creeds  of  Christendom 
and  all  the  teachings  he  himself  had  so  far  received  from  his  parents  and  others.  In  an  attempt  to  deceive 
he  might  have  said  that  an  angel  appeared,  or  that  some  other  miraculous  event  transpired,  but  never 
would  it  have  occurred  to  him  to  rock  the  whole  religious  foundation  of  the  Christian  world  with  such  a 
startling  claim  as  that  which  he  did  make.  And  now  -  wonder  of  wonders!  -  those  who  have  attained 
greater  spiritual  enlightenment  than  was  then  prevalent  discover  that  the  new  revelation  about  God's 


206 


personality  is  tlie  same  wliich  was  from  tlie  beginning  it  is  tlie  same  trutli  to  which  all  the  prophets  bear 
record. 

But  even  if,  by  some  inconceivable  miracle,  this  one  youth  -  in  defiance  of  all  the  learning  and 
teachings  of  the  religious  world  had  stumbled  upon  the  truth  that  God  was  a  personal  Being,  yet  no 
rational  mind  would  expect  him  to  record  the  events  incident  to  the  First  Vision  so  that  those  occurrences 
would  be  in  perfect  haraiony  with  the  laws  of  mediation,  intercession  and  advocacy.  For  instance  if  he  had 
said  that  the  Father  taught  him  certain  truths  (rather  than  saying  that  the  Father  introduced  the  Son  and  that 
the  Son  gave  the  actual  direction  to  him)  such  would  have  shown  his  story  to  be  false.  Inexperienced  as  he 
was,  he  could  not  have  known  that  by  God's  eternal  law  it  is  everlastingly  ordained  that  all  revelation 
comes  through  Christ  and  that  the  Father  never  does  more  than  introduce  and  bear  record  of  the  Son. 

Evidences  of  the  reality  of  the  First  Vision  might  be  multiplied  but  the  greatest  proofs  that  it  took 
place  are  the  whisperings  of  the  Spirit  to  the  devout  truth  seekers  and  the  establishment  and  triumph  of 
The  Church  of  Jesus  Clirist  of  Latter-day  Saints,  the  Church  which  is  founded  and  grounded  on  the 
testimony  that  Joseph  Smith  saw  God  and  was  in  literal  reality  chosen  to  be  his  mighty  latter-day  Prophet. 

Fish 

(Fish  ) 

See  ANIMALS. 

Flattery 

(Flattery  ) 

See  IDLE  WORDS,  LIARS. 

Flattery  is  the  act  of  ingratiating  oneself  into  another's  confidence  by  excessive  praise,  or  by  insincere 
speech  and  acts.  It  includes  the  raising  of  false  and  unfounded  hopes;  there  is  always  an  element  of 
dishonesty  attending  it. 

Flattery  is  a  tool  of  Satan  (D.  &  C.  10:25-29);  he  uses  it  to  lead  souls  to  destruction.  (2  Ne.  28:22.) 
Ministers  of  false  religions  obtain  the  support  of  their  congregations  in  large  measure  by  flattery,  in  that 
by  appeals  to  vanity  and  through  other  means  they  hold  out  false  hopes  of  salvation  to  their  worshipers. 
For  instance:  Certain  saved-by-grace-alone  fanatics  flatter  their  followers  into  believing  they  can  be  saved 
through  no  act  other  than  confessing  Christ  with  their  lips.  Other  professors  of  religion  flatter  their 
adherents  into  believing  there  will  be  a  final  hannony  of  all  souls  with  God  and  that  none  will  be  damned. 
Still  others  flatter  their  disciples  with  the  false  belief  that  forgiveness  of  sins  comes  from  confession  alone, 
or  that  souls  may  be  redeemed  from  so-called  purgatory  by  purchased  prayers.  "Flattery,"  the  Prophet  said, 
is  "a  deadly  poison."  (Teachings,  p.  137.) 

Flesh 

(Flesh  ) 

See  CARNALITY,  CORRUPTION,  DEVILISHNESS,  FALLEN  MAN,  FIRST  FLESH,  FLESH 
AND  BLOOD,  FLESH  AND  BONES,  MORTALITY,  SENSUALITY. 

Since  flesh  as  we  know  it  is  all  mortal  flesh,  and  since  fallen  or  mortal  man  is  carnal,  sensual,  and 
devilish  by  nature  (Moses  5:13;  Mosiah  3:19),  the  prophetic  mind  has  always  chosen  the  term  flesh  to 
signify  the  carnality  and  sensuality  common  to  unregenerate  human  kind.  "The  works  of  the  flesh,"  as 
Paul  lists  them,  "are  these;  Adultery,  fornication,  uncleanness,  lasciviousness.  Idolatry,  witchcraft,  hatred, 
variance,  emulations,  wrath,  strife,  seditions,  heresies,  Envyings,  murders,  drunkenness,  revelings,  and 
such  like:  of  the  which  I  tell  you  before,  as  I  have  also  told  you  in  time  past,  that  they  which  do  such 
things  shall  not  inlierit  the  kingdom  of  God."  (Gal.  5:19-21.) 

"Though  we  walk  in  the  flesh,"  Paul  also  says,  "we  do  not  war  after  the  flesh"  (2  Cor.  10:3),  that  is, 
though  we  are  in  the  world  (of  mortality),  we  are  not  of  the  world.  Manifestly  the  saints  are  to  "abstain 
from  fleshly  lusts,  which  war  against  the  soul"  (1  Pet.  2:11),  "hating  even  the  garment  spotted  by  the 
flesh."  (Jude  23.) 


207 


Flesh  and  Blood 

(Flesh  and  Blood  ) 

See  FLESH,  FLESH  AND  BONES,  MORTALITY. 

"The  life  of  the  flesh  is  in  the  blood"  (Lev.  17:11),  that  is,  the  mortal  body  lives  only  so  long  as  the 
blood  is  present.  Spill  the  blood  and  mortality  ceases.  Hence,  flesh  and  blood  bans  mortality.  Our  Lord's 
statement  to  Peter,  "Flesh  and  blood  hath  not  revealed  it  unto  thee,  but  my  Father  which  is  in  heaven" 
(Matt.  16:17)  meant  that  no  mortal  person  or  power  had  given  Peter  his  testimony;  it  had  come  from  the 
Father  by  revelation.  "Flesh  and  blood,"  Paul  says,  "cannot  inherit  the  kingdom  of  God;  neither  doth 
corruption  inherit  incorruption."  (1  Cor.  15:50.)  In  other  words:  Mortality  cannot  inherit  a  celestial  world, 
for  that  is  the  dwelling  place  of  immortal,  incorruptible  beings. 

Flesh  and  Bones 

(Flesh  and  Bones  ) 

See  FLESH,  FLESH  AND  BLOOD,  IMMORTALITY,  RESURRECTION,  SPIRITUAL  BODIES. 

In  the  same  sense  that  flesh  and  blood  is  used  to  signify  mortality,  flesh  and  bones  is  the  scriptural 
phrase  meaning  immortality,  the  state  after  the  resurrection  when  all  men  will  have  spiritual  bodies.  Thus, 
appearing  to  his  disciples  after  his  resurrection,  our  Lord  said:  "Handle  me,  and  see;  for  a  spirit  hath  not 
flesh  and  bones,  as  ye  see  me  have."  (Luke  24:39.)  In  exactly  the  same  sense,  "The  Father  has  a  body  of 
flesh  and  bones  as  tangible  as  man's"  (D.  &  C.  130:22),  for  he  too  is  a  resurrected,  immortal  Being. 

Flood  of  Noah 

(Flood  of  Noah  ) 
See  BAPTISM. 

In  the  days  of  Noah  the  Lord  sent  a  universal  flood  which  completely  immersed  the  whole  earth  and 
destroyed  all  flesh  except  that  preserved  on  the  ark.  (Gen.  6;  7;  8;  9;  Moses  7:38-45;  8;  Ether  13:2.)  "Noah 
was  bom  to  save  seed  of  everything,  when  the  earth  was  washed  of  its  wickedness  by  the  flood." 
(Teachings,  p.  12.)  This  flood  was  the  baptism  of  the  earth;  before  it  occurred  the  land  was  all  in  one 
place,  a  condition  that  will  again  prevail  during  the  millennial  era.  (D.  &  C.  133:23-24.) 

There  is  no  question  but  what  many  of  the  so-called  geological  changes  in  the  earth's  surface,  which 
according  to  geological  theories  took  place  over  ages  of  time,  in  reality  occurred  in  a  matter  of  a  few  short 
weeks  incident  to  the  universal  deluge.  (Man:  His  Origin  and  Destiny,  pp.  414-436.) 

Floods 

(Floods  ) 

See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 

Forbidden  Fruit 

(Forbidden  Fruit  ) 

See  ADAM,  EVE,  FALL  OF  ADAM. 

Our  first  parents,  Adam  and  Eve,  were  first  created  in  a  state  of  immortality;  there  was  no  death  in  the 
world  as  things  were  then  organized.  (2  Ne.  2:22.)  While  in  their  immortal  state  they  were  commanded  to 
multiply  and  fill  the  earth  with  posterity.  (Moses  2:28.)  They  were  also  told  that  of  every  tree  in  the 
Garden  of  Eden  they  might  eat  excepting  only  the  tree  of  the  knowledge  of  good  and  evil. 

For  disobedience  to  this  command,  death  (or  in  other  words  mortality)  was  to  enter  the  world.  (Moses 
3:17.)  In  order  to  have  children  it  was  necessary  that  they  become  mortal;  and  so  in  accordance  with  the 
divine  plan  they  partook  of  the  forbidden  fmit,  death  and  mortality  entered  the  world,  and  the  bodies  of 
our  first  parents  were  so  changed  as  to  pennit  them  to  have  offspring  and  thus  fiilfil  the  purposes  of  the 
Lord  in  the  creation  of  the  earth.  (D.  &  C.  29:40-44;  Moses  5:1 1;  2  Ne.  2:22-25.) 


208 


What  the  real  meaning  is  of  the  expression  forbidden  fruit  has  not  been  revealed,  and  it  is  profitless  to 
speculate.  It  is  sufficient  for  us  to  know  that  Adam  and  Eve  broke  the  law  which  would  have  permitted 
them  to  continue  as  immortal  beings,  or  in  other  words  they  complied  with  the  law  which  enabled  them  to 
become  mortal  beings,  and  this  course  of  conduct  is  teraied  eating  the  forbidden  fruit. 

One  thing  we  do  know  definitely:  The  forbidden  fruit  was  not  sex  sin.  The  view  that  immoral 
indulgence  on  the  part  of  our  first  parents  constituted  the  forbidden  fruit  is  one  of  the  most  evil  and  wicked 
heresies  in  apostate  Christendom.  Adam  and  Eve  were  married  for  eternity  by  the  Lord  himself  before  the 
fall,  and  the  command  given  them  to  have  children  was  one  directing  the  begetting  of  children  in  legal  and 
lawful  wedlock.  (Moses  3:20-25.) 

Foreign  Missions 

(Foreign  Missions  ) 
See  MISSIONS. 

Foreordination 

(Foreordination  ) 

See  AGENCY,  ELECTION  OF  GRACE,  PREDESTINATION,  PRE-EXISTENCE,  RACES  OF 
MEN. 

To  cany  forward  his  own  purposes  among  men  and  nations,  the  Lord  foreordained  chosen  spirit 
children  in  pre-existence  and  assigned  them  to  come  to  earth  at  particular  times  and  places  so  that  they 
might  aid  in  furthering  the  divine  will.  These  pre-existence  appointments  made  "according  to  the 
foreknowledge  of  God  the  Father"  ( 1  Pet.  1 :2),  simply  designated  certain  individuals  to  perform  missions 
which  the  Lord  in  his  wisdom  knew  they  had  the  talents  and  capacities  to  do. 

The  mightiest  and  greatest  spirits  were  foreordained  to  stand  as  prophets  and  spiritual  leaders,  giving 
to  the  people  such  portion  of  the  Lord's  word  as  was  designed  for  the  day  and  age  involved.  Other  spirits, 
such  as  those  who  laid  the  foundations  of  the  American  nation,  were  appointed  beforehand  to  perfonn 
great  works  in  political  and  governmental  fields.  In  all  this  there  is  not  the  slightest  hint  of  compulsion; 
persons  foreordained  to  fill  special  missions  in  mortality  are  as  abundantly  endowed  with  free  agency  as 
are  any  other  persons.  By  their  foreordination  the  Lord  merely  gives  them  the  opportunity  to  serve  him 
and  his  purposes  if  they  will  choose  to  measure  up  to  the  standard  he  knows  they  are  capable  of  attaining. 

Alma  taught  the  great  truth  that  every  person  who  holds  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  was  foreordained 
to  receive  that  high  and  holy  order  in  the  pre-existent  councils  of  eternity.  "This  is  the  manner  after  which 
they  were  ordained,"  he  says.  They  were  "called  and  prepared  from  the  foundation  of  the  world  according 
to  the  foreknowledge  of  God,  on  account  of  their  exceeding  faith  and  good  works  [while  yet  living  in  pre- 
existence];  in  the  first  place  [that  is,  in  pre-existence]  being  left  to  choose  good  or  evil;  therefore  they 
having  chosen  good,  and  exercising  exceeding  great  faith,  are  called  with  a  holy  calling,  yea,  with  that 
holy  calling  which  was  prepared  with,  and  according  to,  a  preparatory  redemption  for  such."  Thus,  he 
explains,  Melchizedek  Priesthood  holders  have  been  "prepared  from  the  foundation  of  the  world"  for  their 
high  callings.  The  Lord  has  prepared  them  "from  eternity  to  all  eternity,  according  to  his  foreknowledge  of 
all  things."  (Alma  13:3-9.) 

Speaking  of  foreordination  to  spiritual  callings,  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  said:  "Every  man  who  has  a 
calling  to  minister  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  world  was  ordained  to  that  very  purpose  in  the  Grand  Council 
of  heaven  before  this  world  was.  I  suppose  that  I  was  ordained  to  this  very  office  in  that  Grand  Council." 
(Teachings,  p.  365.)  Abraham  saw  the  hosts  of  pre-existent  spirits.  "And  among  all  these,"  he  recorded, 
"were  many  of  the  noble  and  great  ones;  And  God  saw  these  souls  that  they  were  good,  and  he  stood  in  the 
midst  of  them,  and  he  said:  These  I  will  make  my  rulers;  for  he  stood  among  those  that  were  spirits,  and  he 
saw  that  they  were  good;  and  he  said  unto  me:  Abraham,  thou  art  one  of  them;  thou  wast  chosen  before 
thou  wast  bom."  (Abra.  3:22-23.) 

Jeremiah  records  a  similar  truth  relative  to  his  foreordination  to  be  "a  prophet  unto  the  nations"  (Jer. 
1:5),  and  Moses  taught  that  the  whole  host  of  spirits  bom  in  the  lineage  of  Jacob  were  before  appointed  to 
come  through  that  chosen  line.  (Deut.  32:7-8.)  It  was  because  of  their  pre-existent  training,  election,  and 
foreordination  that  Christ  was  able  to  say  of  certain  chosen  ones,  "My  sheep  hear  my  voice,  and  I  know 
them,  and  they  follow  me."  (John  10:27.) 


209 


There  is  scriptural  record  of  many  other  instances  of  specific  foreordination.  Christ,  himself,  was 
before  chosen  to  come  to  this  life  as  the  Son  of  God  and  Redeemer  of  the  world  (Moses  4:1-4;  Abra.  3:27; 
1  Pet.  1:19-20),  "the  Lamb  slain  from  the  foundation  of  the  world."  (Rev.  13:8.)  Mary,  the  mother  of  our 
Lord,  was  before  named  for  her  sacred  mission  (1  Ne.  11:18-20;  Mosiah  3:8;  Isa.  7:14),  and  John  the 
Baptist  received  a  pre-mortal  commission  to  prepare  the  way  for  the  first  coming  of  the  Son  of  Man.  (1 
Ne.  10:7-10;  Isa.  40:3;  Matt.  3:3.)  The  Twelve  who  in  their  mortal  life  were  destined  to  follow  our  Lord 
were  seen  in  vision  by  Nephi  nearly  600  years  before  the  assigned  day  of  their  mortal  missions.  (1  Ne. 
11:29,  34-36.) 

Joseph  who  was  sold  into  Egypt  spoke  prophetically  of  Moses,  and  Joseph  Smith,  and  others,  both  by 
name  and  by  describing  the  foreordained  missions  to  be  performed  by  them,  hundreds  of  years  before  the 
destined  birth  of  those  concerned  into  mortality.  (2  Ne.  3.)  John  the  Beloved's  name,  apostolic  call,  and 
mission  as  the  great  Revelator  were  revealed  to  Nephi  long  before  Jolm's  birth.  (1  Ne.  14:19-29.)  In  pre- 
existence,  before  Jacob  or  Esau  were  bom  as  mortal  beings,  the  Lord  decreed,  "The  elder  shall  serve  the 
younger."  (Rom.  9:10-12.)  The  temporal  rule  of  Cyrus  and  the  mission  he  was  to  perfonn  as  it  affected  the 
Lord's  Israel,  was  foretold  by  Isaiah  long  before  the  birth  of  that  earthly  ruler.  (Isa.  44:28;  45.)  The 
mission  of  Columbus  to  bring  the  American  nations  to  the  knowledge  of  the  old  world,  and  the  Lord's 
dealings  with  the  Gentile  nations  which  should  inhabit  the  areas  thus  re-discovered,  was  all  foreknown 
and  foreordained.  (1  Ne.  13.) 

And  what  is  true  of  these  great  leaders  and  episodes  in  the  history  of  the  Lord's  religious  and  civic 
dealings  with  mankind  is  also  true  of  other  political  and  religious  leaders  and  other  great  historical  events. 
"I  am  God,"  the  Lord  said,  "and  there  is  none  like  me.  Declaring  the  end  from  the  beginning,  and  from 
ancient  times  the  things  that  are  not  yet  done,  saying,  My  counsel  shall  stand,  and  I  will  do  all  my 
pleasure."  (Isa.  46:9-10.) 

Forgiveness 

(Forgiveness  ) 

See  BAPTISM,  REPENTANCE,  SACRAMENT,  SIN. 

Forgiveness,  which  includes  divine  pardon  and  complete  remission  of  sins,  is  available,  on  conditions 
of  repentance,  for  all  men  except  those  who  have  sinned  unto  death.  (D.  &  C.  42:18,  79;  64:7.)  For  such 
there  is  no  forgiveness,  neither  in  this  world  nor  in  the  world  to  come.  (D.  &  C.  76:32-34;  132:27;  Matt. 
12:31-32.)  To  accountable  persons  in  the  world,  remission  of  sins  comes  by  repentance  and  baptism  of 
water  and  of  the  Spirit.  For  those  who  have  once  been  cleansed  in  this  way  and  who  thereafter  commit  sin 
-  but  not  unto  death  -  (and  all  members  of  the  Church  are  guilty  of  sin,  in  either  greater  or  lesser  degree) 
the  law  of  forgiveness  embraces  the  following  requirements: 

1.  GODLY  SORROW  FOR  SIN.  -  This  includes  an  honest,  heailfelt  contrition  of  soul,  a  contrition 
bom  of  a  broken  heart  and  a  contrite  spirit.  It  presupposes  a  frank,  personal  acknowledgment  that  ones 
acts  have  been  evil  in  the  sight  of  Him  who  is  holy.  There  is  no  mental  reservation  in  godly  sorrow,  no 
feeling  that  perhaps  one's  sins  are  not  so  gross  or  serious  after  all.  It  is  certainly  more  than  regret  either 
because  the  sin  has  been  brought  to  light  or  because  some  preferential  reward  or  status  has  been  lost 
because  of  it.  Paul  said:  "Godly  sorrow  worketh  repentance  to  salvation,  but  the  sorrow  of  the  world 
worketh  death."  (2  Cor.  7:10.) 

2.  ABANDONMENT  OF  SIN.  -  This  means  to  stop  doing  what  is  wrong,  to  cease  completely  from 
one's  evil  acts,  to  flee  from  iniquity  both  of  thought,  word,  and  deed.  "Put  away  the  evil  of  your  doings 
from  before  mine  eyes,"  saith  the  Lord,  "cease  to  do  evil;  Leam  to  do  well."  (Isa.  1:16-17.)  "By  this  ye 
may  know  if  a  man  repenteth  of  his  sins  -  behold,  he  will  confess  them  and  forsake  them."  (D.  &  C. 
58:43.) 

3.  CONFESSION  OF  SIN.  -  To  gain  forgiveness  all  sins  must  be  confessed  to  the  Lord.  The  sinner 
must  open  his  heart  to  the  Almighty  and  with  godly  sorrow  admit  the  error  of  his  ways  and  plead  for 
grace.  "I,  the  Lord,  forgive  sins  unto  those  who  confess  their  sins  before  me  and  ask  forgiveness,  who 
have  not  sinned  unto  death."  (D.  &  C.  64:7.) 

Further,  those  sins  which  involve  moral  turpitude  -  meaning  serious  sins  for  which  the  court 
procedures  of  the  Church  could  be  instituted  so  that  a  person's  fellowship  or  membership  might  be  called 
in  question  -  such  sins  must  be  confessed  to  the  proper  church  officer.  "To  whom  should  confession  be 
made?"  President  Stephen  L.  Richards  asked.  "To  the  Lord,  of  course,  whose  law  has  been  violated.  To 


210 


the  aggrieved  person  or  persons,  as  an  essential  in  matting  due  retribution  if  tliat  is  necessary.  And  then 
certainly  to  the  Lord's  representative,  his  appointed  judge  in  Israel,  under  whose  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction 
the  offender  lives  and  holds  membership  in  the  kingdom. 

"Is  the  offender  justified  in  bypassing  his  immediate  church  authority  and  judge,  and  going  to  those 
who  do  not  know  him  so  well  to  make  his  confession?  Almost  universally,  I  think  the  answer  should  be 
No,  for  the  local  tribunals  are  in  position  to  know  the  individual  his  history  and  environs  far  better  than 
those  who  have  not  had  close  contact  with  him,  and  in  consequence  the  local  authorities  have  a 
background  which  will  enable  them  to  pass  judgment  with  more  justice,  and  also  mercy,  than  might  be 
reasonably  expected  from  any  other  source.  It  follows  that  it  is  the  order  of  the  Church  for  confession  to 
be  made  to  the  bishop,  which  entails  heavy  and  exacting  responsibilities  on  the  part  of  the  bishop,  the  first 
of  which  is  that  every  confession  should  be  received  and  held  in  the  utmost  confidence.  A  bishop  who 
violates  such  a  sacred  confidence  is  himself  guilty  of  an  offense  before  God  and  the  Church.  Where  it 
becomes  necessary  to  take  counselors  into  his  confidence,  as  it  frequently  does,  and  where  it  is  necessaiy 
to  organize  tribunals,  the  bishop  should  inform  the  confessor,  and  if  possible  obtain  his  peiTnission  so  to 
do. 

"Why  is  confession  essential?  First,  because  the  Lord  has  commanded  it,  and  secondly,  because  the 
offender  cannot  live  and  participate  in  the  kingdom  of  God,  to  receive  the  blessings  therefrom,  with  a  lie 
in  his  heart. 

"Now  the  confessed  offender  is  not  left  without  hope,  for  he  can  obtain  forgiveness  by  following  the 
course  outlined,  and  by  forsaking  sins  comparable  to  that  committed,  as  well  as  all  other  sin,  and  living 
before  the  Church  and  the  Lord  in  such  manner  as  to  win  approbation  of  both.  The  offender  who  has 
brought  stigma  and  affront  to  the  ward,  the  stake  or  the  mission  should  seek  the  forgiveness  of  those  he 
has  thus  offended.  That  may  be  had  at  times  through  the  presiding  authorities  of  the  various  divisions  of 
the  Church.  At  other  times  it  may  be  appropriate  and  quite  necessary  to  make  amends  for  public  offenses 
and  seek  forgiveness  before  organizations  of  the  people.  The  judges  of  Israel  will  determine  this  matter. 
(Conf  Rep.,  Apr.,  1954,  pp.  10-13.) 

It  should  be  clear  that  bishops  and  other  church  officers,  when  confessions  are  made  to  them,  do  not 
forgive  sins  except  in  the  sense  that  they  forgive  them  as  far  as  the  Church  is  concerned;  they  remit  any 
penalty  which  the  Church  on  earth  might  impose;  they  adjudge  that  repentant  persons  are  worthy  of  full 
fellowship  in  the  earthly  kingdom. 

Normally  a  period  of  probation  is  involved  before  the  earthly  agent  deteraiines  to  refrain  from 
instituting  the  procedures  whereunder  church  penalties  are  imposed.  "This  probation  serves  a  double 
purpose,"  President  Richards  says.  "First,  and  perhaps  most  important,  it  enables  the  offender  to  deteiTnine 
for  himself  whether  he  has  been  able  to  so  master  himself  as  to  tmst  himself  in  the  face  of  ever-recurring 
temptation;  and  secondly,  to  enable  the  judges  to  make  a  more  reliable  appraisement  of  the  genuineness  of 
repentance  and  worthiness  for  restored  confidence."  (Conf  Rep.,  Apr.,  1954,  p.  12.) 

Actual  and  ultimate  forgiveness  comes  only  from  the  Lord  in  heaven.  He  of  course  on  occasions 
forgave  sins  during  his  ministry  (Matt.  9:2-8),  and  he  has  by  revelation  in  modem  times  announced  that 
certain  persons  were  free  from  sin.  (D.  &  C.  29:3;  31:5;  36:1;  50:36;  60:7.)  The  Prophet  Enos  received  a 
personal  revelation  telling  him  his  sins  were  forgiven.  (Enos  4-8.)  Similar  revelations  might  come  at  any 
time  to  the  Lord's  earthly  agents,  in  which  instances  they  could  and  would  remit  the  sins  of  the  repentant 
persons.  But  in  the  true  sense  it  would  be  the  Lord  forgiving  the  sins,  though  he  acted  through  the  agency 
of  his  servants  the  prophets.  (D.  &  C.  132:46-47;  John  20:23.) 

Unless  practiced  and  regulated  in  strict  hannony  with  the  divine  will,  the  gospel  requirement  of 
confession  can  easily  degenerate  into  a  system  which  has  the  practical  effect  of  inviting  and  enticing  men 
to  commit  sin.  By  leaving  the  impression  in  men's  minds  that  mere  vocal  recitation  of  past  sins  to  the 
appointed  church  officer  -  without  the  attendant  contrition  of  heart  and  the  future  righteousness  of  life  - 
will  suffice  to  cleanse  the  sinner,  it  is  obvious  that  many  persons  will  not  be  restrained  from  the 
commission  of  sin.  Further,  this  tme  doctrine  and  law  of  confession  stands  in  sharp  contrast  to  the  customs 
and  practices  found  in  the  world  in  which  churches  say  to  their  adherents,  as  Moroni  expressed  it:  "Come 
unto  me,  and  for  your  money  you  shall  be  for  given  of  your  sins."  (Morm.  8:32.) 

4.  RESTITUTION  FOR  SIN.  -  Restitution  means  restoration;  it  is  to  return  the  stolen  property,  to 
make  amends  for  the  offense  committed,  to  repair  the  damage  done,  to  compensate  for  hardships  imposed 
by  one's  acts.  Ordinarily  restitution  is  made  to  the  aggrieved  party,  but  full  compliance  with  this 
requirement  is  not  always  possible;  virtue  destroyed  cannot  be  brought  back.  Where  literal  and  actual 


211 


restitution  cannot  be  made,  still  all  possible  compensation  must  be  given  so  that  the  one  seeking 
forgiveness  will  have  complied  with  the  law  to  the  extent  of  his  ability. 

5.  OBEDIENCE  TO  ALL  LAW.  -  Complete  forgiveness  is  reserved  for  those  only  who  turn  their 
whole  hearts  to  the  Lord  and  begin  to  keep  all  of  his  commandments  not  just  those  commandments 
disobeyed  in  the  past,  but  those  in  all  fields.  "He  that  repents  and  does  the  commandments  of  the  Lord 
shall  be  forgiven."  (D.  &  C.  1:32.)  "I  will  forgive  you  of  your  sins  with  this  commandment  that  you 
remain  steadfast  in  your  minds  in  solemnity  and  the  spirit  of  prayer,  in  bearing  testimony  to  all  the  world 
of  those  things  which  are  communicated  unto  you."  (D.  &  C.  84:61.) 

Necessarily  a  part  of  this  full  compliance  with  divine  law  includes  forgiveness  of  one's  neighbor  of  his 
trespasses.  (Luke  11:1-4;  3  Ne.  13:9-15.)  "Forgive  us  our  debts,  as  we  forgive  our  debtors.  (Matt.  6:9-15.) 
"Forgive,  and  ye  shall  be  forgiven."  (Luke  6:37.)  "My  disciples,  in  days  of  old,  sought  occasion  against 
one  another  and  forgave  not  one  another  in  their  hearts;  and  for  this  evil  they  were  afflicted  and  sorely 
chastened.  Wherefore,  I  say  unto  you,  that  ye  ought  to  forgive  one  another;  for  he  that  forgiveth  not  his 
brother  his  trespasses  standeth  condemned  before  the  Lord;  for  there  remaineth  in  him  the  greater  sin.  I  the 
Lord,  will  forgive  whom  I  will  forgive,  but  of  you  it  is  required  to  forgive  all  men.  And  ye  ought  to  say  in 
your  hearts  -  let  God  judge  between  me  and  thee,  and  reward  thee  according  to  thy  deeds."  (D.  &  C.  64:8- 
11.) 

At  what  times  and  under  what  circumstances  do  men  gain  forgiveness  of  their  sins?  Manifestly,  they 
attain  this  reward  at  any  time  when  they  are  in  complete  harmony  with  the  divine  will,  that  is  at  any  time 
when  they  have  complied  with  the  Lord's  law  whereunder  they  are  enabled  to  become  pure  and  spotless 
before  him. 

Initially  and  primarily,  accountable  and  worthy  persons  gain  forgiveness  of  their  sins  when  a  valid  and 
authoritative  baptism  is  perfoimed  for  them.  The  very  ordinance  of  baptism  is  ordained,  among  other 
reasons,  so  that  men  may  gain  a  remission  of  their  sins  through  it.  Thus  the  resuiTccted  Lord  taught  the 
Nephites:  "And  no  unclean  thing  can  enter  into  his  [the  Father's]  kingdom;  therefore  nothing  entereth  into 
his  rest  save  it  be  those  who  have  washed  their  garments  in  my  blood,  because  of  their  faith,  and  the 
repentance  of  all  their  sins,  and  their  faithfulness  unto  the  end.  Now  this  is  the  commandment:  Repent,  all 
ye  ends  of  the  earth,  and  come  unto  me  and  be  baptized  in  my  name,  that  ye  may  be  sanctified  by  the 
reception  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  that  ye  may  stand  spotless  before  me  at  the  last  day."  (3  Ne.  27:19-20.) 

Mere  perforaiance  of  the  formal  rite  or  ordinance  of  baptism,  standing  alone  and  without  full 
compliance  with  the  law  on  the  part  of  the  converted  persons,  does  not  put  the  Lord's  cleansing  power  into 
operation.  No  blessing  ever  accrues  to  men  except  as  a  result  of  full  compliance  with  the  law  upon  which 
its  receipt  is  predicated.  (D.  &  C.  130:20-21.)  Accordingly,  Moroni  counseled:  "See  that  ye  are  not 
baptized  unworthily;  see  that  ye  partake  not  of  the  sacrament  of  Christ  unworthily;  but  see  that  ye  do  all 
things  in  worthiness  and  do  it  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  living  God;  and  if  ye  do  this,  and 
endure  to  the  end,  ye  will  in  nowise  be  cast  out."  (Morm.  9:29.)  Ordinances  and  performances  are 
performed  in  worthiness  when  the  recipients  of  the  blessings  have  so  lived  that  the  ratifying  seal  of  the 
Spirit  attends  what  is  done.  (D.  &  C.  132:7.) 

Thus  baptisms  performed  for  worthy  persons  and  in  accordance  with  the  revealed  law,  actually  cleanse 
the  baptized  persons.  Their  sins  are  washed  away  in  the  waters  of  baptism;  they  are  burned  out  of  their 
souls  through  the  baptism  of  fire.  The  revealed  law  governing  baptismal  worthiness  is  this:  "All  those  who 
humble  themselves  before  God,  and  desire  to  be  baptized,  and  come  forth  with  broken  hearts  and  contrite 
spirits,  and  witness  before  the  church  that  they  have  tmly  repented  of  all  their  sins,  and  are  willing  to  take 
upon  them  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ,  having  a  deteiTnination  to  serve  him  to  the  end,  and  truly  manifest  by 
their  works  that  they  have  received  of  the  Spirit  of  Christ  unto  the  remission  of  their  sins,  shall  be  received 
by  baptism  into  his  church."  (D.  &  C.  20:37.) 

When  converted  persons  are  baptized  for  the  remission  of  sins,  the  sacred  baptismal  ordinance  is 
designed  to  free  them  from  past  and  future  sins.  Those  sins  committed  after  baptism  are  forgiven 
whenever  members  of  the  Church,  by  ftill  compliance  with  the  law  of  forgiveness,  again  get  themselves  in 
the  same  state  of  righteousness  and  purity  previously  attained  in  connection  with  their  baptisms. 

Provision,  accordingly,  is  found  in  the  gospel  for  worthy  members  of  the  Lord's  Church  to  renew  the 
covenants  made  in  the  waters  of  baptism  and  to  receive  again  into  their  lives  the  promises  of  peace  in  this 
life  and  eternal  life  hereafter  that  were  given  them  when  they  accepted  membership  in  the  kingdom. 

In  the  covenant  of  baptism,  among  other  things,  men  promise:  1.  To  remember  the  death,  burial,  and 
resun'ection  of  their  Lord  -  the  very  ordinance  itself  being  so  ordained  as  to  symbolize  these  things;  2.  "To 
take  upon  them  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ";  and  3.  To  "sei've  him  and  keep  his  commandments."  In  return. 


212 


the  Lord  on  his  part  promises:  1.  That  he  will  "pour  out  his  Spirit  more  abundantly"  upon  such  persons; 
and  2.  That  they  shall  "have  eternal  life."  (Mosiah  18:8-10;  D.  &  C.  20:37.) 

Now  precisely  and  identically  this  same  covenant  is  made  by  persons  who  partake  of  the  sacrament.  In 
other  words,  if  they  have  been  baptized  (thus  making  the  covenant  of  baptism),  and  if  they  then  partake  of 
the  sacrament,  they  are  renewing  or  making  again  the  very  covenant  which  brought  remission  of  sins  to 
them.  Each  time  baptized  members  of  the  Church  partake  of  the  bread  and  water  of  the  Lord's  Supper, 
they  most  solemnly  promise:  1.  To  remember  the  body  of  the  Son  of  God  which  was  cnicified  for  them;  2. 
To  take  upon  them  the  name  of  the  Son;  and  3 .  To  "always  remember  him  and  keep  his  commandments 
which  he  has  given  them."  In  return,  as  his  part  of  the  covenant,  the  Lord  promises:  1.  That  the  saints  shall 
"have  his  Spirit  to  be  with  them";  and  2.  That  they  shall  have  "eternal  life  at  the  last  day."  (D.  &  C.  20:75- 
79;  John  6:54.) 

It  is  an  axiomatic  gospel  verity  that  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  will  not  dwell  in  an  unclean  tabernacle.  (1 
Cor.  3:16-17;  6:19;  Mosiah  2:37;  Alma  7:21;  34:36;  Hela.  4:24.)  The  Spirit  will  not  come  to  a  man  unless 
and  until  he  is  prepared  by  personal  righteousness  to  have  the  companionship  of  that  member  of  the 
Godhead.  Thus  to  be  worthy  of  baptism  men  must  "witness  before  the  church  that  they  have  truly  repented 
of  all  their  sins"  (D.  &  C.  20:37),  and  precisely  the  same  thing  is  involved  in  their  preparation  to  partake 
worthily  of  the  sacrament.  In  other  words,  as  a  result  of  worthy  baptism  men  stand  clean  before  him  if 
they  fiilfil  the  foil  law  involved  in  partaking  of  the  sacrament,  for  in  each  instance  they  are  rewarded  with 
the  companionship  of  the  Spirit,  which  companionship  they  cannot  have  unless  they  are  cleansed  and 
purified  from  sin. 

There  are  also  other  sacred  occasions  on  which  men  are  privileged  to  ascend  to  those  spiritual  heights 
where  they  gain  the  justifying  approval  of  the  Spirit  for  their  conduct  and  as  a  consequence  are  forgiven  of 
their  sins.  James  named  the  ordinance  of  administration  to  the  sick  as  one  of  these.  "Is  any  sick  among 
you?"  he  asked,  "let  him  call  for  the  elders  of  the  church;  and  let  them  pray  over  him,  anointing  him  with 
oil  in  the  name  of  the  Lord:  And  the  prayer  of  faith  shall  save  the  sick,  and  the  Lord  shall  raise  him  up; 
and  if  he  have  committed  sins,  they  shall  be  forgiven  him."  (Jas.  5:14-15.)  That  is,  the  person  who  by 
faith,  devotion,  righteousness,  and  personal  worthiness,  is  in  a  position  to  be  healed,  is  also  in  a  position  to 
have  the  justifying  approval  of  the  Spirit  for  his  course  of  life,  and  his  sins  are  forgiven  him,  as  witnessed 
by  the  fact  that  he  receives  the  companionship  of  the  Spirit,  which  he  could  not  have  if  he  were  unworthy. 

In  principle,  what  is  here  stated  with  reference  to  the  sacrament  and  the  ordinance  of  administration  to 
the  sick,  applies  to  any  other  course  of  spiritual  preparation  which  persons  undergo,  if  that  course  of  life  is 
such  as  to  get  them  in  harmony  with  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord.  One  of  the  beauties  of  this  doctrine  is  that  in 
and  tlirough  it  repeated  opportunities  are  given  to  sinners  -  and  all  men  are  sinners  to  a  greater  or  lesser 
degree,  whether  they  are  in  the  Church  or  out  of  it  -  to  repent  and  get  their  lives  in  such  accord  with  the 
divine  will  that  they  may  become  heirs  of  salvation. 

In  the  final  analysis,  men  are  not  saved  unless  they  have  struggled  and  labored  through  repentance  and 
the  attainment  of  forgiveness  to  the  point  that  they  stand  clean  and  spotless  before  the  judgment  bar,  for 
"no  unclean  thing  can  inherit  the  kingdom  of  heaven."  (Alma  11:27.) 

Fornication 

(Fornication  ) 

See  ADULTERY,  DAMNATION,  SEX  IMMORALITY,  TELESTIAL  LAW. 

1 .  Illicit  sexual  intercourse  on  the  part  of  an  unmanied  person  is  called  fornication.  It  is  one  of  the 
grossest  types  of  sex  immorality,  ranking  close  to  adultery  in  wickedness.  Men  are  commanded  to  abstain 
there&om  (1  Thess.  4:3),  with  the  dire  decree  that  unrepentant  fornicators  shall  not  inherit  the  kingdom  of 
God.  (1  Cor.  6:9-11.)  The  saints  are  "not  to  company  with  fornicators"  (1  Cor.  5:9-13),  unless  such  a 
person  has  repented  with  all  his  heart  and  gained  forgiveness  for  his  debasing  crime.  (D.  &  C.  42:74-77) 

2.  In  a  spiritual  sense,  infidelity  to  and  a  forsaking  of  the  true  God  for  false  gods  is  also  called 
fornication.  (2  Chron.  21:5-1 1.) 

Fortune  Tellers 

(Fortune  Tellers  ) 

See  FORTUNE  TELLING. 


213 


Fortune  Telling 

(Foilune  Telling  ) 

See  ASTROLOGY,  DIVINATION,  NECROMANCY,  SOOTHSAYERS,  SORCERY, 
SPIRITUALISM. 

As  practiced  in  modem  times,  fortune  telling  falls  into  two  categories:  I.  Frivolous  attempts  to  amuse 
by  pretending  to  foretell  the  future  under  circumstances  which  are  recognized  by  all  concerned  as  mere 
entertainment;  and  2.  Serious  attempts  to  foretell  and  prognosticate  fiiture  occuiTcnces  by  using  occult  or 
hidden  powers,  or  at  least,  through  devious  and  concealed  means,  to  make  recipients  of  the  messages 
believe  such  have  come  from  sources  or  through  arrangements  by  which  the  future  can  be  made  known. 

These  serious  attempts  at  fortune  telling  are  of  the  devil  and  are  in  effect  often  accepted  as  a  substitute 
for  the  true  principle  and  practice  of  receiving  revelation  and  guidance  from  a  divine  source.  Frivolous 
fortune  telling  games  played  at  parties  are  relatively  innocent  past-times,  but  real  attempts  to  foretell  the 
future  and  to  delineate  the  destiny  and  fate  of  persons  or  groups  by  palmistry,  phrenology,  cards,  tea 
leaves,  horoscopes,  or  any  other  astrological  device  -  all  these  are  contrary  to  revealed  truth. 

To  Babylon  the  Lord  sent  this  message:  For  thy  crime  of  self-exaltation,  and  "for  the  multitude  of  thy 
sorceries,  and  for  the  great  abundance  of  thine  enchantments,"  thou  shalt  be  destroyed.  Then,  in  mocking 
vein,  he  challenged:  "Stand  now  with  thine  enchantments,  and  with  the  multitude  of  thy  sorceries,  wherein 
thou  hast  laboured  from  thy  youth.  Let  now  the  astrologers,  the  stargazers,  the  monthly  prognosticators, 
stand  up,  and  save  thee  from  these  things  that  shall  come  upon  thee."  Then  the  Lord  decreed  that  these 
fortune  tellers  "shall  be  as  stubble;  the  fire  shall  burn  them;  they  shall  not  deliver  themselves  from  the 
power  of  the  flame."  (Isa.  47)  True  it  is  that  serious  fortune  telling  has  no  part  in  God's  kingdom. 

Fowls 

(Fowls  ) 

See  ANIMALS. 

Free  Agency 

(Free  Agency  ) 
See  AGENCY. 

Freedom 

(Freedom  ) 

See  AGENCY,  CIVIL  GOVERNMENT,  CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES, 
INALIENABLE  RIGHTS,  LIBERTY,  TRUTH. 

Freedom  is  the  power  and  ability  to  choose  for  oneself  the  course  one  will  follow  in  all  fields  of 
activity.  It  is  an  inalienable  right  with  which  man  has  been  endowed  by  his  Creator.  (D.  &  C.  98:4-8.) 

Freedom  is  based  on  truth,  and  no  man  is  perfectly  free  unless  he  has  knowledge  of  and  abides  in  the 
truth.  "Ye  shall  know  the  truth,  and  the  truth  shall  make  you  free."  (John  8:32.)  As  long  as  man's  beliefs, 
or  any  part  of  them,  are  based  on  error,  he  is  not  completely  free,  for  the  chains  of  error  bind  his  mind. 
Freedom  also  results  from  righteousness  because  the  captivity  of  sin  is  bondage.  "Whosoever  committeth 
sin  is  the  servant  of  sin"  (John  8:34),  "for  of  whom  a  man  is  overcome,  of  the  same  is  he  brought  in 
bondage."  (2  Pet.  2:19.) 

Freedom  of  conscience,  the  freedom  to  worship  God  according  to  the  dictates  of  one's  own  conscience, 
is  the  greatest  of  all  freedoms.  (Eleventh  Article  of  Faith;  Alma  1:17;  21:22;  30:9.)  The  gospel  gives 
freedom  to  men  (Gal.  5:1),  and  the  gospel  itself  is  free.  (Matt.  10:8;  Rev.  21:6;  22:17;  2  Ne.  26:25-28.) 

This  American  nation  has  been  established  by  the  Lord  as  the  champion  of  freedom  in  the  last  days. 
(D.  &  C.  101:76-80.)  The  ancient  promise  was  that  the  inhabitants  of  this  land  should  "be  set  up  as  a  free 
people  by  the  power  of  the  Father"  (3  Ne.  21:4),  so  that  the  gospel  could  be  restored  and  the  Lord's  great 
latter-day  work  accomplished.  The  freedoms  guaranteed  under  our  constitutional  government  should 
belong  "to  all  mankind."  (D.  &  C.  98:4-10.)  Eventually  they  will,  for  freedom  shall  be  enthroned  during 


214 


the  millennial  era.  "Ye  shall  have  no  laws  but  my  laws  when  I  come"  (D.  &  C.  38:22),  the  Lord  says,  and 
his  law  is  "the  perfect  law  of  liberty."  (Jas.  1:25.) 

Friends  of  God 

(Friends  of  God  ) 

See  SERVANTS  OF  GOD. 

Fruits 

(Fruits  ) 

See  GOOD  WORKS. 

Fulness  of  the  Father 

(Fulness  of  the  Father  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE,  CHURCH  OF  THE  FIRSTBORN,  DAUGHTERS  OF  GOD, 
EXALTATION,  GODHOOD,  JOINT-HEIRS  WITH  CHRIST,  SALVATION,  SONS  OF  GOD. 

The  expression  flilness  of  the  Father  has  reference  to  his  position  of  power,  glory,  perfection,  and 
godhood.  The  "fulness  of  the  glory  of  the  Father"  consists  in  the  possession  of  "all  power,  both  in  heaven 
and  on  earth."  (D.  &  C.  93:16-17.)  God  is  an  exalted  Man,  and  exaltation  consists  in  having  the  fulness  of 
all  powers,  all  attributes,  and  all  perfections.  (D.  &  C.  76;  93;  132.) 

The  plan  of  exaltation  is  one  whereunder  those  who  fill  the  fiill  measure  of  their  creation  are  able  to 
progress  to  that  state  wherein  they  will  gain  the  fiilness  of  the  Father.  Christ  is  the  Exemplar;  he  went  from 
grace  to  grace  until  finally  after  the  resurrection  he  gained  the  fulness  of  all  things,  including  the  fiilness  of 
truth,  knowledge,  and  power.  (Matt.  28:18;  D.  &  C.  93:6-30.) 

Obedience  to  the  whole  law  of  the  whole  gospel,  including  the  crowning  ordinance  of  celestial 
maiTiage,  is  the  way  whereby  the  fulness  of  the  Father  may  be  gained.  Those  so  mamed,  who  keep  their 
covenants,  shall  go  on  "to  their  exaltation  and  glory  in  all  things,  .  .  .  which  glory  shall  be  a  fiilness  and  a 
continuation  of  the  seeds  forever  and  ever.  Then  shall  they  be  gods."  (D.  &  C.  132:6,  19-20;  Doctrines  of 
Salvation,  vol.  2,  pp.  24,  44-45,  62-63.) 

Joseph  Smith  taught:  "All  those  who  keep  his  [the  Father's]  commandments  shall  grow  up  from  grace 
to  grace,  and  become  heirs  of  the  heavenly  kingdom,  and  joint-heirs  with  Jesus  Christ;  possessing  the 
same  mind,  being  transfomied  into  the  same  image  or  likeness,  even  the  express  image  of  him  who  fills  all 
in  all;  being  filled  with  the  fiilness  of  his  gloiy,  and  become  one  in  him,  even  as  the  Father,  Son  and  Holy 
Spirit  are  one. 

As  the  Son  partakes  of  the  fulness  of  the  Father  through  the  Spirit,  so  the  saints  are,  by  the  same  Spirit, 
to  be  partakers  of  the  same  fulness,  to  enjoy  the  same  glory;  for  as  the  Father  and  the  Son  are  one,  so,  in 
like  manner,  the  saints  are  to  be  one  in  them.  Through  the  love  of  the  Father,  the  mediation  of  Jesus 
Clirist,  and  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  they  are  to  be  heirs  of  God,  and  joint-heirs  with  Jesus  Christ." 
(Lectures  on  Faith,  pp.  50-52;  3  Ne.  28:10-11.) 

Fulness  of  the  Gentiles 

(Fulness  of  the  Gentiles  ) 
See  SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES. 


Fulness  of  the  Gospel 

(Fulness  of  the  Gospel  ) 
See  GOSPEL. 

Fulness  of  Times 

(Fulness  of  Times  ) 

See  DISPENSATION  OF  THE  FULNESS  OF  TIMES. 


215 


Funerals 

(Funerals  ) 

See  CREMATION,  DEATH,  DEDICATION  OF  GRAVES,  GRAVES,  MOURNING. 

Religious  services  or  funerals  held  in  connection  with  death  are  designed  for  the  comfort,  blessing,  and 
edification  of  the  living;  they  have  no  effect  whatever  on  the  reward  or  condemnation  of  the  departed. 
They  are  proper  occasions  on  which  to  preach  the  truths  of  salvation;  to  testily  of  the  reality  of  the 
resun'ection;  to  give  comfort,  solace,  and  counsel  to  the  bereaved;  to  hold  forth  the  assurance  of 
immortality  for  all  men  and  the  hope  of  eternal  life  for  those  who  have  kept  the  faith;  to  mention  the  good 
qualities  and  achievements  of  the  departed.  The  practice  of  wiping  out  every  fault  and  magnifying  every 
seeming  virtue  of  faithless  persons,  as  soon  as  they  are  dead,  however,  leaves  the  false  impression  that 
acceptance  of  the  gospel  and  complete  obedience  to  its  standards  while  in  this  life  are  not  important. 
Extravagant  statements,  promises,  or  assurances  -  unless  clearly  dictated  by  the  Spirit  -  should  not  be 
made  at  funerals. 


(G  ) 

Gabriel 

(Gabriel  ) 

See  ANGELS,  ARCHANGELS,  ELIAS,  KEYS  OF  THE  KINGDOM. 


216 


To  play  his  part  in  the  great  restoration  of  all  things,  Gabriel  came  in  modem  times  and  conferred  the 
keys  of  his  dispensation  upon  Joseph  Smith.  As  with  other  angelic  ministrants  to  this  earth,  Gabriel  also 
spent  his  mortal  probation  here.  He  is  Noah,  the  one  who  stands  next  to  Michael  or  Adam  in  the 
priesthood  hierarchy.  (Teachings,  p.  157.) 

We  have  Biblical  evidence  that  Gabriel  ministered  to  Daniel  (Dan.  8:16;  9:21);  and  that  he  appeared  to 
Zacharias,  the  father  of  John  the  Baptist,  and  to  Mary,  the  mother  of  our  Lord.  (Luke  1:5-38.)  There  is  no 
foundation  for  the  common  sectarian  tradition  that  it  is  he  who  will  blow  his  horn  to  herald  the 
resurrection.  Rather,  as  appears  from  latter-day  revelation,  it  will  be  Michael  the  archangel  who  shall 
sound  the  trump  at  the  great  and  coming  day.  (D.  &  C.  88: 106-1 16.) 

Gadianton  Robbers 

(Gadianton  Robbers  ) 

See  SECRET  COMBINATIONS. 


Galilean 

(Galilean  ) 

See  CHRIST,  JESUS  OF  NAZARETH. 

Clirist  is  called  the  Galilean  (Matt.  21:11;  Luke  23:5-7;  John  7:41-42),  because  he  lived  in  the  city  of 
Nazareth  in  the  Roman  province  of  Galilee.  His  prophetic  powers  were  belittled  by  the  Jews  on  the 
specious  contention  that  "out  of  Galilee  ariseth  no  prophet."  (John  7:52.) 

Gambling 

(Gambling  ) 

See  APOSTASY,  CARD  PLAYING,  LOTTERIES,  RAFFLES. 

Gambling  is  the  playing  or  gaming  for  money  or  other  stakes  with  a  view  to  getting  something  for 
little  or  nothing;  elements  of  luck  and  chance  are  always  present  -  all  of  which,  when  taken  together,  form 
a  system  which  is  not  of  God. 

Gambling  is  in  opposition  to  the  divine  will;  it  is  a  wicked,  evil  practice,  destructive  of  the  finer 
sensitivities  of  the  soul.  No  matter  how  cloaked  or  disguised,  and  no  matter  how  professedly  worthy  an 
accompanying  money  raising  scheme  may  be,  gambling  is  morally  wrong  and  will  be  avoided  by  all  who 
are  saints  in  deed. 

Clubs,  civic  organizations,  fraternal  groups,  governments,  and  sometimes  even  some  churches, 
sponsor,  support,  approve,  or  conduct  various  gambling  enterprises  as  part  of  their  fund  raising  programs. 
Such  sponsorship  has  no  sanctifying  or  transforming  power.  Gambling  is  gambling,  and  is  to  be  shunned, 
no  matter  where  it  is  found. 

In  every  concern  of  life  the  element  of  chance  is  present,  and  this  fact  of  itself  does  not  classify  an 
enterprise  as  gambling.  "The  element  of  chance  enters  very  largely  into  everything  we  undertake," 
President  Joseph  F.  Smith  said,  "and  it  should  be  remembered  that  the  spirit  in  which  we  do  things  decides 
very  largely  whether  we  are  gambling  or  are  entering  into  legitimate  business  enterprise."  (Gospel 
Doctrine,  5th  ed.,  p.  326.) 

Games  of  Chance 

(Games  of  Chance  ) 
See  GAMBLING. 

Gaming 

(Gaming  ) 

See  GAMBLING. 


217 


Garden  of  Eden 

(Garden  of  Eden  ) 

See  ADAM,  ADAM-ONDI-AHMAN,  DEATH,  FALL  OF  ADAM,  MILLENNIUM,  NEW  HEAVEN 
AND  NEW  EARTH. 

Adam  and  Eve,  when  first  created,  were  placed  in  the  Garden  of  Eden,  by  which  is  meant  they  were 
given  a  home  "eastward  in  Eden,"  in  a  garden  which  the  Lord  had  planted  on  an  earth  which  was 
paradisiacal  in  nature.  (Gen.  2;  3;  Moses  3;  4.)  As  things  were  then  constituted,  death  had  not  entered  the 
world  either  for  Adam  and  Eve  or  for  any  living  creature;  there  was  no  procreation;  and  all  things  were  in 
a  state  of  pristine  innocence  and  beauty.  (2  Ne.  2:19-25.)  It  was  the  fall  which  brought  death,  mortality, 
and  all  the  present  vicissitudes  of  life  to  man  on  earth.  This  glorious  garden  was  located  on  the  American 
continent  "where  the  City  Zion,  or  the  New  Jerusalem,  will  be  built."  (Doctrines  of  Salvation,  vol.  3,  p. 
74.) 

At  the  Second  Coming  of  our  Lord,  "the  eai1h  will  be  renewed  and  receive  its  paradisiacal  glory" 
(Tenth  Article  of  Faith),  that  is,  it  will  return  again  to  the  edenic  state  and  millennial  conditions  will  exist. 
Of  this  restoration  Isaiah  said:  "For  the  Lord  shall  comfort  Zion:  he  will  comfort  all  her  waste  places;  and 
he  will  make  her  wilderness  like  Eden,  and  her  desert  like  the  garden  of  the  Lord;  joy  and  gladness  shall 
be  found  therein,  thanksgiving,  and  the  voice  of  melody."  (Isa.  51:3;  Ezek.  36:35.) 

Garments 

(Garments  ) 

Garaients  are  various  articles  of  clothing  used  to  dress  the  body.  They  may  be  worn  for  utilitarian  or 
religious  purposes  or  both.  The  Lord  made  "coats  of  skins"  for  Adam  and  Eve  to  cover  their  nakedness. 
(Gen.  3:21.)  Special  ceremonial  and  "holy  garments"  were  worn  by  Aaron  and  the  priests.  (Ex.  28;  Lev. 
16;  Ezek.  42:14.)  Garments  worn  by  angels  are  "pure  and  white  above  all  other  whiteness."  (D.  &  C. 
20:6.)  To  avoid  pride,  garments  of  mortals  should  be  "plain,  and  their  beauty  the  beauty  of  the  work  of 
thine  own  hands."  (D.  &  C.  42:40-42.) 

Much  that  is  sacred  and  symbolical  is  taught  by  reference  to  garments.  Kings  and  rulers  were 
identified  anciently  by  their  robes  of  scarlet  and  purple;  such  a  robe  was  placed  on  Christ  in  mocking 
derision  by  the  soldiers.  (Matt.  27:28-31;  John  19:2-5.)  When  our  Lord  comes  again,  as  a  sign  of 
impending  judgment,  he  "shall  be  red  in  his  apparel,  and  his  garments  like  him  that  treadeth  in  the  wine- 
vat."  (D.  &  C.  133:46-51;  Isa.  63:1-6.)  It  was  the  ancient  custom  to  tear  one's  gannents  as  a  token  of  great 
sorrow  or  abject  humility,  a  custom  so  hypocritically  abused  that  Joel  commanded:  "Rend  your  heart,  and 
not  your  gannents."  (Joel  2:13.)  It  was  also  the  practice  to  sit  in  sackcloth  and  ashes  as  a  token  of  great 
sorrow  and  mourning.  (Gen.  37:34.) 

It  was  an  ancient  practice  for  the  Lord's  prophets  to  take  off  their  garments  and  shake  them  as  a  sign 
that  they  were  rid  of  the  blood  and  sins  of  those  to  whom  they  had  been  sent  to  testify.  (2  Ne.  9:44;  Jac. 
1:19;  2:2;  Mosiah  2:28;  Morm.  9:35.)  Similar  symbolism  is  used  in  latter-day  revelation:  "Cleanse  your 
hearts  and  your  garments,  lest  the  blood  of  this  generation  be  required  at  your  hands,"  the  Lord  says.  (D. 
&C.  112:33;  88:85;  135:5.) 

Clean  gannents  are  a  sign  of  cleanliness,  perfection,  and  salvation.  To  gain  salvation  men  must  wash 
their  gannents  in  the  blood  of  the  Lamb.  (I  Ne.  12:10;  Alma  5:21-27;  7:25;  13:11-12;  3  Ne.  27:19;  Rev. 
6:11;  7:9-17.)  Speaking  of  the  saints,  at  the  dedication  of  the  Kirtland  Temple,  the  Prophet  prayed:  "That 
our  garments  may  be  pure,  that  we  may  be  clothed  upon  with  robes  of  righteousness,  with  palms  in  our 
hands,  and  crowns  of  glory  upon  our  heads,  and  reap  eternal  joy  for  all  our  sufferings."  (D.  &  C.  109:76.) 

"Thou  hast  a  few  names  .  .  .  which  have  not  defiled  their  gannents;  and  they  shall  walk  with  me  in 
white:  for  they  are  worthy.  He  that  overcometh,  the  same  shall  be  clothed  in  white  raiment."  (Rev.  3:4-5.) 
"Behold,  I  come  as  a  thief.  Blessed  is  he  that  watcheth,  and  keepeth  his  gannents,  lest  he  walk  naked,  and 
they  see  his  shame."  (Rev.  16:15.) 

Gates  of  Hell 

(Gates  of  Hell  ) 

See  CHAINS  OF  HELL,  HELL. 


218 


Lucifer  leaves  the  gates  of  hell  wide  open  so  that  all  who  will  yield  to  his  enticements  can  enter  that 
abode  of  darkness  and  sorrow.  The  path  of  sin  leads  to  the  gates  of  hell;  unrepentant  persons  carry  their 
own  sins  which  are  the  tickets  of  admission  granting  entrance  through  those  mammoth  gates. 

Figuratively,  these  gates  beckon  to  the  unwary,  inviting  them  to  enter,  and  these  gates  of  hell  are  said 
to  prevail  against  those  who  by  sin  cast  their  lot  with  Lucifer  and  thus  go  to  hell.  But  those  who  accept  the 
gospel,  join  the  Church,  live  in  righteousness  and  faith,  and  endure  to  the  end,  have  the  promise  that  the 
gates  of  hell  shall  not  prevail  against  them.  (D.  &  C.  10:69;  17:8;  18:5;  21:6;  33:13;  98:22;  3  Ne.  11:39.) 
To  Peter  the  Lord  said  that  the  gates  of  hell  should  never  prevail  against  the  rock  of  revelation,  (Matt. 
16:18.) 

Gate  to  Exaltation 

(Gate  to  Exaltation  ) 

See  CELESTIAL  MARRIAGE. 

Gate  to  Salvation 

(Gate  to  Salvation  ) 
See  BAPTISM. 

Gathering  of  Israel 

(Gathering  of  Israel  ) 

See  ISRAEL,  JEWS,  LOST  TRIBES  OF  ISRAEL,  MOSES,  SCATTERING  OF  ISRAEL,  TRIBES 
OF  ISRAEL. 

Through  her  establishment  as  a  nation,  her  ancient  dispersion  among  all  the  peoples  of  the  earth,  and 
her  latter-day  gathering  together  again,  the  world  is  viewing  the  miracle  that  is  Israel.  Scattered  when  she 
forsook  the  Lord,  rejected  his  statutes,  and  turned  to  unrighteousness,  Israel  is  now  being  gathered  as  she 
turns  back  to  the  true  God  of  her  fathers,  stands  fast  again  in  the  everlasting  gospel  covenant,  and  turns  her 
heart  to  righteousness.  (Teachings,  pp.  84-85,  92-93,  183,  231-232;  Articles  of  Faith,  pp.  328-344.) 

"As  general  as  was  the  scattering  of  Israel  so  must  the  gathering  be.  If  the  dispersion  was  over  all  the 
earth,  and  among  all  nations,  so  the  gathering  must  be  out  of  all  nations,  and  from  all  parts  of  the  earth. 

"When  we  reflect  that  it  is  32  centuries  since  the  enemies  of  Israel  began  to  oppress  them  in  the  land  of 
Canaan;  that  about  one-third  of  the  time  they  were  a  people  in  that  land,  they  were,  more  or  less,  in 
bondage  to  their  enemies;  that  700  years  before  the  coming  of  Christ  the  Ten  Tribes  were  scattered 
throughout  western  Asia;  that  we  have  no  record  that  any  have  as  yet  returned  to  the  land  of  their 
inheritance;  that  nearly  600  years  before  Christ  the  Babylonish  captivity  took  place,  and  that,  according  to 
the  Book  of  Esther  only  a  part  of  the  Jews  ever  returned,  but  were  scattered  through  the  127  provinces  of 
the  Persian  empire;  that  Asia  was  the  hive  from  which  swarmed  the  nomadic  tribes  who  overran  Europe; 
that  at  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  the  Romans  the  Jews  were  scattered  over  the  known  world;  we  may 
well  ask  the  question.  Does  not  Israel  today  constitute  a  large  proportion  of  the  human  family?  With  this 
comprehensive  view  of  the  subject  of  the  scattering,  we  the  better  understand  such  passages  as  the 
following:  T  will  gather  the  remnant  of  my  flock  out  of  all  countries  whither  I  have  driven  them.'  (Jer. 
23:3.)"  (Compendium,  p.  90.)  The  gathering  of  Israel  is  first  spiritual  and  second  temporal.  It  is  spiritual  in 
that  the  lost  sheep  of  Israel  are  first  "restored  to  the  true  church  and  fold  of  God,"  meaning  that  they  come 
to  a  true  knowledge  of  the  God  of  Israel,  accept  the  gospel  which  he  has  restored  in  latter-days,  and  join 
The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  It  is  temporal  in  that  these  converts  are  then  "gathered 
home  to  the  lands  of  their  inheritance,  and  .  .  .  established  in  all  their  lands  of  promise"  (2  Ne.  9:2;  25:15- 
18;  Jer.  16:14-21),  meaning  that  the  house  of  Joseph  will  be  established  in  America,  the  house  of  Judah  in 
Palestine,  and  that  the  Lost  Tribes  will  come  to  Ephraim  in  America  to  receive  their  blessings  in  due 
course.  (D.  &  C.  133.) 

However,  the  temporal  gathering  of  Israel  will  not  be  completed  before  the  Second  Coming  of  the  Son 
of  Man.  "I  beheld  that  the  church  of  the  Lamb,  who  were  the  saints  of  God,"  Nephi  recorded  relative  to  the 
last  days,  "were  also  upon  all  the  face  of  the  earth;  and  their  dominions  upon  the  face  of  the  earth  were 
small,  because  of  the  wickedness  of  the  great  whore."  (1  Ne.  14:12.)  The  erection  by  the  Church  of 


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temples  in  distant  lands  is  further  evidence  that  all  the  hosts  of  Israel  who  are  gathered  into  the  spiritual 
fold  will  not  be  assembled  temporally.  But  in  due  course  "the  Son  of  Man  shall  come,  and  he  shall  send 
his  angels  before  him  with  the  great  sound  of  a  trumpet,  and  they  shall  gather  together  the  remainder  of  his 
elect  from  the  four  winds,  from  one  end  of  heaven  to  the  other."  (Jos.  Smith  1 :37.) 

The  purpose  of  the  gathering  of  Israel  is  twofold:  I.  To  put  the  peoples  of  living  Israel  in  that 
environment  where  they  may  the  better  work  out  their  salvation,  where  they  may  have  the  Gentile  and 
worldly  views  erased  from  them,  and  where  they  may  be  molded  into  that  pattern  of  perfect  righteousness 
which  will  please  the  Almighty;  and  2.  To  enable  the  gathered  remnants  of  the  chosen  lineage  to  build 
temples  and  perform  the  ordinances  of  salvation  and  exaltation  for  their  Israelitish  ancestors  who  lived 
when  the  gospel  was  not  had  on  earth. 

"It  was  the  design  of  the  councils  of  heaven  before  the  world  was,"  the  Prophet  taught,  "that  the 
principles  and  laws  of  the  priesthood  should  be  predicated  upon  the  gathering  of  the  people  in  every  age  of 
the  world.  Jesus  did  everything  to  gather  the  people,  and  they  would  not  be  gathered,  and  he  therefore 
poured  out  curses  upon  them.  Ordinances  instituted  in  the  heavens  before  the  foundation  of  the  world,  in 
the  priesthood,  for  the  salvation  of  men,  are  not  to  be  altered  or  changed.  All  must  be  saved  on  the  same 
principles. 

"It  is  for  the  same  purpose  that  God  gathers  together  his  people  in  the  last  days,  to  build  unto  the  Lord 
a  house  to  prepare  them  for  the  ordinances  and  endowments,  washings  and  anointings,  etc.  One  of  the 
ordinances  of  the  house  of  the  Lord  is  baptism  for  the  dead.  God  decreed  before  the  foundation  of  the 
world  that  that  ordinance  should  be  administered  in  a  font  prepared  for  that  purpose  in  the  house  of  the 
Lord."  (Teachings,  p.  308.) 

That  Israel  cannot  be  gathered  in  the  latter-days,  in  fulfilment  of  the  host  of  ancient  prophecies, 
without  revelation  and  direction  from  on  high  is  evident  to  every  thoughtflil  person.  Accordingly  the  Lord 
restored  the  ancient  covenants  again  and  sent  Moses  to  deliver  the  keys  of  the  gathering  of  Israel  and  the 
leading  of  the  Ten  Tribes  from  the  land  of  the  north.  (D.  &  C.  1 10:11.)  By  virtue  of  these  keys  the  prophet 
and  his  successors,  each  in  turn,  have  held  the  directive  and  presiding  authority  relative  to  this  great  work. 
The  Lord  has  set  his  hand  the  second  time  to  gather  his  people  (D.  &  C.  133),  and  they  are  now  beginning 
to  assemble  from  all  nations  at  the  mountain  of  the  Lord's  house.  (Isa.  2:2-4.)  In  due  course  all  Israel  will 
be  gathered  and  the  other  tribes  will  receive  their  blessings  from  Epliraim  whose  status  is  that  of  the 
firstborn.  (D.  &  C.  133;  Jer.  31:9.) 

The  fact  of  the  gathering  of  Israel,  under  the  direction  of  the  president  of  the  Church  who  holds  the 
keys,  is  one  of  the  great  evidences  of  the  divine  calling  of  The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 
Any  church  which  does  not  understand  the  doctrine  of  the  kingdom  being  restored  to  Israel  in  an  age  after 
New  Testament  times  (Acts  1:6)  cannot  be  the  Lord's  Church. 

The  glory  of  Israel's  latter-day  gathering  is  beginning  to  appear,  and  it  will  not  be  long  before  the  Ten 
Tribes  will  return  (D.  &  C.  133)  and  all  things  incident  to  this  great  work  will  be  fulfilled.  Then  the  Lord's 
promise  as  given  by  Jeremiah  will  find  complete  fulfilment:  "Behold,  the  days  come,  saith  the  Lord,  that  it 
shall  no  more  be  said.  The  Lord  liveth,  that  brought  up  the  children  of  Israel  out  of  the  land  of  Egypt;  But, 
The  Lord  liveth,  that  brought  up  the  children  of  Israel  from  the  land  of  the  north,  and  from  all  the  lands 
whither  he  had  driven  them:  and  I  will  bring  them  again  into  their  land  that  I  gave  unto  their  fathers."  (Jer. 
16:14-15.) 

Gazelam 

(Gazelam  ) 

See  ADAMIC  LANGUAGE,  JOSEPH  SMITH  THE  PROPHET. 

Strange  and  unusual  names  were  placed  by  the  Prophet  in  some  of  the  early  revelations  so  that  the 
individuals  whom  the  Lord  was  then  addressing  would  not  be  known  to  the  world.  The  purpose  for 
keeping  these  identities  secret  from  their  enemies  having  long  since  passed,  the  true  names  are  now  found 
in  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants. 

Two  of  the  names  which  identified  the  Prophet  himself  were  Gazelam  and  Enoch.  (D.  &  C.  78:9; 
82:11;  104:26,  43,  45,  46.)  Presumptively  these  and  other  names  used  at  the  same  time  have  particular 
meanings,  which  are  not  now  known  to  us. 

With  reference  to  the  name  Gazelam,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  Alma  in  directing  Helaman  to 
preserve  both  the  Urim  and  Thummim  and  the  plates  containing  the  Book  of  Ether,  says  that  such  record 


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will  be  brought  to  light  by  the  Lord's  servant  Gazelem,  who  will  use  "a  stone"  in  his  translation  work. 
(Alma  37:21-23.)  It  may  be  that  Gazelem  is  a  variant  spelling  of  Gazelam  and  that  Alma's  reference  is  to 
the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  who  did  in  fact  bring  forth  part  at  least  of  the  Ether  record.  Or  it  could  be  that 
the  name  Gazelem  (Gazelam)  is  a  title  having  to  do  with  power  to  translate  ancient  records  and  that 
Alma's  reference  was  to  some  Nephite  prophet  who  brought  the  Book  of  Ether  to  light  in  the  golden  era  of 
Nephite  history. 

Gehenna 

(Gehenna  ) 

See  HADES,  HELL,  SHEOL,  SPIRIT  PRISON,  TARTARUS. 

Outside  Jerusalem,  to  the  south  and  west,  lies  the  Valley  of  Hinnom  or  Gehenna.  In  the  days  of  Isaiah 
and  Jeremiah,  infants  were  sacrificed  to  Molech  at  a  Topheth  or  high  place  built  in  this  valley,  causing  it 
to  take  on  a  sinister  significance  and  be  called  "the  valley  of  slaughter."  (2  Kings  23:5,  10;  2  Chron.  28:3; 
33:6;  Isa.  30:33;  Jer.  7:31-34;  19:6,  11-15.)  Thereafter  Gehenna  was  further  desecrated  as  a  garbage  and 
rubbish  heap  and  as  a  place  where  bodies  of  criminals  were  thrown  out;  to  help  prevent  pestilence, 
overbuming  fires  were  kept  smoldering  in  this  infested  refuse. 

Under  these  conditions,  it  was  natural  for  the  prophetic  mind  to  use  the  term  gehenna  to  signify  the 
burnings,  tonnent,  anguish,  and  unspeakable  hoiTors  of  hell.  Our  Lord  himself  made  frequent  use  of 
gehenna  to  signify  hell  and  its  attendant  hon'ors.  (Matt.  5:22;  29:30;  Mark  9:43-47;  Luke  12:5;  Jas.  3:6.) 
His  statement,  "Where  their  worm  dieth  not,  and  the  fire  is  not  quenched"  (Mark  9:48),  becomes  even 
more  expressive  when  viewed  in  the  light  of  the  numerous  crawling  things  and  perpetual  burnings  of  that 
Gehenna  of  which  his  hearers  had  personal  knowledge. 

Genealogical  Research 

(Genealogical  Research  ) 

See  ELUAH  THE  PROPHET,  FAMILY  ORGANIZATIONS,  SALVATION  FOR  THE  DEAD, 
SIGNS  OF  THE  TIMES,  VICARIOUS  ORDINANCES. 

Before  vicarious  ordinances  of  salvation  and  exaltation  may  be  performed  for  those  who  have  died 
without  a  knowledge  of  the  gospel,  but  who  presumably  would  have  received  it  had  the  opportunity  come 
to  them,  they  must  be  accurately  and  properly  identified.  Hence,  genealogical  research  is  required. 

To  aid  its  members  in  intelligent  and  effective  research,  the  Church  maintains  in  Salt  Lake  City  one  of 
the  world's  greatest  genealogical  societies.  Much  of  the  genealogical  source  material  of  various  nations  of 
the  earth  has  been  or  is  being  microfilmed  by  this  society;  millions  of  dollars  is  being  spent;  and  a 
reservoir  of  hundreds  of  millions  of  names  and  other  data  about  people  who  lived  in  past  generations  is 
available  for  study. 

Genealogical  Society 

(Genealogical  Society  ) 

See  GENEALOGICAL  RESEARCH. 

General  Authorities 

(General  Authorities  ) 

See  APOSTLES,  APOSTOLIC  SUCCESSION,  ASSISTANTS  TO  THE  TWELVE,  FIRST 
COUNCIL  OF  THE  SEVENTY,  FIRST  PRESIDENCY,  GENERAL  AUXILIARY  OFFICERS, 
HIERARCHY,  PATRLA.RCH  TO  THE  CHURCH,  PRESIDING  BISHOP.  In  order  of  their  precedence, 
beginning  at  the  top,  the  general  authorities  of  the  Church  include  members  of:  The  First  Presidency, 
Council  of  the  Twelve,  the  Patriarch  to  the  Church,  Assistants  to  the  Twelve,  First  Council  of  the  Seventy, 
and  Presiding  Bishopric.  These  brethren  are  all  delegated  general  administrative  authority  by  the  President 
of  the  Church.  That  is,  they  are  called  to  preach  the  gospel,  direct  church  conferences,  choose  other  church 
officers,  perform  ordinations  and  settings  apart,  and  handle  the  properties  and  interests  of  the  Church 


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generally.  The  labors  of  their  ministries  are  not  confined  to  stake,  ward,  or  regional  areas,  but  they  have 
general  jurisdiction  in  all  parts  of  the  Church. 

Some  general  authorities  are  empowered  to  do  o